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3.
Am J Transplant ; 2019 Dec 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31834977

RESUMO

Epipericardial fat necrosis is an uncommon clinical condition of unknown etiology. It typically presents as acute pleuritic chest pain and should be differentiated from acute pulmonary embolism and acute coronary syndrome. This condition is diagnosed by characteristic chest computed tomography findings of an ovoid mediastinal fatty lesion with intrinsic and surrounding soft-tissue stranding. Treatment of epipericardial fat necrosis includes the administration of anti-inflammatory agents, and symptoms usually resolve within a few days after treatment initiation. This disease entity has rarely been reported since it was first described in 1957. Most current knowledge of epipericardial fat necrosis is based on case reports that describe this condition in previously healthy individuals. We present the case of a 39-year-old woman with a history of heart transplant, who presented with chest pain secondary to epipericardial fat necrosis. Serial computed tomography revealed lesion resolution after appropriate treatment.

4.
BMC Cardiovasc Disord ; 19(1): 251, 2019 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31706288

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Heart failure (HF) is a major public health problem with increasing prevalence worldwide. It is associated with high mortality and poor quality of life due to recurrent and costly hospital admissions. Several studies have been conducted to describe HF risk predictors in different races, countries and health systems. Nonetheless, understanding population-specific determinants of HF outcomes remains a great challenge. We aim to evaluate predictors of 1-year survival of individuals with systolic heart failure from the GENIUS-HF cohort. METHODS: We enrolled 700 consecutive patients with systolic heart failure from the SPA outpatient clinic of the Heart Institute, a tertiary health-center in Sao Paulo, Brazil. Inclusion criteria were age between 18 and 80 years old with heart failure diagnosis of different etiologies and left ventricular ejection fraction ≤50% in the previous 2 years of enrollment on the cohort. We recorded baseline demographic and clinical characteristics and followed-up patients at 6 months intervals by telephone interview. Study data were collected and data quality assurance by the Research Electronic Data Capture tools. Time to death was studied using Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for demographic, clinical and socioeconomic variables and medication use. RESULTS: We screened 2314 consecutive patients for eligibility and enrolled 700 participants. The overall mortality was 6.8% (47 patients); the composite outcome of death and hospitalization was 17.7% (123 patients) and 1% (7 patients) have been submitted to heart transplantation after one year of enrollment. After multivariate adjustment, baseline values of blood urea nitrogen (HR 1.017; CI 95% 1.008-1.027; p < 0.001), brain natriuretic peptide (HR 1.695; CI 95% 1.347-2.134; p < 0.001) and systolic blood pressure (HR 0.982;CI 95% 0.969-0.995; p = 0.008) were independently associated with death within 1 year. Kaplan Meier curves showed that ischemic patients have worse survival free of death and hospitalization compared to other etiologies. CONCLUSIONS: High levels of BUN and BNP and low systolic blood pressure were independent predictors of one-year overall mortality in our sample. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Current Controlled Trials NTC02043431, retrospectively registered at in January 23, 2014.

5.
Eur J Prev Cardiol ; : 2047487319880650, 2019 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31604403

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the hemodynamic and cardiorespiratory adaptations to exercise in individuals with heart transplantation with evidence of cardiac reinnervation (cardiac reinnervation group) versus without evidence of cardiac reinnervation (no cardiac reinnervation group). METHODS: Sedentary individuals with heart transplantation (age = 45.5 ± 2.2 years; time elapsed since surgery = 6.7 ± 0.7 years) were divided into the cardiac reinnervation (n = 16) and no cardiac reinnervation (n = 17) groups according to their heart rate response to cardiopulmonary exercise testing. The 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure, carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity, and cardiorespiratory fitness were assessed before and after 12 weeks of a thrice-weekly exercise program (five minutes of warm-up, 30 min of endurance exercise, one set of 10-15 reps in five resistance exercises, and five minutes of cool-down). RESULTS: The cardiac reinnervation group had reduced (p < 0.01) 24-hour systolic/diastolic blood pressure (7/9 mm Hg), daytime systolic/diastolic blood pressure (9/10 mm Hg) and nighttime diastolic blood pressure (6 mm Hg) after training. The no cardiac reinnervation group reduced (p < 0.05) only 24-hour (5 mm Hg), daytime (5 mm Hg) and nighttime (6 mm Hg) diastolic blood pressure after training. Hourly analysis showed that the cardiac reinnervation group reduced systolic/diastolic blood pressure for 10/21 h, while the no cardiac reinnervation group reduced systolic/diastolic blood pressure for only 3/11 h. The cardiac reinnervation group also improved both maximal oxygen consumption (10.8%) and exercise tolerance (13.4%) after training, but the no cardiac reinnervation group improved only exercise tolerance (9.9%). Pulse wave velocity did not change in both groups. CONCLUSION: There were greater improvements in ambulatory blood pressure and maximal oxygen consumption in the cardiac reinnervation than the no cardiac reinnervation group. These results suggest that cardiac reinnervation associates with hemodynamic and cardiorespiratory adaptations to exercise training in individuals with heart transplantation.

6.
Transplantation ; 2019 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31403557

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Data on the prevention of fractures after heart transplant (HTx) are controversial in the literature. Understanding the effects of HTx on bone may guide appropriate treatments in this high-risk population. METHODS: Seventy adult HTx patients were followed for 12 months. Clinical and laboratory parameters, bone mineral density (BMD), microarchitecture and vertebral fractures were assessed at baseline (after intensive care unit discharge) and at 6 and 12 months. Patients received recommendations regarding calcium intake and vitamin D supplementation after HTx. RESULTS: At baseline, 27% of patients had osteoporosis, associated with the length of hospitalization before HTx (p=0.001). BMD decreased in the first 6 months, with partial recovery later. Bone microarchitecture deteriorated, mainly in the trabecular bone in the first 6 months and cortical bone in the subsequent 6 months. At baseline, 92.9% of patients had vitamin D levels <30 ng/mL and 20.0% <10 ng/mL. Patients also had calcium at the lower limit of normal, high alkaline phosphatase, and high bone resorption biomarker. These abnormalities were suggestive of impaired bone mineralization and normalized at 6 months with correction of vitamin D deficiency. The majority of vertebral fractures were identified at baseline (23% of patients). After multivariate analyses, only a lower fat mass persisted as a risk factor for vertebral fractures (OR 1.23, 95% CI 1.04-1.47, p=0.012). CONCLUSIONS: High frequencies of densitometric osteoporosis, vitamin D deficiency, bone markers abnormalities and vertebral fractures were observed shortly after HTx. Calcium and vitamin D supplementation should be the first step in correcting bone mineralization impairment before specific osteoporosis treatment.

7.
N Engl J Med ; 381(8): 716-726, 2019 08 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31433919

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Serelaxin is a recombinant form of human relaxin-2, a vasodilator hormone that contributes to cardiovascular and renal adaptations during pregnancy. Previous studies have suggested that treatment with serelaxin may result in relief of symptoms and in better outcomes in patients with acute heart failure. METHODS: In this multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled, event-driven trial, we enrolled patients who were hospitalized for acute heart failure and had dyspnea, vascular congestion on chest radiography, increased plasma concentrations of natriuretic peptides, mild-to-moderate renal insufficiency, and a systolic blood pressure of at least 125 mm Hg, and we randomly assigned them within 16 hours after presentation to receive either a 48-hour intravenous infusion of serelaxin (30 µg per kilogram of body weight per day) or placebo, in addition to standard care. The two primary end points were death from cardiovascular causes at 180 days and worsening heart failure at 5 days. RESULTS: A total of 6545 patients were included in the intention-to-treat analysis. At day 180, death from cardiovascular causes had occurred in 285 of the 3274 patients (8.7%) in the serelaxin group and in 290 of the 3271 patients (8.9%) in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.98; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.83 to 1.15; P = 0.77). At day 5, worsening heart failure had occurred in 227 patients (6.9%) in the serelaxin group and in 252 (7.7%) in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.75 to 1.07; P = 0.19). There were no significant differences between the groups in the incidence of death from any cause at 180 days, the incidence of death from cardiovascular causes or rehospitalization for heart failure or renal failure at 180 days, or the length of the index hospital stay. The incidence of adverse events was similar in the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: In this trial involving patients who were hospitalized for acute heart failure, an infusion of serelaxin did not result in a lower incidence of death from cardiovascular causes at 180 days or worsening heart failure at 5 days than placebo. (Funded by Novartis Pharma; RELAX-AHF-2 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01870778.).


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Relaxina/uso terapêutico , Vasodilatadores/uso terapêutico , Doença Aguda , Idoso , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Progressão da Doença , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/mortalidade , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Hospitalização , Humanos , Incidência , Infusões Intravenosas , Masculino , Proteínas Recombinantes/efeitos adversos , Proteínas Recombinantes/farmacologia , Proteínas Recombinantes/uso terapêutico , Relaxina/efeitos adversos , Relaxina/farmacologia , Falha de Tratamento , Vasodilatadores/efeitos adversos
8.
Rev. Soc. Cardiol. Estado de Säo Paulo ; 29(3 Supl): 287-290, jul.-set. 2019.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1023063

RESUMO

Existem poucos sistemas de avaliação de mortalidade após transplante cardíaco (TC) que se baseiem em fatores relacionados com o doador e que sejam capazes de predizer o prognóstico. Identificar características dos doadores que têm impacto na sobrevida depois do TC pode contribuir para melhorar os resultados e a alocação de órgãos. Aplicamos um sistema de avaliação americano para predizer a mortalidade pós-TC em uma coorte brasileira. Objetivo: Avaliar um escore americano como preditor de mortalidade depois de TC em uma coorte brasileira. Métodos: Análise de uma base de dados de um centro de TC brasileiro de 2013 a 2015. Foram avaliadas quatro características dos doadores: tempo de isquemia, idade do doador, discordância racial doador/receptor e a função renal do doador. A sobrevida foi estimada pelo teste de log-rank em faixas de pontuação pré-determinadas. Resultados: Foram 110 doadores, 89% homens e 62% brancos. A principal causa de morte foi trauma (66,6%). Os doadores tinham em média 29,8 anos, 18,6 de relação Nitrogênio da ureia sanguínea / Creatinina, 175 minutos de tempo de isquemia e 42% de discordância racial com o receptor. Não houve diferença de sobrevida entre as faixas de pontuação. Conclusão: Apesar de preditor de mortalidade após transplante cardíaco em uma população americana, esse escore não foi útil para uma coorte de transplante brasileira. As diferenças, inclusive a alta taxa de miscigenação pode ser uma explicação para esses achados


here are few systems to assess mortality after heart transplantation (CT) that are based on donor-related factors and can predict prognosis. Identifying donor characteristics that impact post-CT survival can contribute to improved outcomes and organ allocation. We applied a US evaluation system to predict mortality after CT in a Brazilian cohort. Objective: To evaluate an American score as a predictor of mortality following CT in a Brazilian cohort. Method: Database analysis of a Brazilian CT center from 2013 to 2015. Four donor characteristics were evaluated: ischemia time, donor age, donor-recipient race mismatch, and donor renal function. Survival was estimated by the log-rank test in predetermined score ranges. Results: There were 110 donors, 89% male and 62% white. The main cause of death was trauma (66.6%). Donors had a mean age of 29.8 years, a mean blood urea nitrogen / creatinine ratio of 18.6, a mean ischemia time of 175 minutes, and race mismatch with the recipient of 42%. There was no difference in survival between the score ranges. Conclusion: Although it was a predictor of mortality after cardiac transplantation in an American population, this score was not useful for a Brazilian transplant cohort. Differences, including the high rate of miscegenation, may explain these findings


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doadores de Tecidos , Transplante/mortalidade , Transplante de Coração/mortalidade , Prognóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Análise de Sobrevida , Prevalência , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos de Coortes , Resultado do Tratamento , Insuficiência Cardíaca/terapia
9.
Curr Heart Fail Rep ; 16(1): 7-11, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30712146

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Heart transplantation is the gold standard treatment for advanced heart failure. Left ventricular assist devices (LVADs), despite being a good option for these patients, are not quite available in developing countries. Time spent in heart transplant waiting list has increased lately even in regions where the number of transplants has also risen showing that a new strategy should be sought. RECENT FINDINGS: Transplant process organization combined with multidisciplinary work are linked to better outcomes while improvement in donor's care and in pre-transplant evaluation might be opportunities to change the long waiting list scenario. For the first time in Brazil, a survey with the most expressive heart transplant centers has been made, which allows an overview of treatment of advanced heart failure in a developing country. We also described a model of heart transplant team, which has proved to be a success when compared to the largest heart transplant centers in Latin America.

10.
In. Negrão, Carlos Eduardo; Pereira-Barretto, Antônio Carlos; Rondon, Maria Urbana Pinto Brandão. Cardiologia do exercício: do atleta ao cardiopata / Exercise cardiology: from athlete to heart disease. São Paulo, Manole, 4ª; 2019. p.493-505.
Monografia em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1015782
11.
Transplant Direct ; 4(11): e395, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30534588

RESUMO

Background: To assess the impact of heart transplantation (HT) on the recovery of peripheral and respiratory muscle mass and strength in patients with congestive heart failure. Methods: The study included 23 patients with an indication for HT (patients in the waiting list [WL] group). These patients were monitored for 1.5 to 3 years after HT; 8 died before 6 months of follow-up, 15 patients completed the early follow-up period of 6 months after HT (FU6m group), 4 died between 6 months and 3 years after HT, and 11 patients completed the late follow-up period 1.5 to 3 years after HT (FU1.5-3y group). Twenty-three healthy subjects were included in the control group. The study variables included inspiratory muscle strength, expressed as the maximum inspiratory pressure (MIP); expiratory muscle strength, expressed as the maximum expiratory pressure (MEP); peripheral muscle strength, expressed as bilateral handgrip strength (bHGS); and the cross-sectional area of the bilateral psoas major muscle (CSAbPm). Results: The results showed a reduction in the CSAbPm (1238.9 ± 312.3 mm2), a reduction in the bHGS (27.0 ± 5.7 kg/f), a reduction in the MIP (60.2 ± 29.8 cmH2O), and a reduction in the MEP (75.2 ± 33.4 cmH2O) in patients in the WL group compared with the healthy controls. In the time series comparison, for patients in the WL, FU6m, and FU1.5-3y groups, increases were found in the CSAbPm (1305.4 vs 1458.1 vs 1431.3 mm2, respectively), bHGS (27.3 vs 30.2 vs 34.7 kg/f, respectively), MIP (59.5 vs 85.5 vs 90.9 cmH2O, respectively), and MEP (79.5 vs 93.2 vs 101.8 cmH2O, respectively) (P < 0.00). Conclusions: Sarcopenia was observed in patients in the WL group. Patients recovered peripheral and respiratory muscle mass and strength at 3 years after HT.

12.
Arq Bras Cardiol ; 111(3): 436-539, 2018 09.
Artigo em Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30379264
14.
Arq Bras Cardiol ; 111(1): 29-36, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30110042

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Heart conditions impose physical, social, financial and health-related quality of life limitations on individuals in Brazil. OBJECTIVES: This study assessed the economic burden of four main heart conditions in Brazil: hypertension, heart failure, myocardial infarction, and atrial fibrillation. In addition, the cost-effectiveness of telemedicine and structured telephone support for the management of heart failure was assessed. METHODS: A standard cost of illness framework was used to assess the costs associated with the four conditions in 2015. The analysis assessed the prevalence of the four conditions and, in the case of myocardial infarction, also its incidence. It further assessed the conditions' associated expenditures on healthcare treatment, productivity losses from reduced employment, costs of providing formal and informal care, and lost wellbeing. The analysis was informed by a targeted literature review, data scan and modelling. All inputs and methods were validated by consulting 15 clinicians and other stakeholders in Brazil. The cost-effectiveness analysis was based on a meta-analysis and economic evaluation of post-discharge programs in patients with heart failure, assessed from the perspective of the Brazilian Unified Healthcare System (Sistema Unico de Saude). RESULTS: Myocardial infarction imposes the greatest financial cost (22.4 billion reais/6.9 billion USD), followed by heart failure (22.1 billion reais/6.8 billion USD), hypertension (8 billion reais/2.5 billion USD) and, finally, atrial fibrillation (3.9 billion reais/1.2 billion USD). Telemedicine and structured telephone support are cost-effective interventions for achieving improvements in the management of heart failure. CONCLUSIONS: Heart conditions impose substantial loss of wellbeing and financial costs in Brazil and should be a public health priority.


Assuntos
Custos de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Cardiopatias/economia , Fibrilação Atrial/economia , Fibrilação Atrial/terapia , Brasil , Cardiopatias/terapia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/economia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/terapia , Humanos , Hipertensão/economia , Hipertensão/terapia , Infarto do Miocárdio/economia , Telemedicina/economia , Telefone
15.
Rev. Soc. Cardiol. Estado de Säo Paulo ; 28(4): 428-433, out.-dez. 2018. tab, ilus, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-970626

RESUMO

A Insuficiência cardíaca é uma síndrome clínica cuja prevalência vem aumentado nos últimos anos, sendo uma das principais causas de internação no Brasil e no mundo. A apresentação da insuficiência cardíaca aguda compreende dois espectros, quais sejam, insuficiência cardíaca crônica agudizada e insuficiência cardíaca nova e ambas estão associadas a alta morbidade e mortalidade. A primeira abordagem desses pacientes deve ser realizada de maneira sistemática para estabelecer o diagnóstico, classificação hemodinâmica e estratificação de risco para orientar adequadamente as condutas iniciais. A decisão terapêutica imediata é essencial para otimizar o manejo desses pacientes, visando a melhor evolução prognóstica intra e extra-hospitalar


Heart failure is a clinical syndrome that has been increasing over the last few years and is currently one of the main causes of hospitalization in Brazil and in the world. Acute heart failure has two forms of presentation - chronic acute decompensated heart failure and new heart failure, both conditions being associated with high morbidity and mortality. The first approach to these patients should be conducted systematically in order to establish the diagnosis, the hemodynamic classification, and the risk stratification in order to adequately guide the initial conducts. An immediate therapeutic decision is essential to optimize the intra- and extra-hospital management of these patients for better prognostic evolution


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Terapêutica , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/terapia , Hemodinâmica , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Comorbidade , Doença Aguda , Doença Crônica , Epidemiologia , Guias como Assunto/normas , Diagnóstico , Eletrocardiografia/métodos
16.
Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 30(8): 930-937, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29979644

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cirrhotic cardiomyopathy is characterized by an attenuated contractile response to stress. Long-term exposure of ß-adrenergic receptors to persistently high levels of catecholamines has been implicated in its pathogenesis. We hypothesized that ß-blockade with metoprolol could reverse the changes in heart function and morphology in cirrhotic cardiomyopathy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In this prospective randomized trial, we included 78 patients aged between 18 and 60 years with abnormal cardiac output response under dobutamine stress echocardiography, without primary cardiac disease or a history of alcohol intake. Patients were assigned randomly to receive metoprolol or placebo for 6 months. The primary endpoint was the improvement in cardiac output response to stress, measured by an increase in the left ventricle stroke volume more than 30%. RESULTS: Three (7.3%) patients in the metoprolol group and nine (24.3%) patients in the placebo group showed improved stroke volume (P=0.057). Diastolic dysfunction was found in two (4.8%) patients before and in five (15.6%) patients after therapy in the metoprolol group, and in 10 (27%) patients before and nine (31%) patients after therapy in the placebo group (P=0.67). After treatment, no echocardiography parameter of morphology was significantly different between metoprolol or placebo groups. No significant differences were observed in noradrenaline, plasma renin activity, and troponin levels between groups. Cirrhosis-related clinical events, including hospitalizations and mortality, were not significantly different between the two groups. Six months of therapy with ß-blocker did not ameliorate heart function and morphology in patients with cirrhotic cardiomyopathy.


Assuntos
Antagonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 1/uso terapêutico , Cardiomiopatias/tratamento farmacológico , Cirrose Hepática/tratamento farmacológico , Metoprolol/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Antagonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 1/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Brasil , Débito Cardíaco/efeitos dos fármacos , Cardiomiopatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Cardiomiopatias/etiologia , Cardiomiopatias/fisiopatologia , Ecocardiografia sob Estresse , Feminino , Humanos , Cirrose Hepática/complicações , Cirrose Hepática/diagnóstico , Masculino , Metoprolol/efeitos adversos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Contração Miocárdica/efeitos dos fármacos , Norepinefrina/sangue , Estudos Prospectivos , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Renina/sangue , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Troponina/sangue , Função Ventricular Esquerda/efeitos dos fármacos , Remodelação Ventricular/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto Jovem
17.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 111(1): 29-36, July 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-950186

RESUMO

Abstract Background: Heart conditions impose physical, social, financial and health-related quality of life limitations on individuals in Brazil. Objectives: This study assessed the economic burden of four main heart conditions in Brazil: hypertension, heart failure, myocardial infarction, and atrial fibrillation. In addition, the cost-effectiveness of telemedicine and structured telephone support for the management of heart failure was assessed. Methods: A standard cost of illness framework was used to assess the costs associated with the four conditions in 2015. The analysis assessed the prevalence of the four conditions and, in the case of myocardial infarction, also its incidence. It further assessed the conditions' associated expenditures on healthcare treatment, productivity losses from reduced employment, costs of providing formal and informal care, and lost wellbeing. The analysis was informed by a targeted literature review, data scan and modelling. All inputs and methods were validated by consulting 15 clinicians and other stakeholders in Brazil. The cost-effectiveness analysis was based on a meta-analysis and economic evaluation of post-discharge programs in patients with heart failure, assessed from the perspective of the Brazilian Unified Healthcare System (Sistema Unico de Saude). Results: Myocardial infarction imposes the greatest financial cost (22.4 billion reais/6.9 billion USD), followed by heart failure (22.1 billion reais/6.8 billion USD), hypertension (8 billion reais/2.5 billion USD) and, finally, atrial fibrillation (3.9 billion reais/1.2 billion USD). Telemedicine and structured telephone support are cost-effective interventions for achieving improvements in the management of heart failure. Conclusions: Heart conditions impose substantial loss of wellbeing and financial costs in Brazil and should be a public health priority.


Resumo Fundamento: As doenças cardíacas impõem limitações à qualidade de vida nos aspectos físicos, sociais, financeiros e de saúde no Brasil. Objetivos: Este estudo avaliou o custo de quatro importantes doenças cardíacas no Brasil: hipertensão, insuficiência cardíaca, infarto do miocárdio e fibrilação atrial. Além disso, avaliou a relação de custo-efetividade de telemedicina e suporte telefônico estruturado para o manejo de insuficiência cardíaca. Métodos: Um custo padrão da estrutura de enfermidade foi usado para avaliar os custos associados às quatro condições em 2015. Analisou-se a prevalência das quatro doenças e, em caso de infarto do miocárdio, também sua incidência. Avaliaram-se ainda as despesas associadas ao tratamento, a perda de produtividade a partir da redução do emprego, os custos do fornecimento de assistência formal e informal e o bem-estar perdido referentes às condições. A análise teve por base uma revisão de literatura-alvo, varredura de dados e modelagem. Todos os inputs e métodos foram validados por 15 clínicos consultores e outras partes interessadas no Brasil. A análise de custo-efetividade baseou-se em uma meta-análise e uma avaliação econômica de programas após a alta de pacientes com insuficiência cardíaca, considerados a partir da perspectiva do Sistema Único de Saúde do Brasil. Resultados: Infarto do miocárdio acarretou o mais alto custo financeiro (R$ 22,4 bilhões/6,9 bilhões de dólares), seguido de insuficiência cardíaca (R$ 22,1 bilhões/6,8 bilhões de dólares), hipertensão (R$ 8 bilhões/2,5 bilhões de dólares) e, finalmente, fibrilação atrial (R$ 3,9 bilhões/1,2 bilhão de dólares). Telemedicina e suporte telefônico estruturado são intervenções custo-efetivas para o aprimoramento do manejo da insuficiência cardíaca. Conclusões: As doenças cardíacas determinam substanciais custos financeiros e perda de bem-estar no Brasil e deveriam ser uma prioridade de saúde pública.

18.
Clin Transplant ; 32(6): e13279, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29744939

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chagas cardiomyopathy (CC) is one of the chronic manifestations of Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi) infection and is among the leading reasons for heart transplantation (HT) in Latin America. Chagas disease is also present in areas with large Hispanic communities in the United States. Our objective is to evaluate the outcomes of cardiac allograft recipients with the diagnosis of CC in the United States. METHODS AND RESULTS: We identified 25 adult patients with CC and 15 930 with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (IDCMP) who underwent HT between 1987 and 2015. CC patients were mostly Hispanics, had lower mean pulmonary artery pressure (23 vs 29 mm Hg, P = .035) and lower BMI (24 vs 26, P = .007). Patients with CC were more likely to be supported with a total artificial heart (TAH) as bridge to transplant (P = .009). There were no statistical differences for overall mortality and graft survival between CC and IDCMP cardiac allograft recipients. Induction therapy and mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) use were associated with higher rate of infection in Chagas patients. CONCLUSIONS: Heart transplantation recipients with CC diagnosis appear to have similar outcomes to IDCMP patients. Induction therapy and MMF use may be associated with higher risk of infection in CC patients who underwent transplantation.


Assuntos
Cardiomiopatia Chagásica/cirurgia , Doença de Chagas/complicações , Rejeição de Enxerto , Sobrevivência de Enxerto , Transplante de Coração/métodos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Trypanosoma cruzi/isolamento & purificação , Adulto , Cardiomiopatia Chagásica/etiologia , Doença de Chagas/parasitologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos
19.
Heart ; 104(18): 1522-1528, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29523589

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chagas cardiomyopathy (ChC) prevalence is decreasing in Brazil and medical therapies for heart failure (HF) have improved in the last decade. Whether these changes modified the prognosis of ChC relative to non-Chagas cardiomyopathies (NChC) remains unknown. This study evaluated the temporal trends in population attributable risk (PAR) of ChC for 2-year mortality among patients with HF enrolled at years 2002-2004 (era 1) and 2012-2014 (era 2) in a Brazilian university hospital. METHODS: We prospectively studied 362 (15% with ChC) and 582 (18% with ChC) HF patients with ejection fraction ≤50% in eras 1 and 2, respectively and estimated the PAR of ChC for 2-year mortality. RESULTS: There were 145 deaths (29 in ChC) in era 1 and 85 deaths (26 in ChC) in era 2. In multivariable Cox-regression analysis adjusted for age, sex, ejection fraction, heart rate, body mass index, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, systolic blood pressure and ischaemic/valvar aetiology, ChC was associated with higher risk of death in era 1 (HR (95% CI)=1.92 (1.00 to 3.71), p=0.05) and era 2 (HR (95% CI)=3.51 (1.94 to 6.36), p<0.001). In fully adjusted analysis, the PAR of ChC for mortality increased twofold from era 1 (PAR (95% CI)=11.0 (2.8 to 18.5)%) to era 2 (PAR (95% CI)=21.9 (16.5 to 26.9)%; p=0.023 versus era 1). CONCLUSION: Although the absolute death rates decreased over time in the ChC and NChC groups, the PAR of ChC for mortality increased among patients with HF, driven by increases in the HR associated with ChC. Our results highlight the need for additional efforts aiming to prevent and treat ChC.


Assuntos
Cardiomiopatia Chagásica/complicações , Insuficiência Cardíaca/mortalidade , Medição de Risco/métodos , Volume Sistólico/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Cardiomiopatia Chagásica/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Insuficiência Cardíaca/etiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Taxa de Sobrevida/tendências , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
20.
Clin Infect Dis ; 65(7): 1103-1111, 2017 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28575239

RESUMO

Background: Chagas disease, caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, is endemic in Latin America and affects 10 million people worldwide. Approximately 12000 deaths attributable to Chagas disease occur annually due to chronic Chagas disease cardiomyopathy (CCC), an inflammatory cardiomyopathy presenting with heart failure and arrythmia; 30% of infected subjects develop CCC years after infection. Genetic mechanisms play a role in differential progression to CCC, but little is known about the role of epigenetic modifications in pathological gene expression patterns in CCC patients' myocardium. DNA methylation is the most common modification in the mammalian genome. Methods: We investigated the impact of genome-wide cardiac DNA methylation on global gene expression in myocardial samples from end-stage CCC patients, compared to control samples from organ donors. Results: In total, 4720 genes were differentially methylated between CCC patients and controls, of which 399 were also differentially expressed. Several of them were related to heart function or to the immune response and had methylation sites in their promoter region. Reporter gene and in silico transcription factor binding analyses indicated promoter methylation modified expression of key genes. Among those, we found potassium channel genes KCNA4 and KCNIP4, involved in electrical conduction and arrythmia, SMOC2, involved in matrix remodeling, as well as enkephalin and RUNX3, potentially involved in the increased T-helper 1 cytokine-mediated inflammatory damage in heart. Conclusions: Results support that DNA methylation plays a role in the regulation of expression of pathogenically relevant genes in CCC myocardium, and identify novel potential disease pathways and therapeutic targets in CCC.


Assuntos
Cardiomiopatia Chagásica/genética , Doença de Chagas/genética , Metilação de DNA/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Cardiomiopatia Chagásica/parasitologia , Doença de Chagas/parasitologia , Doença Crônica , Impressões Digitais de DNA/métodos , Feminino , Expressão Gênica/genética , Coração/parasitologia , Humanos , Inflamação/genética , Inflamação/parasitologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Canais de Potássio/genética , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , Trypanosoma cruzi/patogenicidade , Adulto Jovem
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