*J Chem Phys ; 152(1): 014108, 2020 Jan 07.*

##### RESUMO

We present a method for efficient calculation of intramolecular vibrational excitations of H2O inside C60, together with the low-energy intermolecular translation-rotation states within each intramolecular vibrational manifold. Apart from assuming rigid C60, this nine-dimensional (9D) quantum treatment is fully coupled. Following the recently introduced approach [P. M. Felker and Z. Bacic, J. Chem. Phys. 151, 024305 (2019)], the full 9D vibrational Hamiltonian of H2O@C60 is partitioned into two reduced-dimension Hamiltonians, a 6D one for the intermolecular vibrations and another in 3D for the intramolecular degrees of freedom, and a 9D remainder term. The two reduced-dimension Hamiltonians are diagonalized, and their eigenvectors are used to build up a product contracted basis in which the full vibrational Hamiltonian is diagonalized. The efficiency of this methodology derives from the insight of our earlier study referenced above that converged high-energy intramolecular vibrational excitations of weakly bound molecular complexes can be obtained from fully coupled quantum calculations where the full-dimensional product contracted basis includes only a small number of intermolecular vibrational eigenstates spanning the range of energies much below those of the intramolecular vibrational states of interest. In this study, the eigenstates included in the 6D intermolecular contacted basis extend to only 410 cm-1 above the ground state, which is much less than the H2O stretch and bend fundamentals, at ≈3700 and ≈1600 cm-1, respectively. The 9D calculations predict that the fundamentals of all three intramolecular modes, as well as the bend overtone, of the caged H2O are blueshifted relative to those of the gas-phase H2O, the two stretch modes much more so than the bend. Excitation of the bend mode affects the energies of the low-lying H2O rotational states significantly more than exciting either of the stretching modes. The center-of-mass translational fundamental is virtually unaffected by the excitation of any of the intramolecular vibrational modes. Further progress hinges on the experimental measurement of the vibrational frequency shifts in H2O@C60 and ab initio calculation of a high-quality 9D potential energy surface for this endohedral complex, neither of which is presently available.

*J Chem Phys ; 151(12): 124311, 2019 Sep 28.*

##### RESUMO

We report the results of calculations pertaining to the HH intramolecular stretching fundamentals of (p-H2)2 encapsulated in the large cage of structure II clathrate hydrate. The eight-dimensional (8D) quantum treatment assumes rotationless (j = 0) H2 moieties and a rigid clathrate structure but is otherwise fully coupled. The (H2)2-clathrate interaction is constructed in a pairwise-additive fashion, by combining the ab initio H2-H2O pair potential for flexible H2 and rigid H2O [D. Lauvergnat et al., J. Chem. Phys. 150, 154303 (2019)] and the six-dimensional (6D) H2-H2 potential energy surface [R. J. Hinde, J. Chem. Phys. 128, 154308 (2008)]. The calculations are performed by first solving for the eigenstates of a reduced-dimension 6D "intermolecular" Hamiltonian extracted from the full 8D Hamiltonian by taking the H2 moieties to be rigid. An 8D contracted product basis for the solution of the full problem is then constructed from a small number of the lowest-energy 6D intermolecular eigenstates and two discrete variable representations covering the H2-monomer internuclear distances. Converged results are obtained already by including just the two lowest intermolecular eigenstates in the final 8D basis of dimension 128. The two HH vibrational stretching fundamentals are computed for three hydrate domains having an increasing number of H2O molecules. For the largest domain, the two fundamentals are found to be site-split by â¼0.5 cm-1 and to be redshifted by about 24 cm-1 from the free-H2 monomer stretch frequency, in excellent agreement with the experimental value of 26 cm-1. A first-order perturbation theory treatment gives results that are nearly identical to those of the 8D quantum calculations.

*J Phys Chem Lett ; 10(18): 5365-5371, 2019 Sep 19.*

##### RESUMO

Accurate quantum simulations of the low-temperature inelastic neutron scattering (INS) spectra of HF@C60 are reported for two incident neutron wavelengths. They are distinguished by the rigorous inclusion of symmetry-breaking effects in the treatment and having the spectra computed with HF as the guest, rather than H2 or HD, as in the past work. The results demonstrate that the precedent-setting INS selection rule, originally derived for H2 and HD in near-spherical nanocavities, applies also to HF@C60, despite the large mass asymmetry of HF and the strongly mixed character of its translation-rotation eigenstates. This lends crucial support to the theoretical prediction made earlier that the INS selection rule is valid for any diatomic molecule in near-spherical nanoconfinement. The selection rule remains valid in the presence of symmetry breaking but is modified slightly in an interesting way. Comparison is made with the recently published experimental INS spectrum of HF@C60. The agreement is very good, apart from one peak for which our calculations suggest a reassignment. This reassignment is consistent with the measured INS spectrum presented in this work, which covers an extended energy range.

*J Chem Phys ; 151(2): 024305, 2019 Jul 14.*

##### RESUMO

We present a method for the efficient calculation of intramolecular vibrational frequencies, and their tunneling splittings, in weakly bound molecular dimers, together with the intermolecular vibrational states within each intramolecular vibrational manifold. The approach involves the partitioning of the dimer's vibrational Hamiltonian into two reduced-dimension Hamiltonians, a rigid-monomer one for the intermolecular vibrations and the other for all intramolecular vibrational degrees of freedom, and a remainder. The eigenstates of the two reduced-dimension Hamiltonians are used to build up a product contracted basis for the diagonalization of the full vibrational Hamiltonian. The key idea is that because of weak coupling between inter- and intra-molecular vibrational modes, the full-dimensional eigenstates in the low-energy portions of the manifolds associated with the intramolecular vibrational excitations can be computed accurately in a compact basis that includes a relatively small number of rigid-monomer intermolecular eigenstates, spanning a range of energies much below those of the intramolecular vibrational states of interest. In the application to the six-dimensional (6D) problem of (HF)2, we show that this approach produces results in excellent agreement with those in the literature, with a fraction of the basis states required by other methods. In fact, accurate energies of the intramolecular vibrational fundamentals and overtones are obtained using 6D bases that include 4D rigid-monomer intermolecular vibrational eigenstates extending to only 500-1000 cm-1, far below the HF-stretch fundamental of about 4000 cm-1. The method thus holds particular promise with respect to calculations on complexes with greater numbers of vibrational degrees of freedom.

*J Chem Phys ; 150(15): 154303, 2019 Apr 21.*

##### RESUMO

We report the first fully coupled quantum six-dimensional (6D) bound-state calculations of the vibration-translation-rotation eigenstates of a flexible H2, HD, and D2 molecule confined inside the small cage of the structure II clathrate hydrate embedded in larger hydrate domains with up to 76 H2O molecules, treated as rigid. Our calculations use a pairwise-additive 6D intermolecular potential energy surface for H2 in the hydrate domain, based on an ab initio 6D H2-H2O pair potential for flexible H2 and rigid H2O. They extend to the first excited (v = 1) vibrational state of H2, along with two isotopologues, providing a direct computation of vibrational frequency shifts. We show that obtaining a converged v = 1 vibrational state of the caged molecule does not require converging the very large number of intermolecular translation-rotation states belonging to the v = 0 manifold up to the energy of the intramolecular stretch fundamental (≈4100 cm-1 for H2). Only a relatively modest-size basis for the intermolecular degrees of freedom is needed to accurately describe the vibrational averaging over the delocalized wave function of the quantum ground state of the system. For the caged H2, our computed fundamental translational excitations, rotational j = 0 â 1 transitions, and frequency shifts of the stretch fundamental are in excellent agreement with recent quantum 5D (rigid H2) results [A. Powers et al., J. Chem. Phys. 148, 144304 (2018)]. Our computed frequency shift of -43 cm-1 for H2 is only 14% away from the experimental value at 20 K.

*J Chem Phys ; 149(10): 100901, 2018 Sep 14.*

##### RESUMO

In this perspective, I review the current status of the theoretical investigations of the quantum translation-rotation (TR) dynamics and spectroscopy of light molecules encapsulated inside fullerenes, mostly C60 and C70. The methodologies developed in the past decade allow accurate quantum calculations of the TR eigenstates of one and two nanoconfined molecules and have led to deep insights into the nature of the underlying dynamics. Combining these bound-state methodologies with the formalism of inelastic neutron scattering (INS) has resulted in the novel and powerful approach for the quantum calculation of the INS spectra of a diatomic molecule in a nanocavity with an arbitrary geometry. These simulations have not only become indispensable for the interpretation and assignment of the experimental spectra but are also behind the surprising discovery of the INS selection rule for diatomics in near-spherical nanocavities. Promising directions for future research are discussed.

*Faraday Discuss ; 212(0): 547-567, 2018 12 13.*

##### RESUMO

Splittings of the translation-rotation (TR) eigenstates of the solid light-molecule endofullerenes M@C60 (M = H2, H2O, HF) attributed to the symmetry breaking have been observed in the infrared (IR) and inelastic neutron scattering spectra of these species in the past couple of years. In a recent paper [Felker et al., Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2017, 19, 31274], we established that the electrostatic, quadrupolar interaction between the guest molecule M and the twelve nearest-neighbor C60 cages of the solid is the main source of the symmetry breaking. The splittings of the three-fold degenerate ground states of the endohedral ortho-H2, ortho-H2O and the j = 1 level of HF calculated using this model were found to be in excellent agreement with the experimental results. Utilizing the same electrostatic model, this theoretical study investigates the effects of the symmetry breaking on the excited TR eigenstates of the three species, and how they manifest in their simulated low-temperature (5-6 K) near-IR (NIR) and far-IR (FIR) spectra. The TR eigenstates are calculated variationally for both the major P and minor H crystal orientations. For the H orientation, the calculated splittings of all of the TR levels of these species are less than 0.1 cm-1. For the dominant P orientation, the splittings vary strongly depending on the character of the excitations involved. In all of the species, the splittings of the higher rotationally excited levels are comparable in magnitude to those for the j = 1 levels. For the levels corresponding to purely translational excitations, the calculated splittings are about an order of magnitude smaller than those of the purely rotational eigenstates. Based on the computed TR eigenstates, the low-temperature NIR (for M = H2) and FIR (for M = HF and H2O) spectra are simulated for both the P and H orientations, and also combined as their weighted sum (0.15H + 0.85P). The weighted sum spectra computed for M = H2 and HF match quantitatively the corresponding measured spectra, while for M = H2O, the weighted sum FIR spectrum predicts features that can potentially be observed experimentally.

*J Chem Phys ; 148(14): 144304, 2018 Apr 14.*

##### RESUMO

We report a theoretical study of the frequency shift (redshift) of the stretching fundamental transition of an H2 molecule confined inside the small dodecahedral cage of the structure II clathrate hydrate and its dependence on the condensed-phase environment. In order to determine how much the hydrate water molecules beyond the confining small cage contribute to the vibrational frequency shift, quantum five-dimensional (5D) calculations of the coupled translation-rotation eigenstates are performed for H2 in the v=0 and v=1 vibrational states inside spherical clathrate hydrate domains of increasing radius and a growing number of water molecules, ranging from 20 for the isolated small cage to over 1900. In these calculations, both H2 and the water domains are treated as rigid. The 5D intermolecular potential energy surface (PES) of H2 inside a hydrate domain is assumed to be pairwise additive. The H2-H2O pair interaction, represented by the 5D (rigid monomer) PES that depends on the vibrational state of H2, v=0 or v=1, is derived from the high-quality ab initio full-dimensional (9D) PES of the H2-H2O complex [P. Valiron et al., J. Chem. Phys. 129, 134306 (2008)]. The H2 vibrational frequency shift calculated for the largest clathrate domain considered, which mimics the condensed-phase environment, is about 10% larger in magnitude than that obtained by taking into account only the small cage. The calculated splittings of the translational fundamental of H2 change very little with the domain size, unlike the H2 j = 1 rotational splittings that decrease significantly as the domain size increases. The changes in both the vibrational frequency shift and the j = 1 rotational splitting due to the condensed-phase effects arise predominantly from the H2O molecules in the first three complete hydration shells around H2.

*J Chem Phys ; 148(10): 102340, 2018 Mar 14.*

##### RESUMO

We introduce a scheme for approximating quantum time correlation functions numerically within the Feynman path integral formulation. Starting with the symmetrized version of the correlation function expressed as a discretized path integral, we introduce a change of integration variables often used in the derivation of trajectory-based semiclassical methods. In particular, we transform to sum and difference variables between forward and backward complex-time propagation paths. Once the transformation is performed, the potential energy is expanded in powers of the difference variables, which allows us to perform the integrals over these variables analytically. The manner in which this procedure is carried out results in an open-chain path integral (in the remaining sum variables) with a modified potential that is evaluated using imaginary-time path-integral sampling rather than requiring the generation of a large ensemble of trajectories. Consequently, any number of path integral sampling schemes can be employed to compute the remaining path integral, including Monte Carlo, path-integral molecular dynamics, or enhanced path-integral molecular dynamics. We believe that this approach constitutes a different perspective in semiclassical-type approximations to quantum time correlation functions. Importantly, we argue that our approximation can be systematically improved within a cumulant expansion formalism. We test this approximation on a set of one-dimensional problems that are commonly used to benchmark approximate quantum dynamical schemes. We show that the method is at least as accurate as the popular ring-polymer molecular dynamics technique and linearized semiclassical initial value representation for correlation functions of linear operators in most of these examples and improves the accuracy of correlation functions of nonlinear operators.

*Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 19(46): 31274-31283, 2017 Nov 29.*

##### RESUMO

Symmetry breaking has been recently observed in the endofullerenes M@C60 (M = H2, HF, H2O), manifesting in the splittings of the three-fold degenerate ground states of the endohedral ortho-H2, ortho-H2O and the j = 1 level of HF. The nature of the interaction causing the symmetry breaking is established in this study. A fragment of the solid C60 is considered, comprised of the central C60 molecule surrounded by twelve nearest-neighbor (NN) C60 molecules. The fullerenes have either P (major) or H (minor) orientational orderings, and are assumed to be rigid with Ih symmetry. Only the central C60 is occupied by the guest molecule M, while the NN fullerenes are all empty. The key proposition of the study is that the electrostatic interactions between the charge densities on the NN C60 molecules and that on M inside the central C60 give rise to the symmetry breaking responsible for the measured level splittings. Using this model, the M@C60 level splittings of interest are calculated variationally and using perturbation theory, for both the P and H orientations. Those obtained for the dominant P orientation are in excellent agreement with the experimental results, with respect to the splitting magnitudes and patterns, for all three M@C60 systems considered, pointing strongly to the quadrupolar M-NN interactions as the main cause of the symmetry breaking. The level splittings calculated for the H orientation are about 30 times smaller than the ones in the P orientation.

*J Chem Phys ; 146(8): 084303, 2017 Feb 28.*

##### RESUMO

We report on variational solutions to the twelve-dimensional (12D) Schrödinger equation appertaining to the translation-rotation (TR) eigenstates of H2O@C60 dimer, associated with the quantized "rattling" motions of the two encapsulated H2O molecules. Both H2O and C60 moieties are treated as rigid and the cage-cage geometry is taken to be fixed. We consider the TR eigenstates of H2O@C60 monomers in the dimer to be coupled by the electric dipole-dipole interaction between water moieties and develop expressions for computing the matrix elements of that interaction in a dimer basis composed of products of monomer 6D TR eigenstates reported by us recently [P. M. Felker and Z. Bacic, J. Chem. Phys. 144, 201101 (2016)]. We use these expressions to compute TR Hamiltonian matrices of H2O@C60 dimer for two values of the water dipole moment and for various dimer geometries. 12D TR eigenstates of the dimer are then obtained by filter diagonalization. The results reveal two classes of eigenstates, distinguished by the leading order (first or second) at which dipole-dipole coupling contributes to them. The two types of eigenstates differ in the general magnitude of their dipole-induced energy shifts and in the dependence of those shifts on the value of the water dipole moment and on the distance between the H2O@C60 monomers. The dimer results are also found to be markedly insensitive to any change in the orientations of the C60 cages. Finally, the results lend some support for the interpretation that electric dipole-dipole coupling is at least partially responsible for the apparent reduced-symmetry environment experienced by H2O in the powder samples of H2O@C60 [K. S. K. Goh et al., Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 16, 21330 (2014)], but only if the water dipole is taken to have a magnitude close to that of free water. The methodology developed in the paper is transferable directly to the calculation of TR eigenstates of larger H2O@C60 assemblies, that will be required for more extensive modeling of crystalline H2O@C60.

*Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 18(47): 32169-32177, 2016 Nov 30.*

##### RESUMO

Clathrate hydrates hold considerable promise as safe and economical materials for hydrogen storage. Here we present a quantum mechanical study of H2 and D2 diffusion through a hexagonal face shared by two large cages of clathrate hydrates over a wide range of temperatures. Path integral molecular dynamics simulations are used to compute the free-energy profiles for the diffusion of H2 and D2 as a function of temperature. Ring polymer molecular dynamics rate theory, incorporating both exact quantum statistics and approximate quantum dynamical effects, is utilized in the calculations of the H2 and D2 diffusion rates in a broad temperature interval. We find that the shape of the quantum free-energy profiles and their height relative to the classical free energy barriers at a given temperature, as well as the rate of diffusion, are strongly affected by competing quantum effects: above 25 K, zero-point energy (ZPE) perpendicular to the reaction path for diffusion between cavities decreases the quantum rate compared to the classical rate, whereas at lower temperatures tunneling outcompetes the ZPE and as a result the quantum rate is greater than the classical rate.

*J Chem Phys ; 145(8): 084310, 2016 Aug 28.*

##### RESUMO

We report an investigation of the translation-rotation (TR) level structure of H2 entrapped in C60, in the rigid-monomer approximation, by means of a low-order perturbation theory (PT). We focus in particular on the degree to which PT can accurately account for that level structure, by comparison with the variational quantum five-dimensional calculations. To apply PT to the system, the interaction potential of H2@C60 is decomposed into a sum over bipolar spherical tensors. A zeroth-order Hamiltonian, HË0, is then constructed as the sum of the TR kinetic-energy operator and the one term in the tensor decomposition of the potential that depends solely on the radial displacement of the H2 center of mass (c.m.) from the cage center. The remaining terms in the potential are treated as perturbations. The eigenstates of HË0, constructed to also account for the coupling of the angular momentum of the H2 c.m. about the cage center with the rotational angular momentum of the H2 about the c.m., are taken as the PT zeroth-order states. This zeroth-order level structure is shown to be an excellent approximation to the true one except for two types of TR-level splittings present in the latter. We then show that first-order PT accounts very well for these splittings, with respect to both their patterns and magnitudes. This allows one to connect specific features of the level structure with specific features of the potential-energy surface, and provides important new physical insight into the characteristics of the TR level structure.

*J Chem Phys ; 144(20): 201101, 2016 May 28.*

##### RESUMO

We report rigorous quantum calculations of the translation-rotation (TR) eigenstates of para- and ortho-H2O@C60. They provide a comprehensive description of the dynamical behavior of H2O inside the fullerene having icosahedral (Ih) symmetry. The TR eigenstates are assigned in terms of the irreducible representations of the proper symmetry group of H2O@C60, as well as the appropriate translational and rotational quantum numbers. The coupling between the orbital and the rotational angular momenta of the caged H2O gives rise to the total angular momentum λ, which additionally labels each TR level. The calculated TR levels allow tentative assignments of a number of transitions in the recent experimental INS spectra of H2O@C60 that have not been assigned previously.

*J Phys Chem Lett ; 7(2): 308-13, 2016 Jan 21.*

##### RESUMO

We systematically investigate the manifestations of the condensed-phase environment of the structure II clathrate hydrate in the translation-rotation (TR) dynamics and the inelastic neutron scattering (INS) spectra of an H2 molecule confined in the small dodecahedral cage of the hydrate. The aim is to elucidate the extent to which these properties are affected by the clathrate water molecules beyond the confining cage and the proton disorder of the water framework. For this purpose, quantum calculations of the TR eigenstates and INS spectra are performed for H2 inside spherical clathrate domains of gradually increasing radius and the number of water molecules ranging from 20 for the isolated small cage to more than 1800. For each domain size, several hundred distinct hydrogen-bonding topologies are constructed in order to simulate the effects of the proton disorder. Our study reveals that the clathrate-induced splittings of the j = 1 rotational level and the translational fundamental of the guest H2 are influenced by the condensed-phase environment to a dramatically different degree, the former very strongly and the latter only weakly.

##### Assuntos

Hidrogênio/química , Água/química , Modelos Químicos , Análise Espectral*J Phys Chem Lett ; 6(18): 3721-5, 2015 Sep 17.*

##### RESUMO

Knowledge of the relevant selection rules is crucial for the accurate interpretation of experimental spectra in general. There has been a consensus for a long time that the incoherent inelastic neutron scattering (INS) spectroscopy of the vibrations of discrete molecular compunds is free from any selection rules. We contradict this widely held view by presenting an analytical derivation of the general selection rule for the INS spectroscopy of a hydrogen molecule inside a near-spherical nanocavity. It defines all forbidden transitions, originating in a range of initial translation-rotation (TR) states, ground and excited, of the caged para- and ortho-H2, as well as HD, that are unobservable in the INS spectra. These predictions are amenable to experimental verification. In addition, we demonstrate that the general selection rule applies to the INS spectroscopy of any diatomic molecule in a nanocavity with near-spherical symmetry, which exhibits strong TR coupling. Its existence strongly suggests that similar selection rules apply to the INS spectra of other molecular and supramolecular systems, and need to be identified.

*J Chem Phys ; 141(23): 234106, 2014 Dec 21.*

##### RESUMO

We extend the periodic von Neumann basis to non-Cartesian coordinates. The bound states of two isomerizing triatomic molecules, LiCN/LiNC and HCN/HNC, are calculated using the vibrational Hamiltonian in Jacobi coordinates. The phase space localization of the basis functions leads to a flexible and accurate representation of the Hamiltonian. This results in significant savings compared to a basis localized just in coordinate space. The favorable scaling of the method with dimensionality makes it promising for applications to larger systems.

*J Chem Phys ; 141(13): 134501, 2014 Oct 07.*

##### RESUMO

We report inelastic neutron scattering (INS) measurements on molecular hydrogen deuteride (HD) trapped in binary cubic (sII) and hexagonal (sH) clathrate hydrates, performed at low temperature using two different neutron spectrometers in order to probe both energy and momentum transfer. The INS spectra of binary clathrate samples exhibit a rich structure containing sharp bands arising from both the rotational transitions and the rattling modes of the guest molecule. For the clathrates with sII structure, there is a very good agreement with the rigorous fully quantum simulations which account for the subtle effects of the anisotropy, angular and radial, of the host cage on the HD microscopic dynamics. The sH clathrate sample presents a much greater challenge, due to the uncertainties regarding the crystal structure, which is known only for similar crystals with different promoter, but nor for HD (or H2) plus methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE-d12).