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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34587014

RESUMO

In this paper, we report on a study of visual representations for cyclical data and the effect of interactively wrapping a bar chart `around its boundaries'. Compared to linear bar chart, polar (or radial) visualisations have the advantage that cyclical data can be presented continuously without mentally bridging the visual `cut' across the left-and-right boundaries. To investigate this hypothesis and to assess the effect the cut has on analysis performance, this paper presents results from a crowdsourced, controlled experiment with 72 participants comparing new continuous panning technique to linear bar charts (interactive wrapping). Our results show that bar charts with interactive wrapping lead to less errors compared to standard bar charts or polar charts. Inspired by these results, we generalise the concept of interactive wrapping to other visualisations for cyclical or relational data. We describe a design space based on the concept of one-dimensional wrapping and two-dimensional wrapping, linked to two common 3D topologies; cylinder and torus that can be used to metaphorically explain one- and two-dimensional wrapping. This design space suggests that interactive wrapping is widely applicable to many different data types.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34587056

RESUMO

Well-designed data visualizations can lead to more powerful and intuitive processing by a viewer. To help a viewer intuitively compare values to quickly generate key takeaways, visualization designers can manipulate how data values are arranged in a chart to afford particular comparisons. Using simple bar charts as a case study, we empirically tested the comparison affordances of four common arrangements: vertically juxtaposed, horizontally juxtaposed, overlaid, and stacked. We asked participants to type out what patterns they perceived in a chart and we coded their takeaways into types of comparisons. In a second study, we asked data visualization design experts to predict which arrangement they would use to afford each type of comparison and found both alignments and mismatches with our findings. These results provide concrete guidelines for how both human designers and automatic chart recommendation systems can make visualizations that help viewers extract the "right" takeaway.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34587060

RESUMO

In the process of developing an infrastructure for providing visualization and visual analytics (VIS) tools to epidemiologists and modeling scientists, we encountered a technical challenge for applying a number of visual designs to numerous datasets rapidly and reliably with limited development resources. In this paper, we present a technical solution to address this challenge. Operationally, we separate the tasks of data management, visual designs, and plots and dashboard deployment in order to streamline the development workflow. Technically, we utilize: an ontology to bring datasets, visual designs, and deployable plots and dashboards under the same management framework; multi-criteria search and ranking algorithms for discovering potential datasets that match a visual design; and a purposely-designed user interface for propagating each visual design to appropriate datasets (often in tens and hundreds) and quality-assuring the propagation before the deployment. This technical solution has been used in the development of the RAMPVIS infrastructure for supporting a consortium of epidemiologists and modeling scientists through visualization.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34587073

RESUMO

This paper investigates how to make data comics interactive. Data comics are an effective and versatile means for visual communication, leveraging the power of sequential narration and combined textual and visual content, while providing an overview of the storyline through panels assembled in expressive layouts. While a powerful static storytelling medium that works well on paper support, adding interactivity to data comics can enable non-linear storytelling, personalization, levels of details, explanations, and potentially enriched user experiences. This paper introduces a set of operations tailored to support data comics narrative goals that go beyond the traditional linear, immutable storyline curated by a story author. The goals and operations include adding and removing panels into pre-defined layouts to support branching, change of perspective, or access to detail-on-demand, as well as providing and modifying data, and interacting with data representation, to support personalization and reader-defined data focus. We propose a lightweight specification language, COMICSCRIPT, for designers to add such interactivity to static comics. To assess the viability of our authoring process, we recruited six professional illustrators, designers and data comics enthusiasts and asked them to craft an interactive comic, allowing us to understand authoring workflow and potential of our approach. We present examples of interactive comics in a gallery. This initial step towards understanding the design space of interactive comics can inform the design of creation tools and experiences for interactive storytelling.

5.
IEEE Trans Vis Comput Graph ; 27(2): 1492-1502, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33048713

RESUMO

GIFs are enjoying increasing popularity on social media as a format for data-driven storytelling with visualization; simple visual messages are embedded in short animations that usually last less than 15 seconds and are played in automatic repetition. In this paper, we ask the question, "What makes a data-GIF understandable?" While other storytelling formats such as data videos, infographics, or data comics are relatively well studied, we have little knowledge about the design factors and principles for "data-GIFs". To close this gap, we provide results from semi-structured interviews and an online study with a total of 118 participants investigating the impact of design decisions on the understandability of data-GIFs. The study and our consequent analysis are informed by a systematic review and structured design space of 108 data-GIFs that we found online. Our results show the impact of design dimensions from our design space such as animation encoding, context preservation, or repetition on viewers understanding of the GIF's core message. The paper concludes with a list of suggestions for creating more effective Data-GIFs.

6.
IEEE Trans Vis Comput Graph ; 27(2): 967-977, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33048732

RESUMO

Inspired by data comics, this paper introduces a novel format for reporting controlled studies in the domain of human-computer interaction (HCI). While many studies in HCI follow similar steps in explaining hypotheses, laying out a study design, and reporting results, many of these decisions are buried in blocks of dense scientific text. We propose leveraging data comics as study reports to provide an open and glanceable view of studies by tightly integrating text and images, illustrating design decisions and key insights visually, resulting in visual narratives that can be compelling to non-scientists and researchers alike. Use cases of data comics study reports range from illustrations for non-scientific audiences to graphical abstracts, study summaries, technical talks, textbooks, teaching, blogs, supplementary submission material, and inclusion in scientific articles. This paper provides examples of data comics study reports alongside a graphical repertoire of examples, embedded in a framework of guidelines for creating comics reports which was iterated upon and evaluated through a series of collaborative design sessions.

7.
IEEE Trans Vis Comput Graph ; 27(2): 358-368, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33026994

RESUMO

Small multiples are miniature representations of visual information used generically across many domains. Handling large numbers of small multiples imposes challenges on many analytic tasks like inspection, comparison, navigation, or annotation. To address these challenges, we developed a framework and implemented a library called PILlNG.JS for designing interactive piling interfaces. Based on the piling metaphor, such interfaces afford flexible organization, exploration, and comparison of large numbers of small multiples by interactively aggregating visual objects into piles. Based on a systematic analysis of previous work, we present a structured design space to guide the design of visual piling interfaces. To enable designers to efficiently build their own visual piling interfaces, PILlNG.JS provides a declarative interface to avoid having to write low-level code and implements common aspects of the design space. An accompanying GUI additionally supports the dynamic configuration of the piling interface. We demonstrate the expressiveness of PILlNG.JS with examples from machine learning, immunofluorescence microscopy, genomics, and public health.

9.
IEEE Trans Vis Comput Graph ; 26(1): 611-621, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31442989

RESUMO

We present Scalable Insets, a technique for interactively exploring and navigating large numbers of annotated patterns in multiscale visualizations such as gigapixel images, matrices, or maps. Exploration of many but sparsely-distributed patterns in multiscale visualizations is challenging as visual representations change across zoom levels, context and navigational cues get lost upon zooming, and navigation is time consuming. Our technique visualizes annotated patterns too small to be identifiable at certain zoom levels using insets, i.e., magnified thumbnail views of the annotated patterns. Insets support users in searching, comparing, and contextualizing patterns while reducing the amount of navigation needed. They are dynamically placed either within the viewport or along the boundary of the viewport to offer a compromise between locality and context preservation. Annotated patterns are interactively clustered by location and type. They are visually represented as an aggregated inset to provide scalable exploration within a single viewport. In a controlled user study with 18 participants, we found that Scalable Insets can speed up visual search and improve the accuracy of pattern comparison at the cost of slower frequency estimation compared to a baseline technique. A second study with 6 experts in the field of genomics showed that Scalable Insets is easy to learn and provides first insights into how Scalable Insets can be applied in an open-ended data exploration scenario.


Assuntos
Gráficos por Computador , Curadoria de Dados , Interface Usuário-Computador , Adolescente , Adulto , Algoritmos , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Genômica , Humanos , Masculino , Mapas como Assunto , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Adulto Jovem
10.
IEEE Trans Vis Comput Graph ; 25(1): 715-725, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30136991

RESUMO

This paper presents DXR, a toolkit for building immersive data visualizations based on the Unity development platform. Over the past years, immersive data visualizations in augmented and virtual reality (AR, VR) have been emerging as a promising medium for data sense-making beyond the desktop. However, creating immersive visualizations remains challenging, and often require complex low-level programming and tedious manual encoding of data attributes to geometric and visual properties. These can hinder the iterative idea-to-prototype process, especially for developers without experience in 3D graphics, AR, and VR programming. With DXR, developers can efficiently specify visualization designs using a concise declarative visualization grammar inspired by Vega-Lite. DXR further provides a GUI for easy and quick edits and previews of visualization designs in-situ, i.e., while immersed in the virtual world. DXR also provides reusable templates and customizable graphical marks, enabling unique and engaging visualizations. We demonstrate the flexibility of DXR through several examples spanning a wide range of applications.


Assuntos
Realidade Aumentada , Visualização de Dados , Realidade Virtual , Gráficos por Computador , Humanos , Imageamento Tridimensional , Software , Interface Usuário-Computador
11.
IEEE Trans Vis Comput Graph ; 24(1): 595-604, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28866524

RESUMO

In this paper, we present story curves, a visualization technique for exploring and communicating nonlinear narratives in movies. A nonlinear narrative is a storytelling device that portrays events of a story out of chronological order, e.g., in reverse order or going back and forth between past and future events. Many acclaimed movies employ unique narrative patterns which in turn have inspired other movies and contributed to the broader analysis of narrative patterns in movies. However, understanding and communicating nonlinear narratives is a difficult task due to complex temporal disruptions in the order of events as well as no explicit records specifying the actual temporal order of the underlying story. Story curves visualize the nonlinear narrative of a movie by showing the order in which events are told in the movie and comparing them to their actual chronological order, resulting in possibly meandering visual patterns in the curve. We also present Story Explorer, an interactive tool that visualizes a story curve together with complementary information such as characters and settings. Story Explorer further provides a script curation interface that allows users to specify the chronological order of events in movies. We used Story Explorer to analyze 10 popular nonlinear movies and describe the spectrum of narrative patterns that we discovered, including some novel patterns not previously described in the literature. Feedback from experts highlights potential use cases in screenplay writing and analysis, education and film production. A controlled user study shows that users with no expertise are able to understand visual patterns of nonlinear narratives using story curves.

12.
IEEE Trans Vis Comput Graph ; 24(1): 457-467, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28866590

RESUMO

We report on a controlled user study comparing three visualization environments for common 3D exploration. Our environments differ in how they exploit natural human perception and interaction capabilities. We compare an augmented-reality head-mounted display (Microsoft HoloLens), a handheld tablet, and a desktop setup. The novel head-mounted HoloLens display projects stereoscopic images of virtual content into a user's real world and allows for interaction in-situ at the spatial position of the 3D hologram. The tablet is able to interact with 3D content through touch, spatial positioning, and tangible markers, however, 3D content is still presented on a 2D surface. Our hypothesis is that visualization environments that match human perceptual and interaction capabilities better to the task at hand improve understanding of 3D visualizations. To better understand the space of display and interaction modalities in visualization environments, we first propose a classification based on three dimensions: perception, interaction, and the spatial and cognitive proximity of the two. Each technique in our study is located at a different position along these three dimensions. We asked 15 participants to perform four tasks, each task having different levels of difficulty for both spatial perception and degrees of freedom for interaction. Our results show that each of the tested environments is more effective for certain tasks, but that generally the desktop environment is still fastest and most precise in almost all cases.


Assuntos
Gráficos por Computador , Holografia/métodos , Imageamento Tridimensional/métodos , Interface Usuário-Computador , Realidade Virtual , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Percepção , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas
13.
IEEE Trans Vis Comput Graph ; 24(1): 522-531, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28866592

RESUMO

This paper presents an interactive visualization interface-HiPiler-for the exploration and visualization of regions-of-interest in large genome interaction matrices. Genome interaction matrices approximate the physical distance of pairs of regions on the genome to each other and can contain up to 3 million rows and columns with many sparse regions. Regions of interest (ROIs) can be defined, e.g., by sets of adjacent rows and columns, or by specific visual patterns in the matrix. However, traditional matrix aggregation or pan-and-zoom interfaces fail in supporting search, inspection, and comparison of ROIs in such large matrices. In HiPiler, ROIs are first-class objects, represented as thumbnail-like "snippets". Snippets can be interactively explored and grouped or laid out automatically in scatterplots, or through dimension reduction methods. Snippets are linked to the entire navigable genome interaction matrix through brushing and linking. The design of HiPiler is based on a series of semi-structured interviews with 10 domain experts involved in the analysis and interpretation of genome interaction matrices. We describe six exploration tasks that are crucial for analysis of interaction matrices and demonstrate how HiPiler supports these tasks. We report on a user study with a series of data exploration sessions with domain experts to assess the usability of HiPiler as well as to demonstrate respective findings in the data.


Assuntos
Gráficos por Computador , Genômica/métodos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Software , Algoritmos , Humanos
14.
IEEE Comput Graph Appl ; 37(3): 6-13, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28459667

RESUMO

As we increasingly rely on data to understand our world, and as problems require global solutions, we need to effectively communicate that data to help people make informed decisions. The special Art on Graphics article explores the potential of data comics and their unique ability to communicate both data and context via compelling visual storytelling.


Assuntos
Comunicação , Histórias em Quadrinhos como Assunto , Ciência da Informação , Arte , Apresentação de Dados , Humanos
15.
IEEE Trans Vis Comput Graph ; 23(9): 2151-2164, 2017 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28113509

RESUMO

There are many ways to visualize event sequences as timelines. In a storytelling context where the intent is to convey multiple narrative points, a richer set of timeline designs may be more appropriate than the narrow range that has been used for exploratory data analysis by the research community. Informed by a survey of 263 timelines, we present a design space for storytelling with timelines that balances expressiveness and effectiveness, identifying 14 design choices characterized by three dimensions: representation, scale, and layout. Twenty combinations of these choices are viable timeline designs that can be matched to different narrative points, while smooth animated transitions between narrative points allow for the presentation of a cohesive story, an important aspect of both interactive storytelling and data videos. We further validate this design space by realizing the full set of viable timeline designs and transitions in a proof-of-concept sandbox implementation that we used to produce seven example timeline stories. Ultimately, this work is intended to inform and inspire the design of future tools for storytelling with timelines.

16.
IEEE Trans Vis Comput Graph ; 23(1): 31-40, 2017 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27514053

RESUMO

In this work we address the problem of retrieving potentially interesting matrix views to support the exploration of networks. We introduce Matrix Diagnostics (or Magnostics), following in spirit related approaches for rating and ranking other visualization techniques, such as Scagnostics for scatter plots. Our approach ranks matrix views according to the appearance of specific visual patterns, such as blocks and lines, indicating the existence of topological motifs in the data, such as clusters, bi-graphs, or central nodes. Magnostics can be used to analyze, query, or search for visually similar matrices in large collections, or to assess the quality of matrix reordering algorithms. While many feature descriptors for image analyzes exist, there is no evidence how they perform for detecting patterns in matrices. In order to make an informed choice of feature descriptors for matrix diagnostics, we evaluate 30 feature descriptors-27 existing ones and three new descriptors that we designed specifically for MAGNOSTICS-with respect to four criteria: pattern response, pattern variability, pattern sensibility, and pattern discrimination. We conclude with an informed set of six descriptors as most appropriate for Magnostics and demonstrate their application in two scenarios; exploring a large collection of matrices and analyzing temporal networks.

17.
IEEE Trans Vis Comput Graph ; 23(1): 541-550, 2017 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27875170

RESUMO

In this paper, we investigate Confluent Drawings (CD), a technique for bundling edges in node-link diagrams based on network connectivity. Edge-bundling techniques are designed to reduce edge clutter in node-link diagrams by coalescing lines into common paths or bundles. Unfortunately, traditional bundling techniques introduce ambiguity since edges are only bundled by spatial proximity, rather than network connectivity; following an edge from its source to its target can lead to the perception of incorrect connectivity if edges are not clearly separated within the bundles. Contrary, CDs bundle edges based on common sources or targets. Thus, a smooth path along a confluent bundle indicates precise connectivity. While CDs have been described in theory, practical investigation and application to real-world networks (i.e., networks beyond those with certain planarity restrictions) is currently lacking. Here, we provide the first algorithm for constructing CDs from arbitrary directed and undirected networks and present a simple layout method, embedded in a sand box environment providing techniques for interactive exploration. We then investigate patterns and artifacts in CDs, which we compare to other common edge-bundling techniques. Finally, we present the first user study that compares edge-compression techniques, including CD, power graphs, metro-style, and common edge bundling. We found that users without particular expertise in visualization or network analysis are able to read small CDs without difficulty. Compared to existing bundling techniques, CDs are more likely to allow people to correctly perceive connectivity.

18.
IEEE Comput Graph Appl ; 36(2): 74-82, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26960029

RESUMO

Visualization builds on the human capacity to quickly process parallel visual inputs and to offload cognitive processes. Interactive visualizations can become interfaces between humans, their data, and the phenomena represented by the data. Such interfaces can allow for exploration, enable serendipitous discoveries, and serve as a mental metaphor to help us remember and reason about the data. This article gives a brief overview of the author's dissertation research, which is concerned with creating and evaluating novel interfaces to explore dynamic networks, supporting analysts in formulating hypotheses, and discussing proper analysis methods.

19.
IEEE Trans Vis Comput Graph ; 22(1): 559-68, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26529718

RESUMO

We introduce time curves as a general approach for visualizing patterns of evolution in temporal data. Examples of such patterns include slow and regular progressions, large sudden changes, and reversals to previous states. These patterns can be of interest in a range of domains, such as collaborative document editing, dynamic network analysis, and video analysis. Time curves employ the metaphor of folding a timeline visualization into itself so as to bring similar time points close to each other. This metaphor can be applied to any dataset where a similarity metric between temporal snapshots can be defined, thus it is largely datatype-agnostic. We illustrate how time curves can visually reveal informative patterns in a range of different datasets.

20.
IEEE Trans Vis Comput Graph ; 20(5): 740-54, 2014 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26357296

RESUMO

Identifying, tracking and understanding changes in dynamic networks are complex and cognitively demanding tasks. We present GraphDiaries, a visual interface designed to improve support for these tasks in any node-link based graph visualization system. GraphDiaries relies on animated transitions that highlight changes in the network between time steps, thus helping users identify and understand those changes. To better understand the tasks related to the exploration of dynamic networks, we first introduce a task taxonomy, that informs the design of GraphDiaries, presented afterwards. We then report on a user study, based on representative tasks identified through the taxonomy, and that compares GraphDiaries to existing techniques for temporal navigation in dynamic networks, showing that it outperforms them in terms of both task time and errors for several of these tasks.

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