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1.
Euphytica ; 215(4): 80, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31057179

RESUMO

After drought, a major challenge to smallholder farmers in sub-Saharan Africa is low-fertility soils with poor nitrogen (N)-supplying capacity. Many challenges in this region need to be overcome to create a viable fertilizer market. An intermediate solution is the development of maize varieties with an enhanced ability to take up or utilize N in severely depleted soils, and to more efficiently use the small amounts of N that farmers can supply to their crops. Over 400 elite inbred lines from seven maize breeding programs were screened to identify new sources of tolerance to low-N stress and maize lethal necrosis (MLN) for introgression into Africa-adapted elite germplasm. Lines with high levels of tolerance to both stresses were identified. Lines previously considered to be tolerant to low-N stress ranked in the bottom 10% under low-N confirming the need to replace these lines with new donors identified in this study. The lines that performed best under low-N yielded about 0. 5 Mg ha-1 (20%) more in testcross combinations than some widely used commercial parent lines such as CML442 and CML395. This is the first large scale study to identify maize inbred lines with tolerance to low-N stress and MLN in eastern and southern Africa.

2.
Front Plant Sci ; 9: 366, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29616072

RESUMO

To increase genetic gain for tolerance to drought, we aimed to identify environmentally stable QTL in per se and testcross combination under well-watered (WW) and drought stressed (DS) conditions and evaluate the possible deployment of QTL using marker assisted and/or genomic selection (QTL/GS-MAS). A total of 169 doubled haploid lines derived from the cross between CML495 and LPSC7F64 and 190 testcrosses (tester CML494) were evaluated in a total of 11 treatment-by-population combinations under WW and DS conditions. In response to DS, grain yield (GY) and plant height (PHT) were reduced while time to anthesis and the anthesis silking interval (ASI) increased for both lines and hybrids. Forty-eight QTL were detected for a total of nine traits. The allele derived from CML495 generally increased trait values for anthesis, ASI, PHT, the normalized difference vegetative index (NDVI) and the green leaf area duration (GLAD; a composite trait of NDVI, PHT and senescence) while it reduced trait values for leaf rolling and senescence. The LOD scores for all detected QTL ranged from 2.0 to 7.2 explaining 4.4 to 19.4% of the observed phenotypic variance with R2 ranging from 0 (GY, DS, lines) to 37.3% (PHT, WW, lines). Prediction accuracy of the model used for genomic selection was generally higher than phenotypic variance explained by the sum of QTL for individual traits indicative of the polygenic control of traits evaluated here. We therefore propose to use QTL-MAS in forward breeding to enrich the allelic frequency for a few desired traits with strong additive QTL in early selection cycles while GS-MAS could be used in more mature breeding programs to additionally capture alleles with smaller additive effects.

3.
Theor Appl Genet ; 131(7): 1443-1457, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29574570

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: Genome-wide association study (GWAS) on 923 maize lines and validation in bi-parental populations identified significant genomic regions for kernel-Zinc and-Iron in maize. Bio-fortification of maize with elevated Zinc (Zn) and Iron (Fe) holds considerable promise for alleviating under-nutrition among the world's poor. Bio-fortification through molecular breeding could be an economical strategy for developing nutritious maize, and hence in this study, we adopted GWAS to identify markers associated with high kernel-Zn and Fe in maize and subsequently validated marker-trait associations in independent bi-parental populations. For GWAS, we evaluated a diverse maize association mapping panel of 923 inbred lines across three environments and detected trait associations using high-density Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) obtained through genotyping-by-sequencing. Phenotyping trials of the GWAS panel showed high heritability and moderate correlation between kernel-Zn and Fe concentrations. GWAS revealed a total of 46 SNPs (Zn-20 and Fe-26) significantly associated (P ≤ 5.03 × 10-05) with kernel-Zn and Fe concentrations with some of these associated SNPs located within previously reported QTL intervals for these traits. Three double-haploid (DH) populations were developed using lines identified from the panel that were contrasting for these micronutrients. The DH populations were phenotyped at two environments and were used for validating significant SNPs (P ≤ 1 × 10-03) based on single marker QTL analysis. Based on this analysis, 11 (Zn) and 11 (Fe) SNPs were found to have significant effect on the trait variance (P ≤ 0.01, R2 ≥ 0.05) in at least one bi-parental population. These findings are being pursued in the kernel-Zn and Fe breeding program, and could hold great value in functional analysis and possible cloning of high-value genes for these traits in maize.


Assuntos
Ferro/química , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Sementes/química , Zea mays/genética , Zinco/química , Estudos de Associação Genética , Marcadores Genéticos , Genótipo , Fenótipo , Melhoramento Vegetal , Locos de Características Quantitativas
4.
Front Plant Sci ; 9: 1919, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30761177

RESUMO

Drought stress (DS) is a major constraint to maize yield production. Heat stress (HS) alone and in combination with DS are likely to become the increasing constraints. Association mapping and genomic prediction (GP) analyses were conducted in a collection of 300 tropical and subtropical maize inbred lines to reveal the genetic architecture of grain yield and flowering time under well-watered (WW), DS, HS, and combined DS and HS conditions. Out of the 381,165 genotyping-by-sequencing SNPs, 1549 SNPs were significantly associated with all the 12 trait-environment combinations, the average PVE (phenotypic variation explained) by these SNPs was 4.33%, and 541 of them had a PVE value greater than 5%. These significant associations were clustered into 446 genomic regions with a window size of 20 Mb per region, and 673 candidate genes containing the significantly associated SNPs were identified. In addition, 33 hotspots were identified for 12 trait-environment combinations and most were located on chromosomes 1 and 8. Compared with single SNP-based association mapping, the haplotype-based associated mapping detected fewer number of significant associations and candidate genes with higher PVE values. All the 688 candidate genes were enriched into 15 gene ontology terms, and 46 candidate genes showed significant differential expression under the WW and DS conditions. Association mapping results identified few overlapped significant markers and candidate genes for the same traits evaluated under different managements, indicating the genetic divergence between the individual stress tolerance and the combined drought and HS tolerance. The GP accuracies obtained from the marker-trait associated SNPs were relatively higher than those obtained from the genome-wide SNPs for most of the target traits. The genetic architecture information of the grain yield and flowering time revealed in this study, and the genomic regions identified for the different trait-environment combinations are useful in accelerating the efforts on rapid development of the stress-tolerant maize germplasm through marker-assisted selection and/or genomic selection.

5.
PLoS One ; 11(10): e0164340, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27768702

RESUMO

An association mapping panel, named as CIMMYT Asia association mapping (CAAM) panel, involving 396 diverse tropical maize lines were phenotyped for various structural and functional traits of roots under drought and well-watered conditions. The experiment was conducted during Kharif (summer-rainy) season of 2012 and 2013 in root phenotyping facility at CIMMYT-Hyderabad, India. The CAAM panel was genotyped to generate 955, 690 SNPs through GBS v2.7 using Illumina Hi-seq 2000/2500 at Institute for Genomic Diversity, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, USA. GWAS analysis was carried out using 331,390 SNPs filtered from the entire set of SNPs revealed a total of 50 and 67 SNPs significantly associated for root functional (transpiration efficiency, flowering period water use) and structural traits (rooting depth, root dry weight, root length, root volume, root surface area and root length density), respectively. In addition to this, 37 SNPs were identified for grain yield and shoot biomass under well-watered and drought stress. Though many SNPs were found to have significant association with the traits under study, SNPs that were common for more than one trait were discussed in detail. A total 18 SNPs were found to have common association with more than one trait, out of which 12 SNPs were found within or near the various gene functional regions. In this study we attempted to identify the trait specific maize lines based on the presence of favorable alleles for the SNPs associated with multiple traits. Two SNPs S3_128533512 and S7_151238865 were associated with transpiration efficiency, shoot biomass and grain yield under well-watered condition. Based on favorable allele for these SNPs seven inbred lines were identified. Similarly, four lines were identified for transpiration efficiency and shoot biomass under drought stress based on the presence of favorable allele for the common SNPs S1_211520521, S2_20017716, S3_57210184 and S7_130878458 and three lines were identified for flowering period water-use, transpiration efficiency, root dry weight and root volume based on the presence of favorable allele for the common SNPs S3_162065732 and S3_225760139.


Assuntos
Secas , Genoma de Planta , Raízes de Plantas/fisiologia , Estresse Fisiológico , Clima Tropical , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
7.
PLoS One ; 11(3): e0149636, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26999525

RESUMO

We aimed to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) for secondary traits related to grain yield (GY) in two BC1F2:3 backcross populations (LPSpop and DTPpop) under well-watered (4 environments; WW) and drought stressed (6; DS) conditions to facilitate breeding efforts towards drought tolerant maize. GY reached 5.6 and 5.8 t/ha under WW in the LPSpop and the DTPpop, respectively. Under DS, grain yield was reduced by 65% (LPSpop) to 59% (DTPpop) relative to WW. GY was strongly associated with the normalized vegetative index (NDVI; r ranging from 0.61 to 0.96) across environmental conditions and with an early flowering under drought stressed conditions (r ranging from -0.18 to -0.25) indicative of the importance of early vigor and drought escape for GY. Out of the 105 detected QTL, 53 were overdominant indicative of strong heterosis. For 14 out of 18 detected vigor QTL, as well as for eight flowering time QTL the trait increasing allele was derived from CML491. Collocations of early vigor QTL with QTL for stay green (bin 2.02, WW, LPSpop; 2.07, DS, DTPpop), the number of ears per plant (bins 2.02, 2.05, WW, LPSpop; 5.02, DS, LPSpop) and GY (bin 2.07, WW, DTPpop; 5.04, WW, LPSpop), reinforce the importance of the observed correlations. LOD scores for early vigor QTL in these bins ranged from 2.2 to 11.25 explaining 4.6 (additivity: +0.28) to 19.9% (additivity: +0.49) of the observed phenotypic variance. A strong flowering QTL was detected in bin 2.06 across populations and environmental conditions explaining 26-31.3% of the observed phenotypic variation (LOD: 13-17; additivity: 0.1-0.6d). Improving drought tolerance while at the same time maintaining yield potential could be achieved by combining alleles conferring early vigor from the recurrent parent with alleles advancing flowering from the donor. Additionally bin 8.06 (DTPpop) harbored a QTL for GY under WW (additivity: 0.27 t/ha) and DS (additivity: 0.58 t/ha). R2 ranged from 0 (DTPpop, WW) to 26.54% (LPSpop, DS) for NDVI, 18.6 (LPSpop, WW) to 42.45% (LPSpop, DS) for anthesis and from 0 (DTPpop, DS) to 24.83% (LPSpop, WW) for GY. Lines out-yielding the best check by 32.5% (DTPpop, WW) to 60% (DTPpop, DS) for all population-by-irrigation treatment combination (except LPSpop, WW) identified are immediately available for the use by breeders.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica , Cruzamentos Genéticos , Secas , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Clima Tropical , Zea mays/fisiologia , Zea mays/genética
8.
Theor Appl Genet ; 129(4): 753-765, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26849239

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: Molecular characterization information on genetic diversity, population structure and genetic relationships provided by this research will help maize breeders to better understand how to utilize the current CML collection. CIMMYT maize inbred lines (CMLs) have been widely used all over the world and have contributed greatly to both tropical and temperate maize improvement. Genetic diversity and population structure of the current CML collection and of six temperate inbred lines were assessed and relationships among all lines were determined with genotyping-by-sequencing SNPs. Results indicated that: (1) wider genetic distance and low kinship coefficients among most pairs of lines reflected the uniqueness of most lines in the current CML collection; (2) the population structure and genetic divergence between the Temperate subgroup and Tropical subgroups were clear; three major environmental adaptation groups (Lowland Tropical, Subtropical/Mid-altitude and Highland Tropical subgroups) were clearly present in the current CML collection; (3) the genetic diversity of the three Tropical subgroups was similar and greater than that of the Temperate subgroup; the average genetic distance between the Temperate and Tropical subgroups was greater than among Tropical subgroups; and (4) heterotic patterns in each environmental adaptation group estimated using GBS SNPs were only partially consistent with patterns estimated based on combining ability tests and pedigree information. Combining current heterotic information based on combining ability tests and the genetic relationships inferred from molecular marker analyses may be the best strategy to define heterotic groups for future tropical maize improvement. Information resulting from this research will help breeders to better understand how to utilize all the CMLs to select parental lines, replace testers, assign heterotic groups and create a core set of breeding germplasm.


Assuntos
Genótipo , Vigor Híbrido , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Zea mays/genética , DNA de Plantas/genética , Frequência do Gene , Endogamia , Melhoramento Vegetal , Análise de Sequência de DNA
9.
Theor Appl Genet ; 128(10): 1957-68, 2015 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26152570

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: Genome-wide association analysis in tropical and subtropical maize germplasm revealed that MLND resistance is influenced by multiple genomic regions with small to medium effects. The maize lethal necrosis disease (MLND) caused by synergistic interaction of Maize chlorotic mottle virus and Sugarcane mosaic virus, and has emerged as a serious threat to maize production in eastern Africa since 2011. Our objective was to gain insights into the genetic architecture underlying the resistance to MLND by genome-wide association study (GWAS) and genomic selection. We used two association mapping (AM) panels comprising a total of 615 diverse tropical/subtropical maize inbred lines. All the lines were evaluated against MLND under artificial inoculation. Both the panels were genotyped using genotyping-by-sequencing. Phenotypic variation for MLND resistance was significant and heritability was moderately high in both the panels. Few promising lines with high resistance to MLND were identified to be used as potential donors. GWAS revealed 24 SNPs that were significantly associated (P < 3 × 10(-5)) with MLND resistance. These SNPs are located within or adjacent to 20 putative candidate genes that are associated with plant disease resistance. Ridge regression best linear unbiased prediction with five-fold cross-validation revealed higher prediction accuracy for IMAS-AM panel (0.56) over DTMA-AM (0.36) panel. The prediction accuracy for both within and across panels is promising; inclusion of MLND resistance associated SNPs into the prediction model further improved the accuracy. Overall, the study revealed that resistance to MLND is controlled by multiple loci with small to medium effects and the SNPs identified by GWAS can be used as potential candidates in MLND resistance breeding program.


Assuntos
Resistência à Doença/genética , Vírus do Mosaico/patogenicidade , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Zea mays/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética , Genótipo , Fenótipo , Melhoramento Vegetal , Doenças das Plantas/virologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Zea mays/virologia
10.
Theor Appl Genet ; 128(9): 1839-54, 2015 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26081946

RESUMO

Msv1 , the major QTL for MSV resistance was delimited to an interval of 0.87 cM on chromosome 1 at 87 Mb and production markers with high prediction accuracy were developed. Maize streak virus (MSV) disease is a devastating disease in the Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), which causes significant yield loss in maize. Resistance to MSV has previously been mapped to a major QTL (Msv1) on chromosome 1 that is germplasm and environment independent and to several minor loci elsewhere in the genome. In this study, Msv1 was fine-mapped through QTL isogenic recombinant strategy using a large F 2 population of CML206 × CML312 to an interval of 0.87 cM on chromosome 1. Genome-wide association study was conducted in the DTMA (Drought Tolerant Maize for Africa)-Association mapping panel with 278 tropical/sub-tropical breeding lines from CIMMYT using the high-density genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) markers. This study identified 19 SNPs in the region between 82 and 93 Mb on chromosome 1(B73 RefGen_V2) at a P < 1.00E-04, which coincided with the fine-mapped region of Msv1. Haplotype trend regression identified a haplotype block significantly associated with response to MSV. Three SNPs in this haplotype block at 87 Mb on chromosome 1 had an accuracy of 0.94 in predicting the disease reaction in a collection of breeding lines with known responses to MSV infection. In two biparental populations, selection for resistant Msv1 haplotype demonstrated a reduction of 1.03-1.39 units on a rating scale of 1-5, compared to the susceptible haplotype. High-throughput KASP assays have been developed for these three SNPs to enable routine marker screening in the breeding pipeline for MSV resistance.


Assuntos
Mapeamento Cromossômico , Resistência à Doença/genética , Vírus do Listrado do Milho , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Zea mays/genética , Cromossomos de Plantas , Marcadores Genéticos , Haplótipos , Fenótipo , Melhoramento Vegetal , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Zea mays/virologia
11.
PLoS One ; 10(4): e0124350, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25884393

RESUMO

Waterlogging is an important abiotic stress constraint that causes significant yield losses in maize grown throughout south and south-east Asia due to erratic rainfall patterns. The most economic option to offset the damage caused by waterlogging is to genetically incorporate tolerance in cultivars that are grown widely in the target agro-ecologies. We assessed the genetic variation in a population of recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from crossing a waterlogging tolerant line (CAWL-46-3-1) to an elite but sensitive line (CML311-2-1-3) and observed significant range of variation for grain yield (GY) under waterlogging stress along with a number of other secondary traits such as brace roots (BR), chlorophyll content (SPAD), % stem and root lodging (S&RL) among the RILs. Significant positive correlation of GY with BR and SPAD and negative correlation with S&RL indicated the potential use of these secondary traits in selection indices under waterlogged conditions. RILs were genotyped with 331 polymorphic single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers using KASP (Kompetitive Allele Specific PCR) Platform. QTL mapping revealed five QTL on chromosomes 1, 3, 5, 7 and 10, which together explained approximately 30% of phenotypic variance for GY based on evaluation of RIL families under waterlogged conditions, with effects ranging from 520 to 640 kg/ha for individual genomic regions. 13 QTL were identified for various secondary traits associated with waterlogging tolerance, each individually explaining from 3 to 14% of phenotypic variance. Of the 22 candidate genes with known functional domains identified within the physical intervals delimited by the flanking markers of the QTL influencing GY and other secondary traits, six have previously been demonstrated to be associated with anaerobic responses in either maize or other model species. A pair of flanking SNP markers has been identified for each of the QTL and high throughput marker assays were developed to facilitate rapid introgression of waterlogging tolerance in tropical maize breeding programs.


Assuntos
Locos de Características Quantitativas , Chuva , Zea mays/genética , Clorofila/metabolismo , Cromossomos de Plantas/genética , Fertilidade/genética , Genes de Plantas , Estudos de Associação Genética , Ligação Genética , Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala , Endogamia , Fenótipo , Mapeamento Físico do Cromossomo , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Banco de Sementes , Estresse Fisiológico , Zea mays/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Zea mays/metabolismo
12.
Theor Appl Genet ; 128(5): 851-64, 2015 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25690716

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: Genome-wide association analysis in CIMMYT's association panel revealed new favorable native genomic variations in/nearby important genes such as hydroxylases and CCD1 that have potential for carotenoid biofortification in maize. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have been used extensively to identify allelic variation for genes controlling important agronomic and nutritional traits in plants. Provitamin A (proVA) enhancing alleles of lycopene epsilon cyclase (LCYE) and ß-carotene hydroxylase 1 (CRTRB1), previously identified through candidate-gene based GWAS, are currently used in CIMMYT's maize breeding program. The objective of this study was to identify genes or genomic regions controlling variation for carotenoid concentrations in grain for CIMMYT's carotenoid association mapping panel of 380 inbred maize lines, using high-density genome-wide platforms with ~476,000 SNP markers. Population structure effects were minimized by adjustments using principal components and kinship matrix with mixed models. Genome-wide linkage disequilibrium (LD) analysis indicated faster LD decay (3.9 kb; r (2) = 0.1) than commonly reported for temperate germplasm, and therefore the possibility of achieving higher mapping resolution with our mostly tropical diversity panel. GWAS for various carotenoids identified CRTRB1, LCYE and other key genes or genomic regions that govern rate-critical steps in the upstream pathway, such as DXS1, GGPS1, and GGPS2 that are known to play important roles in the accumulation of precursor isoprenoids as well as downstream genes HYD5, CCD1, and ZEP1, which are involved in hydroxylation and carotenoid degradation. SNPs at or near all of these regions were identified and may be useful target regions for carotenoid biofortification breeding efforts in maize; for example a genomic region on chromosome 2 explained ~16% of the phenotypic variance for ß-carotene independently of CRTRB1, and a variant of CCD1 that resulted in reduced ß-cryptoxanthin degradation was found in lines that have previously been observed to have low proVA degradation rates.


Assuntos
Carotenoides/biossíntese , Zea mays/genética , Alelos , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Genes de Plantas , Estudos de Associação Genética , Marcadores Genéticos , Liases Intramoleculares/genética , Modelos Lineares , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Oxigenases de Função Mista/genética , Análise de Componente Principal
13.
Theor Appl Genet ; 128(1): 159-71, 2015 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25385333

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: R1-nj anthocyanin marker inhibition is highly frequent in tropical maize germplasm considerably affecting efficiency of haploid identification. Molecular markers reliably differentiating germplasm with anthocyanin color inhibitor have been identified in this study. The R1-Navajo (R1-nj) color marker facilitates easy and quick identification of haploid kernels at the seed stage during in vivo haploid induction process in maize. However, the Navajo phenotype can be completely suppressed or poorly expressed in some germplasm, making it impossible or inefficient to identify haploids at the seed stage. In this study, we characterized the expression of R1-nj marker in a large array of tropical/subtropical inbred lines, breeding populations and landraces by crossing with the R1-nj-based tropicalized haploid inducer. There was a high frequency of inhibition of the Navajo phenotype in the maize inbred lines, which are used in tropical breeding programs. Genome-wide association mapping showed that the C1 anthocyanin regulatory locus is the most significant genetic factor influencing inhibition of the Navajo phenotype. Molecular marker assays were designed based on polymorphism in the C1 vs C1-I alleles. Analysis of a set of 714 inbred lines demonstrated that a combination of two gene-specific markers--8 bp C1-I InDel and C1-I SNP--could predict with high accuracy the presence of anthocyanin color inhibition in the germplasm analyzed. Information generated in this study aids in making informed decisions on the constitution of source populations for doubled haploid (DH) line development in tropical germplasm, particularly those derived from elite maize lines from CIMMYT. The C1-I gene-specific molecular markers identified and validated will facilitate high-throughput and cost-effective evaluation of a large pool of germplasm for the presence of the dominant color inhibitor in maize germplasm.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/genética , Marcadores Genéticos , Haploidia , Zea mays/genética , Cruzamento , Cor , DNA de Plantas/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética , Genótipo , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Análise de Sequência de DNA
14.
Mol Breed ; 34: 701-715, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25076840

RESUMO

Identifying quantitative trait loci (QTL) of sizeable effects that are expressed in diverse genetic backgrounds across contrasting water regimes particularly for secondary traits can significantly complement the conventional drought tolerance breeding efforts. We evaluated three tropical maize biparental populations under water-stressed and well-watered regimes for drought-related morpho-physiological traits, such as anthesis-silking interval (ASI), ears per plant (EPP), stay-green (SG) and plant-to-ear height ratio (PEH). In general, drought stress reduced the genetic variance of grain yield (GY), while that of morpho-physiological traits remained stable or even increased under drought conditions. We detected consistent genomic regions across different genetic backgrounds that could be target regions for marker-assisted introgression for drought tolerance in maize. A total of 203 QTL for ASI, EPP, SG and PEH were identified under both the water regimes. Meta-QTL analysis across the three populations identified six constitutive genomic regions with a minimum of two overlapping traits. Clusters of QTL were observed on chromosomes 1.06, 3.06, 4.09, 5.05, 7.03 and 10.04/06. Interestingly, a ~8-Mb region delimited in 3.06 harboured QTL for most of the morpho-physiological traits considered in the current study. This region contained two important candidate genes viz., zmm16 (MADS-domain transcription factor) and psbs1 (photosystem II unit) that are responsible for reproductive organ development and photosynthate accumulation, respectively. The genomic regions identified in this study partially explained the association of secondary traits with GY. Flanking single nucleotide polymorphism markers reported herein may be useful in marker-assisted introgression of drought tolerance in tropical maize.

15.
Theor Appl Genet ; 127(7): 1643-51, 2014 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24865507

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: Ten QTL underlying the accumulation of Zn and Fe in the grain were mapped in a set of RILs bred from the cross Triticum spelta × T. aestivum . Five of these loci (two for Zn and three for Fe) were consistently detected across seven environments. The genetic basis of accumulation in the grain of Zn and Fe was investigated via QTL mapping in a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population bred from a cross between Triticum spelta and T. aestivum. The concentration of the two elements was measured from grain produced in three locations over two consecutive cropping seasons and from a greenhouse trial. The range in Zn and Fe concentration across the RILs was, respectively, 18.8-73.5 and 25.3-59.5 ppm, and the concentrations of the two elements were positively correlated with one another (rp =+0.79). Ten QTL (five each for Zn and Fe accumulation) were detected, mapping to seven different chromosomes. The chromosome 2B and 6A grain Zn QTL were consistently expressed across environments. The proportion of the phenotype explained (PVE) by QZn.bhu-2B was >16 %, and the locus was closely linked to the SNP marker 1101425|F|0, while QZn.bhu-6A (7.0 % PVE) was closely linked to DArT marker 3026160|F|0. Of the five Fe QTL detected, three, all mapping to chromosome 1A were detected in all seven environments. The PVE for QFe.bhu-3B was 26.0 %.


Assuntos
Mapeamento Cromossômico , Ferro/análise , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Triticum/genética , Zinco/análise , Cromossomos de Plantas/genética , Cruzamentos Genéticos , DNA de Plantas/genética , Genes de Plantas , Ligação Genética , Variação Genética , Fenótipo , Triticum/química
16.
G3 (Bethesda) ; 3(11): 1903-26, 2013 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24022750

RESUMO

Genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) technologies have proven capacity for delivering large numbers of marker genotypes with potentially less ascertainment bias than standard single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) arrays. Therefore, GBS has become an attractive alternative technology for genomic selection. However, the use of GBS data poses important challenges, and the accuracy of genomic prediction using GBS is currently undergoing investigation in several crops, including maize, wheat, and cassava. The main objective of this study was to evaluate various methods for incorporating GBS information and compare them with pedigree models for predicting genetic values of lines from two maize populations evaluated for different traits measured in different environments (experiments 1 and 2). Given that GBS data come with a large percentage of uncalled genotypes, we evaluated methods using nonimputed, imputed, and GBS-inferred haplotypes of different lengths (short or long). GBS and pedigree data were incorporated into statistical models using either the genomic best linear unbiased predictors (GBLUP) or the reproducing kernel Hilbert spaces (RKHS) regressions, and prediction accuracy was quantified using cross-validation methods. The following results were found: relative to pedigree or marker-only models, there were consistent gains in prediction accuracy by combining pedigree and GBS data; there was increased predictive ability when using imputed or nonimputed GBS data over inferred haplotype in experiment 1, or nonimputed GBS and information-based imputed short and long haplotypes, as compared to the other methods in experiment 2; the level of prediction accuracy achieved using GBS data in experiment 2 is comparable to those reported by previous authors who analyzed this data set using SNP arrays; and GBLUP and RKHS models with pedigree with nonimputed and imputed GBS data provided the best prediction correlations for the three traits in experiment 1, whereas for experiment 2 RKHS provided slightly better prediction than GBLUP for drought-stressed environments, and both models provided similar predictions in well-watered environments.


Assuntos
Genoma de Planta , Zea mays/genética , Cruzamento , Cromossomos/química , Cromossomos/metabolismo , Genótipo , Haplótipos , Modelos Genéticos , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Análise de Sequência de DNA
17.
Theor Appl Genet ; 126(2): 389-99, 2013 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23052023

RESUMO

Vitamin A deficiency (VAD) compromises immune function and is the leading cause of preventable blindness in children in many developing countries. Biofortification, or breeding staple food crops that are rich in micronutrients, provides a sustainable way to fight VAD and other micronutrient malnutrition problems. Polymorphisms, with associated molecular markers, have recently been identified for two loci, LcyE (lycopene epsilon cyclase) and CrtRB1 (ß-carotene hydroxylase 1) that govern critical steps in the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway in maize endosperm, thereby enabling the opportunity to integrate marker-assisted selection (MAS) into carotenoid breeding programs. We validated the effects of 3 polymorphisms (LcyE5'TE, LcyE3'Indel and CrtRB1-3'TE) in 26 diverse tropical genetic backgrounds. CrtRB1-3'TE had a two-ten fold effect on enhancing beta-carotene (BC) and total provitamin A (proA) content. Reduced-function, favorable polymorphisms within LcyE resulted in 0-30 % reduction in the ratio of alpha- to beta-branch carotenoids, and increase in proA content (sometimes statistically significant). CrtRB1-3'TE had large, significant effect on enhancing BC and total ProA content, irrespective of genetic constitution for LcyE5'TE. Genotypes with homozygous favorable CrtRB1-3'TE alleles had much less zeaxanthin and an average of 25 % less total carotenoid than other genotypes, suggesting that feedback inhibition may be reducing the total flux into the carotenoid pathway. Because this feedback inhibition was most pronounced in the homozygous favorable LcyE (reduced-function) genotypes, and because maximum total proA concentrations were achieved in genotypes with homozygous unfavorable or heterozygous LcyE, we recommend not selecting for both reduced-function genes in breeding programs. LcyE exhibited significant segregation distortion (SD) in all the eight, while CrtRB1 in five of eight digenic populations studied, with favorable alleles of both the genes frequently under-represented. MAS using markers reported herein can efficiently increase proA carotenoid concentration in maize.


Assuntos
Carotenoides/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Liases Intramoleculares/genética , Oxigenases de Função Mista/genética , Polimorfismo Genético/genética , Vitamina A/metabolismo , Zea mays/genética , Alelos , Biomarcadores/análise , Genética Populacional
18.
Theor Appl Genet ; 126(3): 583-600, 2013 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23124431

RESUMO

Despite numerous published reports of quantitative trait loci (QTL) for drought-related traits, practical applications of such QTL in maize improvement are scarce. Identifying QTL of sizeable effects that express more or less uniformly in diverse genetic backgrounds across contrasting water regimes could significantly complement conventional breeding efforts to improve drought tolerance. We evaluated three tropical bi-parental populations under water-stress (WS) and well-watered (WW) regimes in Mexico, Kenya and Zimbabwe to identify genomic regions responsible for grain yield (GY) and anthesis-silking interval (ASI) across multiple environments and diverse genetic backgrounds. Across the three populations, on average, drought stress reduced GY by more than 50 % and increased ASI by 3.2 days. We identified a total of 83 and 62 QTL through individual environment analyses for GY and ASI, respectively. In each population, most QTL consistently showed up in each water regime. Across the three populations, the phenotypic variance explained by various individual QTL ranged from 2.6 to 17.8 % for GY and 1.7 to 17.8 % for ASI under WS environments and from 5 to 19.5 % for GY under WW environments. Meta-QTL (mQTL) analysis across the three populations and multiple environments identified seven genomic regions for GY and one for ASI, of which six mQTL on chr.1, 4, 5 and 10 for GY were constitutively expressed across WS and WW environments. One mQTL on chr.7 for GY and one on chr.3 for ASI were found to be 'adaptive' to WS conditions. High throughput assays were developed for SNPs that delimit the physical intervals of these mQTL. At most of the QTL, almost equal number of favorable alleles was donated by either of the parents within each cross, thereby demonstrating the potential of drought tolerant × drought tolerant crosses to identify QTL under contrasting water regimes.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica/genética , Genoma de Planta , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Zea mays/genética , Cruzamento , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Secas , Meio Ambiente , Marcadores Genéticos , Quênia , México , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Água/análise , Zimbábue
19.
Theor Appl Genet ; 125(2): 235-46, 2012 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22450859

RESUMO

Biofortification for pro-vitamin A content (pVAC) of modern maize inbreds and hybrids is a feasible way to deal with vitamin A deficiency in rural areas in developing countries. The objective of this study was to evaluate the probability of success of breeding strategies when transferring the high pVAC present in donors to elite modern-adapted lines. For this purpose, a genetic model was built based on previous genetic studies, and different selection schemes including phenotypic selection (PS) and marker-assisted selection (MAS) were simulated and compared. MAS for simultaneously selecting all pVAC genes and a combined scheme for selecting two major pVAC genes by MAS followed by ultra performance liquid chromatography screening for the remaining genetic variation on pVAC were identified as being most effective and cost-efficient. The two schemes have 83.7 and 84.8% probabilities of achieving a predefined breeding target on pVAC and adaptation in one breeding cycle under the current breeding scale. When the breeding scale is increased by making 50% more crosses, the probability values could reach 94.8 and 95.1% for the two schemes. Under fixed resources, larger early generation populations with fewer crosses had similar breeding efficiency to smaller early generation populations with more crosses. Breeding on a larger scale was more efficient both genetically and economically. The approach presented in this study could be used as a general way in quantifying probability of success and comparing different breeding schemes in other breeding programs.


Assuntos
Cruzamento/métodos , Vitamina A/metabolismo , Zea mays/genética , Zea mays/metabolismo , Adaptação Biológica/genética , Cruzamento/economia , Simulação por Computador , Análise Custo-Benefício , Cruzamentos Genéticos , Genes de Plantas/genética , Genética Populacional , Genótipo , Modelos Genéticos , Fenótipo , Seleção Genética , Zea mays/economia
20.
Genetics ; 190(2): 781-93, 2012 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22135357

RESUMO

Haploids and doubled haploid (DH) inbred lines have become an invaluable tool for maize genetic research and hybrid breeding, but the genetic basis of in vivo induction of maternal haploids is still unknown. This is the first study reporting comparative quantitative trait locus (QTL) analyses of this trait in maize. We determined haploid induction rates (HIR) in testcrosses of a total of 1061 progenies of four segregating populations involving two temperate haploid inducers, UH400 (HIR = 8%) and CAUHOI (HIR = 2%), one temperate and two tropical inbreds with HIR = 0%, and up to three generations per population. Mean HIR of the populations ranged from 0.6 to 5.2% and strongly deviated from the midparent values. One QTL (qhir1) explaining up to p = 66% of the genetic variance was detected in bin 1.04 in the three populations involving a noninducer parent and the HIR-enhancing allele was contributed by UH400. Segregation ratios of loci in bin 1.04 were highly distorted against the UH400 allele in these three populations, suggesting that transmission failure of the inducer gamete and haploid induction ability are related phenomena. In the CAUHOI × UH400 population, seven QTL were identified on five chromosomes, with qhir8 on chromosome 9 having p > 20% in three generations of this cross. The large-effect QTL qhir1 and qhir8 will likely become fixed quickly during inducer development due to strong selection pressure applied for high HIR. Hence, marker-based pyramiding of small-effect and/or modifier QTL influencing qhir1 and qhir8 may help to further increase HIR in maize. We propose a conceptual genetic framework for inheritance of haploid induction ability, which is also applicable to other dichotomous traits requiring progeny testing, and discuss the implications of our results for haploid inducer development.


Assuntos
Haploidia , Zea mays/genética , Alelos , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Cromossomos de Plantas , Ligação Genética , Genótipo , Fenótipo , Locos de Características Quantitativas
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