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1.
Med Lav ; 112(1): 8-14, 2021 Feb 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33635291

RESUMO

Aging is characterized by a gradual and progressive decline in system integrity that occurs with advancing chronological age. Although it is a physiological process, aging is associated with a myriad of age-related diseases (ARDs), including frailty, sarcopenia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cardiovascular disease, cancer, and neurodegenerative diseases. While not exclusively ARDs, many of these diseases lead to death, a lesser quality of life, and increased healthcare costs for individuals and systems. ARDs share several underlying molecular mechanisms, such as cellular damage, inflammation, DNA methylation changes, stem cells exhaustion, and DNA mutations, which have been outlined as hallmarks of aging. Evidence suggests that environmental exposures, including but not limited to metals, air pollution, endocrine-disrupting chemicals, and noise, may accelerate biological aging. Over the past few years, aging research has identified new molecular biomarkers of the aging process. When applied to investigate environmental influences, these biomarkers can help identify individuals who are particularly susceptible to the influences of environmental exposures on aging processes and therefore guide in implementing possible preventive measures.

2.
Epigenomics ; 2021 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33635093

RESUMO

Aims: The authors sought to examine associations between urinary exosomal miRNAs (exo-miRs), emerging biomarkers of renal health, and cardiorenal outcomes in early childhood. Materials & Methods: The authors extracted exo-miRs in urine from 88 healthy Mexican children aged 4-6 years. The authors measured associations between 193 exo-miRs and cardiorenal outcomes: systolic/diastolic blood pressure, estimated glomerular filtration rate and urinary sodium and potassium levels. The authors adjusted for age, sex, BMI, socioeconomic status, indoor tobacco smoke exposure and urine specific gravity. Results: Multiple exo-miRs were identified meeting a false discovery rate threshold of q < 0.1. Specifically, three exo-miRs had increased expression with urinary sodium, 17 with urinary sodium-to-potassium ratio and one with decreased estimated glomerular filtration rate. Conclusions: These results highlight urinary exo-miRs as early-life biomarkers of children's cardiorenal health.

3.
Clin Epigenetics ; 13(1): 42, 2021 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33632308

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular health (CVH) has been defined by the American Heart Association (AHA) as the presence of the "Life's Simple 7" ideal lifestyle and clinical factors. CVH is known to predict longevity and freedom from cardiovascular disease, the leading cause of death for women in the United States. DNA methylation markers of aging have been aggregated into a composite epigenetic age score, which is associated with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. However, it is unknown whether poor CVH is associated with acceleration of aging as measured by DNA methylation markers in epigenetic age. METHODS AND RESULTS: We performed a cross-sectional analysis of racially/ethnically diverse post-menopausal women enrolled in the Women's Health Initiative cohort recruited between 1993 and 1998. Epigenetic age acceleration (EAA) was calculated using DNA methylation data on a subset of participants and the published Horvath and Hannum methods for intrinsic and extrinsic EAA. CVH was calculated using the AHA measures of CVH contributing to a 7-point score. We examined the association between CVH score and EAA using linear regression modeling adjusting for self-reported race/ethnicity and education. Among the 2,170 participants analyzed, 50% were white and mean age was 64 (7 SD) years. Higher or more favorable CVH scores were associated with lower extrinsic EAA (~ 6 months younger age per 1 point higher CVH score, p < 0.0001), and lower intrinsic EAA (3 months younger age per 1 point higher CVH score, p < 0.028). CONCLUSIONS: These cross-sectional observations suggest a possible mechanism by which ideal CVH is associated with greater longevity.

4.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2021 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33414500

RESUMO

Maternal anxiety during pregnancy is associated with adverse foetal, neonatal, and child outcomes, but biological mechanisms remain unclear. Altered foetal DNA methylation (DNAm) has been proposed as a potential underlying mechanism. In the current study, we performed a meta-analysis to examine the associations between maternal anxiety, measured prospectively during pregnancy, and genome-wide DNAm from umbilical cord blood. Sixteen non-overlapping cohorts from 12 independent longitudinal studies of the Pregnancy And Childhood Epigenetics Consortium participated, resulting in a combined dataset of 7243 mother-child dyads. We examined prenatal anxiety in relation to genome-wide DNAm and differentially methylated regions. We observed no association between the general symptoms of anxiety during pregnancy or pregnancy-related anxiety, and DNAm at any of the CpG sites, after multiple-testing correction. Furthermore, we identify no differentially methylated regions associated with maternal anxiety. At the cohort-level, of the 21 associations observed in individual cohorts, none replicated consistently in the other cohorts. In conclusion, contrary to some previous studies proposing cord blood DNAm as a promising potential mechanism explaining the link between maternal anxiety during pregnancy and adverse outcomes in offspring, we found no consistent evidence for any robust associations between maternal anxiety and DNAm in cord blood. Larger studies and analysis of DNAm in other tissues may be needed to establish subtle or subgroup-specific associations between maternal anxiety and the foetal epigenome.

5.
Epigenetics ; : 1-9, 2021 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33465004

RESUMO

A barrier in the children's environmental health field has been the lack of early-warning systems to identify risks of childhood illness and developmental disorders. We aimed to develop a methodology to identify an accessible biomarker measured in a small amount of blood to distinguish newborns at elevated risk from a toxic prenatal exposure, using air pollutants as a case study. Because air pollutants are associated with altered DNA methylation, we developed a pipeline using DNA methylation signatures measured in umbilical cord blood, which could be used as predictors of prenatal exposure. We used air pollution indicators, including modelled trimester-specific and pregnancy average NO2 and PM2.5, and DNA methylation signatures from Illumina arrays measured in two New York City-based longitudinal birth cohorts from the Columbia Centre for Children's Environmental Health. We developed a screening plus three-part pipeline that incorporates selection, testing, and validation to identify whether DNA methylation can be used to predict exposure to prenatal air pollution indicators, NO2 and PM2.5. Applying this pipeline, we found that cord blood DNA methylation could be used to predict high vs. low average pregnancy NO2 (AUC = 0.60, 95% CI: 0.52-0.68, with validation AUC = 0.60). Similar results were found for high vs. low third trimester NO2. In this proof of concept study using air pollutants as an example, we provide an approach (with a generalizable analytic pipeline) that can be used for prediction of prenatal exposure to contaminants. This approach has potential to identify children at risk of developmental disorders and illness resulting from prenatal exposure.

6.
J Assist Reprod Genet ; 38(3): 549-557, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33471231

RESUMO

Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are nano-sized membrane bound complexes that have been identified as a mean for intercellular communication between cells and tissues both in physiological and pathological conditions. These vesicles contain numerous molecules involved in signal transduction including microRNAs, mRNAs, DNA, proteins, lipids, and cytokines and can affect the behavior of recipient cells. Female reproduction is dependent on extremely fine-tuned endocrine regulation, and EVs may represent an added layer that contributes to this regulation. This narrative review article provides an update on the research of the role of EVs in female reproduction including folliculogenesis, fertilization, embryo quality, and implantation. We also highlight potential pitfalls in typical EV studies and discuss gaps in the current literature.

7.
Environ Res ; 192: 110341, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33068586

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prenatal phthalate exposures may affect processes that underlie offspring cardiometabolic health, but findings from studies examining these associations are conflicting. We examined associations between biomarkers of phthalate exposures during pregnancy with child lipid and adipokine levels. METHODS: Data were from 463 mother-child pairs in the PROGRESS cohort of Mexico City. We quantified 15 phthalate metabolites in 2nd and 3rd trimester maternal urine samples and created an average pregnancy measure using the geometric mean. We evaluated the 15 metabolites as nine biomarkers, including four metabolite molar sums. We measured fasting serum triglycerides, non-HDL cholesterol, leptin, and adiponectin in children at the six-year follow-up visit (mean = 6.8 years). We estimated associations using linear regression, Bayesian kernel machine regression (BKMR), and weighted quantile sum (WQS) and assessed effect modification by sex. RESULTS: In BKMR and WQS models, higher concentrations of the total mixture of phthalate biomarkers were associated with lower triglycerides (ß = -3.7% [-6.5, -0.78] per 1 unit increase in WQS biomarker index) and non-HDL cholesterol (ß = -2.0 [-3.7, -0.25] ng/ml per increase in WQS biomarker index). Associations between individual biomarkers and child outcomes were largely null. We observed some evidence of effect modification by child sex for mono-3-carboxypropyl phthalate (ß = 19.4% [1.26, 40.7] per doubling of phthalate) and monobenzyl phthalate (ß = -7.6% [-14.4, -0.23]) in girls for adiponectin. CONCLUSIONS: Individual prenatal phthalate biomarkers were not associated with child lipid or adipokine levels. Contrary to our hypothesis, the total phthalate mixture was associated with lower child triglycerides and non-HDL cholesterol.

8.
EBioMedicine ; 63: 103151, 2020 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33279859

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: DNA methylation (DNAm) may play a role in age-related outcomes. It is not yet known which DNAm-based biomarkers of age acceleration (BoAA) has the strongest association with age-related endpoints. METHODS: We collected the blood samples from two independent cohorts: the Normative Ageing Study, and the Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg cohort. We measured epigenome-wide DNAm level, and generated five DNAm BoAA at baseline. We used Cox proportional hazards model to analyze the relationships between BoAA and all-cause death. We applied the Fine and Gray competing risk model to estimate the risk of BoAA on myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, and cancer, accounting for death of other reasons as the competing risks. We used random-effects meta-analyses to pool the individual results, with adjustment for multiple testing. FINDINGS: The mean chronological ages in the two cohorts were 74, and 61, respectively. Baseline GrimAgeAccel, and DNAm-related mortality risk score (DNAmRS) both had strong associations with all-cause death, MI, and stroke, independent from chronological age. For example, a one standard deviation (SD) increment in GrimAgeAccel was significantly associated with increased risk of all-cause death [hazard ratio (HR): 2.01; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.15, 3.50], higher risk of MI (HR: 1.44; 95% CI, 1.16, 1.79), and elevated risk of stroke (HR: 1.42; 95% CI, 1.06, 1.91). There were no associations between any BoAA and cancer. INTERPRETATION: From the public health perspective, GrimAgeAccel is the most useful tool for identifying at-risk elderly, and evaluating the efficacy of anti-aging interventions. FUNDING: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences of U.S., Harvard Chan-NIEHS Center for Environmental Health, German Federal Ministry of Education and Research, and the State of Bavaria in Germany.

9.
Biol Psychiatry ; 2020 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33229036

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Disrupted placental functioning due to stress can have lifelong implications. Cumulative stress and trauma are likely to have lasting impacts on maternal physiological functioning and offspring development, resulting in increased risk for later-life complex disorders for which racial disparities exist. METHODS: This study examined the association between maternal lifetime stress and placental mitochondrial DNA mutational load in an urban multiethnic cohort. Maternal lifetime exposure to stressful events was assessed using the validated Life Stressor Checklist-Revised. Whole mitochondrial DNA sequencing was performed and mutations were determined for 365 placenta samples with complete exposure and covariate data. Multivariable regression was used to model maternal lifetime stress in relation to placental mitochondrial DNA mutational load. Racial/ethnic differences were examined by cross-product terms and contrast statements. Gene-wise analyses were conducted. RESULTS: We identified 13,189 heteroplasmies (Phred score > 10,000, minor allele frequency < 0.5, number of mutant reads > 1). Women experiencing increased psychosocial stress over their lifetime exhibited a higher number of total placental mitochondrial mutations (ß = .23, 95% confidence interval = .03 to .42) and heteroplasmic mutations (ß = .18, 95% confidence interval = .05 to .31) but not homoplasmic mutations (ß = -.008, 95% confidence interval = -.03 to .01); the strongest associations were observed among Black women and genes coding for NADH dehydrogenase and cytochrome c oxidase subunits. CONCLUSIONS: Cumulative maternal lifetime stress is associated with a greater mitochondrial mutational load, particularly among Black women. The impact of racial/ethnic differences in mutational load on placental function directly affecting offspring development and/or leading to chronic disease disparities warrants further investigation.

10.
Lancet Planet Health ; 4(11): e530-e537, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33159880

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pregnancy is associated with deteriorations in maternal bone strength and heightened susceptibility to bone fractures. We aimed to investigate whether ambient particulate matter (PM)2·5 concentrations were associated with bone strength during pregnancy. METHODS: In this longitudinal cohort study, we analysed longitudinal data from women participating in the Programming Research in Obesity, Growth, Environment and Social Stressors (PROGRESS) cohort in Mexico City, Mexico. Eligible women were aged 18 years or older, at less than 20 weeks' gestation at the time of recruitment, planning to stay in Mexico City for the next 3 years, without heart or kidney disease, did not use steroids or anti-epileptic drugs, were not daily consumers of alcohol, and had access to a telephone. Daily ambient PM2·5 concentrations were estimated from a spatio-temporal model that was based on the individual's address. Trabecular bone strength was measured using quantitative ultrasound from the radius of the middle finger and cortical bone strength from the proximal phalanx of the middle finger, during the second trimester, third trimester, and 1 and 6 months post partum. Bone strength T scores were modelled with PM2·5 concentrations using linear mixed models and distributed lag models. FINDINGS: Adjusting for multiple exposure windows, each 10 ug/m3 increase in PM2·5 exposure concentrations in the first trimester was associated with a 0·18 SD decrease (95% CI -0·35 to -0·01; p=0·033) in ultrasound speed-of-sound (SOS) T score of trabecular bone strength from the second trimester until 6 months post partum. Similarly, each 10 µg/m3 increase in third trimester PM2·5 exposure was associated with a 0·18 SD decrease (-0·36 to -0·01; p=0·044) in the SOS T score of trabecular bone strength from the third trimester until 6 months post partum. PM2·5 exposure in the first month post partum was associated with a 0·20 SD decline (-0·39 to -0·01; p=0·043) in cortical bone strength until 6 months post partum. INTERPRETATION: Ambient PM2·5 exposure during and after pregnancy was associated with diminished trabecular and cortical bone strength. Early pregnancy PM2·5 exposure was associated with a greater decline in bone strength later during pregnancy. Late pregnancy and early post-partum exposures adversely affected the post-partum bone strength recovery. Technological and policy solutions to reduce PM2·5 pollution could improve public health by reducing bone fracture risk. FUNDING: US National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences.

11.
Epigenomics ; 2020 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33215541

RESUMO

Aim: To quantify associations of anxiety and depression during pregnancy with differential cord blood DNA methylation of the glucorticoid receptor (NR3C1). Materials & methods: Pregnancy anxiety, trait anxiety and depressive symptoms were collected using the Pregnancy Related Anxiety Scale, State-Trait Anxiety Index and Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale, respectively. NR3C1 methylation was determined at four methylation sites. Results: DNA methylation of CpG 1 in the NR3C1 CpG island shore was higher in infants born to women with high pregnancy anxiety (ß 2.54, 95% CI: 0.49-4.58) and trait anxiety (ß 1.68, 95% CI: 0.14-3.22). No significant association was found between depressive symptoms and NR3C1 methylation. Conclusion: We found that maternal anxiety was associated with increased NR3C1 CpG island shore methylation.

12.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0241446, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33125398

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sedentary behavior is a worldwide public health concern. There is consistent and growing evidence linking sedentary behavior to mortality and morbidity. Early monitoring and assessment of environmental factors associated with sedentary behaviors at a young age are important initial steps for understanding children's sedentary time and identifying pertinent interventions. OBJECTIVE: This study examines the association between daily temperature (maximum, mean, minimum, and diurnal variation) and all-day sedentary time among 4-6 year old children in Mexico City (n = 559) from the year 2013 to 2015. METHODS: We developed a spatiotemporally resolved hybrid satellite-based land use regression temperature model and calculated percent daily sedentary time from aggregating 10-second epoch vertical counts captured by accelerometers that participants wore for one week. We modeled generalized additive models (GAMs), one for each temperature type as a covariate (maximum, mean, minimum, and diurnal variation). All GAMs included percent all-day sedentary time as the outcome and participant-level random intercepts to account for repeated measures of sedentary time. Our models were adjusted for demographic factors and environmental exposures. RESULTS: Daily maximum temperature, mean temperature, and diurnal variation have significant negative linear relationships with all-day sedentary time (p<0.01). There is no significant association between daily minimum temperature and all-day sedentary time. Children have on average 0.26% less daily sedentary time (approximately 2.2 minutes) for each 1°C increase in ambient maximum temperature (range 7.1-30.2°C), 0.27% less daily sedentary time (approximately 2.3 minutes) for each 1°C increase in ambient mean temperature (range 4.3-22.2°C), and 0.23% less daily sedentary time (approximately 2.0 minutes) for each 1°C increase in diurnal variation (range 3.0-21.6°C). CONCLUSIONS: These results are contrary to our hypothesis in which we expected a curvilinear relationship between temperature (maximum, mean, minimum, and diurnal variation) and sedentary time. Our findings suggest that temperature is an important environmental factor that influences children's sedentary behavior.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33027507

RESUMO

One-carbon metabolism is an important contributor to aging-related diseases; nevertheless, relationships of one-carbon metabolites with novel DNA methylation-based measures of biological aging remain poorly characterized. We examined relationships of one-carbon metabolites with three DNA methylation-based measures of biological aging: DNAmAge, GrimAge, and PhenoAge. We measured plasma levels of four common one-carbon metabolites (vitamin B6, vitamin B12, folate, and homocysteine) in 715 VA Normative Aging Study participants with at least one visit between 1999 and 2008 (observations = 1153). DNA methylation age metrics were calculated using the HumanMethylation450 BeadChip. We utilized Bayesian Kernel Machine Regression (BKMR) models adjusted for chronological age, lifestyle factors, age-related diseases, and study visits to determine metabolites important to the aging outcomes. BKMR models allowed for the estimation of the relationships of single metabolites and the cumulative metabolite mixture with methylation age. Log vitamin B6 was selected as important to PhenoAge (ß = -1.62-years, 95%CI: -2.28, -0.96). Log folate was selected as important to GrimAge (ß = 0.75-years, 95%CI: 0.41, 1.09) and PhenoAge (ß = 1.62-years, 95%CI: 0.95, 2.29). Compared to a model where each metabolite in the mixture is set to its 50 th percentile, the log cumulative mixture with each metabolite at its 30 th (ß = -0.13-years, 95%CI: -0.26, -0.005) and 40 th percentile (ß = -0.06-years, 95%CI: -0.11, -0.005) was associated with decreased GrimAge. Our results provide novel characterizations of the relationships between one-carbon metabolites and DNA methylation age in a human population study. Further research is required to confirm these findings and establish their generalizability.

14.
Public Health Nutr ; : 1-11, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33000714

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the associations of pregestational BMI, gestational weight gain (GWG) and breast-feeding at 1 month postpartum with four patterns of weight change during the first year after delivery: postpartum weight retention (PPWR), postpartum weight gain (PPWG), postpartum weight retention + gain (PPWR + WG) and return to pregestational weight. DESIGN: In this secondary analysis of a prospective study, we categorised postpartum weight change into four patterns using pregestational weight and weights at 1, 6 and 12 months postpartum. We evaluated their associations with pregestational BMI, GWG and breast-feeding using multinomial logistic regression. Results are presented as relative risk ratios (RRR) and 95 % CI. SETTING: Mexico City. PARTICIPANTS: Women participating in the Programming Research in Obesity, Growth, Environment and Social Stressors pregnancy cohort. RESULTS: Five hundred women were included (53 % of the cohort). Most women returned to their pregestational weight by 1 year postpartum (57 %); 8 % experienced PPWR, 14 % PPWG and 21 % PPWR + WG. Compared with normal weight, pregestational overweight (RRR 2·5, 95 % CI 1·3, 4·8) and obesity (RRR 2·2, 95 % CI 1·0, 4·7) were associated with a higher risk of PPWG. Exclusive breast-feeding, compared with no breast-feeding, was associated with a lower risk of PPWR (RRR 0·3, 95 % CI 0·1, 0·9). Excessive GWG, compared with adequate, was associated with a higher risk of PPWR (RRR 3·3, 95 % CI 1·6, 6·9) and PPWR + WG (RRR 2·4, 95 % CI 1·4, 4·2). CONCLUSIONS: Targeting women with pregestational overweight or obesity and excessive GWG, as well as promoting breast-feeding, may impact the pattern of weight change after delivery and long-term women's health.

15.
Exp Dermatol ; 2020 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33015854

RESUMO

Studies have examined the utility of DNA methylation as a biomarker of psoriasis treatment responses, but investigations of treatment responses with Skin-Blood DNA methylation age (SkinBloodAge)-a methylation-based measure of health designed using skin tissues-are lacking. Using a HumanMethylation450 BeadChip blood DNA methylation data set from 70 white patients who presented with moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis and were treated with anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) agents in Madrid, Spain, we examined the cross-sectional relationships of SkinBloodAge with anti-TNF treatment responses. Partial responders had a 7.2-year higher mean SkinBloodAge than excellent responders (P = .03). In linear regression models adjusted for chronological age, sex and anti-TNF agents - on average - partial responders had a 2.65-year higher SkinBloodAge than excellent responders (95%CI: 0.44, 4.86, P = .02). This relationship was attenuated in a sensitivity analysis adjusting for white blood cells including known T-cell mediators of psoriasis pathophysiology (ß = 1.91-years, 95%CI: -0.50, 4.32, P = .12). Overall, our study suggests that partial responders to anti-TNF therapy have higher SkinBloodAges when compared to excellent responders. Although these findings still need to be confirmed more broadly, they further suggest that SkinBloodAge may be a useful treatment response biomarker that can be incorporated with other blood tests before anti-TNF therapy initiation in moderate-to-severe psoriasis patients.

16.
Epigenomics ; 12(17): 1483-1499, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32901515

RESUMO

Aim: We conducted a methylome-wide association study to examine associations between DNA methylation in whole blood and central adiposity and body fat distribution, measured as waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio and waist-to-height ratio adjusted for body mass index, in 2684 African-American adults in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study. Materials & methods: We validated significantly associated cytosine-phosphate-guanine methylation sites (CpGs) among adults using the Women's Health Initiative and Framingham Heart Study participants (combined n = 5743) and generalized associations in adolescents from The Raine Study (n = 820). Results & conclusion: We identified 11 CpGs that were robustly associated with one or more central adiposity trait in adults and two in adolescents, including CpG site associations near TXNIP, ADCY7, SREBF1 and RAP1GAP2 that had not previously been associated with obesity-related traits.

17.
CA Cancer J Clin ; 2020 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32964460

RESUMO

Outdoor air pollution is a major contributor to the burden of disease worldwide. Most of the global population resides in places where air pollution levels, because of emissions from industry, power generation, transportation, and domestic burning, considerably exceed the World Health Organization's health-based air-quality guidelines. Outdoor air pollution poses an urgent worldwide public health challenge because it is ubiquitous and has numerous serious adverse human health effects, including cancer. Currently, there is substantial evidence from studies of humans and experimental animals as well as mechanistic evidence to support a causal link between outdoor (ambient) air pollution, and especially particulate matter (PM) in outdoor air, with lung cancer incidence and mortality. It is estimated that hundreds of thousands of lung cancer deaths annually worldwide are attributable to PM air pollution. Epidemiological evidence on outdoor air pollution and the risk of other types of cancer, such as bladder cancer or breast cancer, is more limited. Outdoor air pollution may also be associated with poorer cancer survival, although further research is needed. This report presents an overview of outdoor air pollutants, sources, and global levels, as well as a description of epidemiological evidence linking outdoor air pollution with cancer incidence and mortality. Biological mechanisms of air pollution-derived carcinogenesis are also described. This report concludes by summarizing public health/policy recommendations, including multilevel interventions aimed at individual, community, and regional scales. Specific roles for medical and health care communities with regard to prevention and advocacy and recommendations for further research are also described.

18.
medRxiv ; 2020 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32995808

RESUMO

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has led to the global coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. SARS-CoV-2 enters cells via angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptors, highly expressed in nasal epithelium with parallel high infectivity.1,2 The nasal epigenome is in direct contact with the environment and could explain COVID-19 disparities by reflecting social and environmental influences on ACE2 regulation. We collected nasal swabs from anterior nares of 547 children, measured DNA methylation (DNAm), and tested differences at 15 ACE2 CpGs by sex, age, race/ethnicity and epigenetic age. ACE2 CpGs were differentially methylated by sex with 12 sites having lower DNAm (mean=12.71%) and 3 sites greater DNAm (mean=1.45%) among females relative to males. We observed differential DNAm at 5 CpGs for Hispanic females (mean absolute difference=3.22%) and lower DNAm at 8 CpGs for Black males (mean absolute difference=1.33%), relative to white participants. Longer DNAm telomere length was associated with greater ACE2 DNAm at 11 and 13 CpGs among males (mean absolute difference=7.86%) and females (mean absolute difference=8.21%), respectively. Nasal ACE2 DNAm differences could contribute to our understanding COVID-19 severity and disparities reflecting upstream environmental and social influences.

19.
JAMA Pediatr ; 2020 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32986124

RESUMO

Importance: Despite evidence of an association between prenatal acetaminophen exposure and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in offspring, the drug is not contraindicated during pregnancy, possibly because prior studies have relied on maternal self-report, failed to quantify acetaminophen dose, and lacked mechanistic insight. Objective: To examine the association between prenatal acetaminophen exposure measured in meconium (hereinafter referred to as meconium acetaminophen) and ADHD in children aged 6 to 7 years, along with the potential for mediation by functional brain connectivity. Design, Setting, and Participants: This prospective birth cohort study from the Centre Hospitalier Université de Sherbrooke in Sherbrooke, Québec, Canada, included 394 eligible children, of whom 345 had meconium samples collected at delivery and information on ADHD diagnosis. Mothers were enrolled from September 25, 2007, to September 10, 2009, at their first prenatal care visit or delivery and were followed up when children were aged 6 to 7 years. When children were aged 9 to 11 years, resting-state brain connectivity was assessed with magnetic resonance imaging. Data for the present study were collected from September 25, 2007, to January 18, 2020, and analyzed from January 7, 2019, to January 22, 2020. Exposures: Acetaminophen levels measured in meconium. Main Outcomes and Measures: Physician diagnosis of ADHD was determined at follow-up when children were aged 6 to 7 years or from medical records. Resting-state brain connectivity was assessed with magnetic resonance imaging; attention problems and hyperactivity were assessed with the Behavioral Assessment System for Children Parent Report Scale. Associations between meconium acetaminophen levels and outcomes were estimated with linear and logistic regressions weighted on the inverse probability of treatment to account for potential confounders. Causal mediation analysis was used to test for mediation of the association between prenatal acetaminophen exposure and hyperactivity by resting-state brain connectivity. Results: Among the 345 children included in the analysis (177 boys [51.3%]; mean [SD] age, 6.58 [0.54] years), acetaminophen was detected in 199 meconium samples (57.7%), and ADHD was diagnosed in 33 children (9.6%). Compared with no acetaminophen, detection of acetaminophen in meconium was associated with increased odds of ADHD (odds ratio [OR], 2.43; 95% CI, 1.41-4.21). A dose-response association was detected; each doubling of exposure increased the odds of ADHD by 10% (OR, 1.10; 95% CI, 1.02-1.19). Children with acetaminophen detected in meconium showed increased negative connectivity between frontoparietal and default mode network nodes to clusters in the sensorimotor cortices, which mediated an indirect effect on increased child hyperactivity (14%; 95% CI, 1%-26%). Conclusions and Relevance: Together with the multitude of other cohort studies showing adverse neurodevelopment associated with prenatal acetaminophen exposure, this work suggests caution should be used in administering acetaminophen during pregnancy. Research into alternative pain management strategies for pregnant women could be beneficial.

20.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 12(16): 16539-16554, 2020 08 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32747609

RESUMO

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a frequent diagnosis in older individuals and contributor to global morbidity and mortality. Given the link between lung disease and aging, we need to understand how molecular indicators of aging relate to lung function and disease. Using data from the population-based KORA (Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg) surveys, we associated baseline epigenetic (DNA methylation) age acceleration with incident COPD and lung function. Models were adjusted for age, sex, smoking, height, weight, and baseline lung disease as appropriate. Associations were replicated in the Normative Aging Study. Of 770 KORA participants, 131 developed incident COPD over 7 years. Baseline accelerated epigenetic aging was significantly associated with incident COPD. The change in age acceleration (follow-up - baseline) was more strongly associated with COPD than baseline aging alone. The association between the change in age acceleration between baseline and follow-up and incident COPD replicated in the Normative Aging Study. Associations with spirometric lung function parameters were weaker than those with COPD, but a meta-analysis of both cohorts provide suggestive evidence of associations. Accelerated epigenetic aging, both baseline measures and changes over time, may be a risk factor for COPD and reduced lung function.

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