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1.
Am J Med Genet A ; 179(10): 2056-2066, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31407851

RESUMO

Co-occurrence of primordial dwarfism and microcephaly together with particular skeletal findings are seen in a wide range of Mendelian syndromes including microcephaly micromelia syndrome (MMS, OMIM 251230), microcephaly, short stature, and limb abnormalities (MISSLA, OMIM 617604), and microcephalic primordial dwarfisms (MPDs). Genes associated with these syndromes encode proteins that have crucial roles in DNA replication or in other critical steps of the cell cycle that link DNA replication to cell division. We identified four unrelated families with five affected individuals having biallelic or de novo variants in DONSON presenting with a core phenotype of severe short stature (z score < -3 SD), additional skeletal abnormalities, and microcephaly. Two apparently unrelated families with identical homozygous c.631C > T p.(Arg211Cys) variant had clinical features typical of Meier-Gorlin syndrome (MGS), while two siblings with compound heterozygous c.346delG p.(Asp116Ile*62) and c.1349A > G p.(Lys450Arg) variants presented with Seckel-like phenotype. We also identified a de novo c.683G > T p.(Trp228Leu) variant in DONSON in a patient with prominent micrognathia, short stature and hypoplastic femur and tibia, clinically diagnosed with Femoral-Facial syndrome (FFS, OMIM 134780). Biallelic variants in DONSON have been recently described in individuals with microcephalic dwarfism. These studies also demonstrated that DONSON has an essential conserved role in the cell cycle. Here we describe novel biallelic and de novo variants that are associated with MGS, Seckel-like phenotype and FFS, the last of which has not been associated with any disease gene to date.

2.
N Engl J Med ; 381(1): 25-35, 2019 07 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31269546

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Achondroplasia is a genetic disorder that inhibits endochondral ossification, resulting in disproportionate short stature and clinically significant medical complications. Vosoritide is a biologic analogue of C-type natriuretic peptide, a potent stimulator of endochondral ossification. METHODS: In a multinational, phase 2, dose-finding study and extension study, we evaluated the safety and side-effect profile of vosoritide in children (5 to 14 years of age) with achondroplasia. A total of 35 children were enrolled in four sequential cohorts to receive vosoritide at a once-daily subcutaneous dose of 2.5 µg per kilogram of body weight (8 patients in cohort 1), 7.5 µg per kilogram (8 patients in cohort 2), 15.0 µg per kilogram (10 patients in cohort 3), or 30.0 µg per kilogram (9 patients in cohort 4). After 6 months, the dose in cohort 1 was increased to 7.5 µg per kilogram and then to 15.0 µg per kilogram, and in cohort 2, the dose was increased to 15.0 µg per kilogram; the patients in cohorts 3 and 4 continued to receive their initial doses. At the time of data cutoff, the 24-month dose-finding study had been completed, and 30 patients had been enrolled in an ongoing long-term extension study; the median duration of follow-up across both studies was 42 months. RESULTS: During the treatment periods in the dose-finding and extension studies, adverse events occurred in 35 of 35 patients (100%), and serious adverse events occurred in 4 of 35 patients (11%). Therapy was discontinued in 6 patients (in 1 because of an adverse event). During the first 6 months of treatment, a dose-dependent increase in the annualized growth velocity was observed with vosoritide up to a dose of 15.0 µg per kilogram, and a sustained increase in the annualized growth velocity was observed at doses of 15.0 and 30.0 µg per kilogram for up to 42 months. CONCLUSIONS: In children with achondroplasia, once-daily subcutaneous administration of vosoritide was associated with a side-effect profile that appeared generally mild. Treatment resulted in a sustained increase in the annualized growth velocity for up to 42 months. (Funded by BioMarin Pharmaceutical; ClinicalTrials.gov numbers, NCT01603095, NCT02055157, and NCT02724228.).


Assuntos
Acondroplasia/tratamento farmacológico , Crescimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Peptídeo Natriurético Tipo C/análogos & derivados , Osteogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Acondroplasia/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Biomarcadores/análise , Estatura/efeitos dos fármacos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Colágeno/sangue , GMP Cíclico/urina , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Gráficos de Crescimento , Humanos , Injeções Subcutâneas , Masculino , Peptídeo Natriurético Tipo C/administração & dosagem , Peptídeo Natriurético Tipo C/efeitos adversos , Peptídeo Natriurético Tipo C/uso terapêutico
3.
Mol Genet Genomic Med ; 7(9): e844, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31350823

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Geleophysic dysplasia (GPHYSD) is a disorder characterized by dysmorphic features, stiff joints and cardiac involvement due to defects of TGF-ß signaling. GPHYSD can be caused by mutations in FBN1, ADAMTLS2, and LTBP3 genes. METHODS AND RESULTS: Consistent with previous reports, we found intracellular inclusions of unknown material by electron microscopy (EM) in skin fibroblasts of two GPHYSD individuals carrying FBN1 mutations. Moreover, we found that the storage material is enclosed within lysosomes and is associated with the upregulation of several lysosomal genes. Treatment of GPHYSD fibroblasts carrying FBN1 mutations with the angiotensin II receptor type 1 inhibitor losartan that inhibits TGF-ß signaling did not reduce the storage but improved the extracellular deposition of fibrillin-1 microfibrils. CONCLUSION: Losartan is a promising candidate drug for treatment of GPHYSD due to FBN1 defects.

4.
Genome Med ; 11(1): 30, 2019 05 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31101064

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Exome sequencing (ES) has been successfully applied in clinical detection of single nucleotide variants (SNVs) and small indels. However, identification of copy number variants (CNVs) using ES data remains challenging. The purpose of this study is to understand the contribution of CNVs and copy neutral runs of homozygosity (ROH) in molecular diagnosis of patients referred for ES. METHODS: In a cohort of 11,020 consecutive ES patients, an Illumina SNP array analysis interrogating mostly coding SNPs was performed as a quality control (QC) measurement and for CNV/ROH detection. Among these patients, clinical chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA) was performed at Baylor Genetics (BG) on 3229 patients, either before, concurrently, or after ES. We retrospectively analyzed the findings from CMA and the QC array. RESULTS: The QC array can detect ~ 70% of pathogenic/likely pathogenic CNVs (PCNVs) detectable by CMA. Out of the 11,020 ES cases, the QC array identified PCNVs in 327 patients and uniparental disomy (UPD) disorder-related ROH in 10 patients. The overall PCNV/UPD detection rate was 5.9% in the 3229 ES patients who also had CMA at BG; PCNV/UPD detection rate was higher in concurrent ES and CMA than in ES with prior CMA (7.2% vs 4.6%). The PCNVs/UPD contributed to the molecular diagnoses in 17.4% (189/1089) of molecularly diagnosed ES cases with CMA and were estimated to contribute in 10.6% of all molecularly diagnosed ES cases. Dual diagnoses with both PCNVs and SNVs were detected in 38 patients. PCNVs affecting single recessive disorder genes in a compound heterozygous state with SNVs were detected in 4 patients, and homozygous deletions (mostly exonic deletions) were detected in 17 patients. A higher PCNV detection rate was observed for patients with syndromic phenotypes and/or cardiovascular abnormalities. CONCLUSIONS: Our clinical genomics study demonstrates that detection of PCNV/UPD through the QC array or CMA increases ES diagnostic rate, provides more precise molecular diagnosis for dominant as well as recessive traits, and enables more complete genetic diagnoses in patients with dual or multiple molecular diagnoses. Concurrent ES and CMA using an array with exonic coverage for disease genes enables most effective detection of both CNVs and SNVs and therefore is recommended especially in time-sensitive clinical situations.

5.
Hum Mutat ; 40(7): 908-925, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30817854

RESUMO

Pathogenic de novo variants in the X-linked gene SLC35A2 encoding the major Golgi-localized UDP-galactose transporter required for proper protein and lipid glycosylation cause a rare type of congenital disorder of glycosylation known as SLC35A2-congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDG; formerly CDG-IIm). To date, 29 unique de novo variants from 32 unrelated individuals have been described in the literature. The majority of affected individuals are primarily characterized by varying degrees of neurological impairments with or without skeletal abnormalities. Surprisingly, most affected individuals do not show abnormalities in serum transferrin N-glycosylation, a common biomarker for most types of CDG. Here we present data characterizing 30 individuals and add 26 new variants, the single largest study involving SLC35A2-CDG. The great majority of these individuals had normal transferrin glycosylation. In addition, expanding the molecular and clinical spectrum of this rare disorder, we developed a robust and reliable biochemical assay to assess SLC35A2-dependent UDP-galactose transport activity in primary fibroblasts. Finally, we show that transport activity is directly correlated to the ratio of wild-type to mutant alleles in fibroblasts from affected individuals.

6.
Am J Med Genet A ; 179(3): 475-479, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30569621

RESUMO

Genetic alterations leading to overactivation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling result in brain overgrowth syndromes such as focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) and megalencephaly. Megalencephaly with cutis tri-color of the Blaschko-linear type pigmentary mosaicism and intellectual disability is a rare neurodevelopmental disorder attributed to the recurrent mosaic c.5930C > T (p.Thr1977Ile) MTOR variant. This variant was previously reported at low to intermediate levels of mosaicism in the peripheral blood of three unrelated individuals with consistent clinical findings. We report a fourth case of a 3-year-old female presenting with megalencephaly, obstructive hydrocephalus due to cerebral aqueductal stenosis, asymmetric polymicrogyria, dysgenesis of the corpus callosum, hypotonia, developmental delay, and cutaneous pigmentary mosaicism. Oligonucleotide and SNP chromosomal microarray (CMA), karyotype, and trio whole exome sequencing (WES) in the peripheral blood, as well as a targeted gene variant panel from fibroblasts derived from hyperpigmented and non-hyperpigmented skin did not detect any abnormalities in MTOR or other genes associated with brain overgrowth syndromes. Unlike the previously reported cases, the de novo c.5930C > T (p.Thr1977Ile) MTOR variant was detected at 32% mosaicism in our patient only after WES was performed on fibroblast-derived DNA from the hyperpigmented skin. This case demonstrates the tissue variability in mosaic expression of the recurrent p.Thr1977Ile MTOR variant, emphasizes the need for skin biopsies in the genetic evaluation of patients with skin pigmentary mosaicism, and expands the clinical phenotype associated with this pathogenic MTOR variant.

7.
Genet Med ; 21(7): 1652-1656, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30568308

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Brain malformations caused by 17p13.3 deletions include lissencephaly with deletions of the larger Miller-Dieker syndrome region or smaller deletions of only PAFAH1B1, white matter changes, and a distinct syndrome due to deletions including YWHAE and CRK but sparing PAFAH1B1. We sought to understand the significance of 17p13.3 deletions between the YWHAE/CRK and PAFAH1B1 loci. METHODS: We analyzed the clinical features of six individuals from five families with 17p13.3 deletions between and not including YWHAE/CRK and PAFAH1B1 identified among individuals undergoing clinical chromosomal microarray testing or research genome sequencing. RESULTS: Five individuals from four families had multifocal white matter lesions while a sixth had a normal magnetic resonance image. A combination of our individuals and a review of those in the literature with white matter changes and deletions in this chromosomal region narrows the overlapping region for this brain phenotype to ~345 kb, including 11 RefSeq genes, with RTN4RL1 haploinsufficiency as the best candidate for causing this phenotype. CONCLUSION: While previous literature has hypothesized dysmorphic features and white matter changes related to YWHAE, our cohort contributes evidence to the presence of additional genetic changes within 17p13.3 required for proper brain development.

8.
Ann Clin Transl Neurol ; 5(10): 1277-1285, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30349862

RESUMO

De novo variants in DDX3X account for 1-3% of unexplained intellectual disability (ID) cases and are amongst the most common causes of ID especially in females. Forty-seven patients (44 females, 3 males) have been described. We identified 31 additional individuals carrying 29 unique DDX3X variants, including 30 postnatal individuals with complex clinical presentations of developmental delay or ID, and one fetus with abnormal ultrasound findings. Rare or novel phenotypes observed include respiratory problems, congenital heart disease, skeletal muscle mitochondrial DNA depletion, and late-onset neurologic decline. Our findings expand the spectrum of DNA variants and phenotypes associated with DDX3X disorders.

9.
N Engl J Med ; 379(22): 2131-2139, 2018 11 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30304647

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many patients remain without a diagnosis despite extensive medical evaluation. The Undiagnosed Diseases Network (UDN) was established to apply a multidisciplinary model in the evaluation of the most challenging cases and to identify the biologic characteristics of newly discovered diseases. The UDN, which is funded by the National Institutes of Health, was formed in 2014 as a network of seven clinical sites, two sequencing cores, and a coordinating center. Later, a central biorepository, a metabolomics core, and a model organisms screening center were added. METHODS: We evaluated patients who were referred to the UDN over a period of 20 months. The patients were required to have an undiagnosed condition despite thorough evaluation by a health care provider. We determined the rate of diagnosis among patients who subsequently had a complete evaluation, and we observed the effect of diagnosis on medical care. RESULTS: A total of 1519 patients (53% female) were referred to the UDN, of whom 601 (40%) were accepted for evaluation. Of the accepted patients, 192 (32%) had previously undergone exome sequencing. Symptoms were neurologic in 40% of the applicants, musculoskeletal in 10%, immunologic in 7%, gastrointestinal in 7%, and rheumatologic in 6%. Of the 382 patients who had a complete evaluation, 132 received a diagnosis, yielding a rate of diagnosis of 35%. A total of 15 diagnoses (11%) were made by clinical review alone, and 98 (74%) were made by exome or genome sequencing. Of the diagnoses, 21% led to recommendations regarding changes in therapy, 37% led to changes in diagnostic testing, and 36% led to variant-specific genetic counseling. We defined 31 new syndromes. CONCLUSIONS: The UDN established a diagnosis in 132 of the 382 patients who had a complete evaluation, yielding a rate of diagnosis of 35%. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health Common Fund.).

10.
Eur J Med Genet ; 2018 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30142436

RESUMO

Interstitial deletions involving chromosome region 6p21.31p21.2 have not been previously reported in the literature. Here, we present a 2 year old girl with global developmental delay, severe speech delay, dysmorphic features, laryngeal cleft, anterior descending aorta that occluded the left main bronchus and a novel de novo deletion of chromosome 6: arr[hg19] 6p21.31p21.2 (35462950-36725083)x1. The deletion, which was diagnosed by array comparative genomic hybridization and further confirmed with fluorescence in situ hybridization, was approximately 1.26 Mb and contained 28 RefSeq genes. The deleted region includes 24 protein coding genes and 4 non-coding genes. This represents a novel microdeletion that has not been previously reported in the literature.

11.
Neurology ; 91(11): e1077-e1082, 2018 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30111548

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To study the variable clinical picture and exercise tolerance of patients with phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK) 1 deficiency and how it relates to residual PGK enzyme activity. METHODS: In this case series study, we evaluated 7 boys and men from 5 families with PGK1 deficiency. Five had pure muscle symptoms, while 2 also had mild intellectual disability with or without anemia. Muscle glycolytic and oxidative capacities were evaluated by an ischemic forearm exercise test and by cycle ergometry. RESULTS: Enzyme levels of PGK were 4% to 9% of normal in red cells and 5% to10% in muscle in pure myopathy patients and 2.6% in both muscle and red cells in the 2 patients with multisystem involvement. Patients with pure myopathy had greater increases in lactate with ischemic exercise (2-3 mmol/L) vs the 2 multisystem-affected patients (<1 mmol/L). Myopathy patients had higher oxidative capacity in cycle exercise vs multisystem affected patients (≈30 vs ≈15 mL/kg per minute). One multisystem-affected patient developed frank myoglobinuria after the short exercise test. CONCLUSIONS: This case series study of PGK1 deficiency suggests that the level of impaired glycolysis in PGK deficiency is a major determinant of phenotype. Lower glycolytic capacity in PGK1 deficiency seems to result in multisystem involvement and increased susceptibility to exertional rhabdomyolysis.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29970384

RESUMO

Recent evidence has implicated EFL1 in a phenotype overlapping Shwachman-Diamond syndrome (SDS), with the functional interplay between EFL1 and the previously known causative gene SBDS accounting for the similarity in clinical features. Relatively little is known about the phenotypes associated with pathogenic variants in the EFL1 gene, but the initial indication was that phenotypes may be more severe, when compared with SDS. We report a pediatric patient who presented with a metaphyseal dysplasia and was found to have biallelic variants in EFL1 on reanalysis of trio whole-exome sequencing data. The variant had not been initially reported because of the research laboratory's focus on de novo variants. Subsequent phenotyping revealed variability in her manifestations. Although her metaphyseal abnormalities were more severe than in the original reported cohort with EFL1 variants, the bone marrow abnormalities were generally mild, and there was equivocal evidence for pancreatic insufficiency. Despite the limited number of reported patients, variants in EFL1 appear to cause a broader spectrum of symptoms that overlap with those seen in SDS. Our report adds to the evidence of EFL1 being associated with an SDS-like phenotype and provides information adding to our understanding of the phenotypic variability of this disorder. Our report also highlights the value of exome data reanalysis when a diagnosis is not initially apparent.

14.
Am J Med Genet A ; 176(5): 1099-1107, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28944563

RESUMO

Treatment for Angelman syndrome (AS) is currently limited to symptomatic interventions. A mouse model of AS has reduced calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase II activity due to excessive phosphorylation of specific threonine residues, leading to diminished long-term potentiation. In a rat model of Parkinson disease, levodopa reduced phosphorylation of various proteins, including calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase II. Further studies demonstrated that AS mice treated with levodopa performed better on rotarod testing than untreated AS mice. We conducted a multi-center double-blind randomized placebo-controlled 1-year trial of levodopa / carbidopa with either 10 or 15 mg/kg/day of levodopa in children with AS. The outcome of this intervention was assessed using either the Bayley Scales of Infant Development or the Mullen Scales of Early Learning, as well as the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, and the Aberrant Behavior Checklist. Of the 78 participants enrolled, 67 participants received study medication (33 on levodopa, 34 on placebo), and 55 participants (29 on levodopa, 26 on placebo) completed the 1-year study. There were no clinically or statistically significant changes in any of the outcome measures over a 1-year period comparing the levodopa and placebo groups. The number of adverse events reported, including the more serious adverse events, was similar in both groups, but none were related to treatment with levodopa. Our data demonstrate that levodopa is well-tolerated by children with AS. However, in the doses used in this study, it failed to improve their neurodevelopment or behavioral outcome.

15.
Am J Hum Genet ; 101(5): 833-843, 2017 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29100093

RESUMO

Gorlin-Chaudhry-Moss syndrome (GCMS) is a dysmorphic syndrome characterized by coronal craniosynostosis and severe midface hypoplasia, body and facial hypertrichosis, microphthalmia, short stature, and short distal phalanges. Variable lipoatrophy and cutis laxa are the basis for a progeroid appearance. Using exome and genome sequencing, we identified the recurrent de novo mutations c.650G>A (p.Arg217His) and c.649C>T (p.Arg217Cys) in SLC25A24 in five unrelated girls diagnosed with GCMS. Two of the girls had pronounced neonatal progeroid features and were initially diagnosed with Wiedemann-Rautenstrauch syndrome. SLC25A24 encodes a mitochondrial inner membrane ATP-Mg/Pi carrier. In fibroblasts from affected individuals, the mutated SLC25A24 showed normal stability. In contrast to control cells, the probands' cells showed mitochondrial swelling, which was exacerbated upon treatment with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). The same effect was observed after overexpression of the mutant cDNA. Under normal culture conditions, the mitochondrial membrane potential of the probands' fibroblasts was intact, whereas ATP content in the mitochondrial matrix was lower than that in control cells. However, upon H2O2 exposure, the membrane potential was significantly elevated in cells harboring the mutated SLC25A24. No reduction of mitochondrial DNA copy number was observed. These findings demonstrate that mitochondrial dysfunction with increased sensitivity to oxidative stress is due to the SLC25A24 mutations. Our results suggest that the SLC25A24 mutations induce a gain of pathological function and link mitochondrial ATP-Mg/Pi transport to the development of skeletal and connective tissue.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Antiporters/genética , Proteínas de Ligação ao Cálcio/genética , Anormalidades Craniofaciais/genética , Craniossinostoses/genética , Permeabilidade do Canal Arterial/genética , Hipertricose/genética , Mitocôndrias/genética , Proteínas Mitocondriais/genética , Mutação/genética , Trifosfato de Adenosina/genética , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cútis Laxa/genética , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Exoma/genética , Feminino , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/genética , Fibroblastos/patologia , Humanos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/farmacologia , Lactente , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial/genética , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/genética , Progéria/genética
16.
JAMA Pediatr ; 171(12): e173438, 2017 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28973083

RESUMO

Importance: While congenital malformations and genetic diseases are a leading cause of early infant death, to our knowledge, the contribution of single-gene disorders in this group is undetermined. Objective: To determine the diagnostic yield and use of clinical exome sequencing in critically ill infants. Design, Setting, and Participants: Clinical exome sequencing was performed for 278 unrelated infants within the first 100 days of life who were admitted to Texas Children's Hospital in Houston, Texas, during a 5-year period between December 2011 and January 2017. Exome sequencing types included proband exome, trio exome, and critical trio exome, a rapid genomic assay for seriously ill infants. Main Outcomes and Measures: Indications for testing, diagnostic yield of clinical exome sequencing, turnaround time, molecular findings, patient age at diagnosis, and effect on medical management among a group of critically ill infants who were suspected to have genetic disorders. Results: The mean (SEM) age for infants participating in the study was 28.5 (1.7) days; of these, the mean (SEM) age was 29.0 (2.2) days for infants undergoing proband exome sequencing, 31.5 (3.9) days for trio exome, and 22.7 (3.9) days for critical trio exome. Clinical indications for exome sequencing included a range of medical concerns. Overall, a molecular diagnosis was achieved in 102 infants (36.7%) by clinical exome sequencing, with relatively low yield for cardiovascular abnormalities. The diagnosis affected medical management for 53 infants (52.0%) and had a substantial effect on informed redirection of care, initiation of new subspecialist care, medication/dietary modifications, and furthering life-saving procedures in select patients. Critical trio exome sequencing revealed a molecular diagnosis in 32 of 63 infants (50.8%) at a mean (SEM) of 33.1 (5.6) days of life with a mean (SEM) turnaround time of 13.0 (0.4) days. Clinical care was altered by the diagnosis in 23 of 32 patients (71.9%). The diagnostic yield, patient age at diagnosis, and medical effect in the group that underwent critical trio exome sequencing were significantly different compared with the group who underwent regular exome testing. For deceased infants (n = 81), genetic disorders were molecularly diagnosed in 39 (48.1%) by exome sequencing, with implications for recurrence risk counseling. Conclusions and Relevance: Exome sequencing is a powerful tool for the diagnostic evaluation of critically ill infants with suspected monogenic disorders in the neonatal and pediatric intensive care units and its use has a notable effect on clinical decision making.


Assuntos
Doenças Genéticas Inatas/diagnóstico , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Pediátrica , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma/métodos , Adulto , Cuidados Críticos/métodos , Gerenciamento Clínico , Exoma , Aconselhamento Genético/métodos , Doenças Genéticas Inatas/genética , Doenças Genéticas Inatas/terapia , Humanos , Lactente , Cuidado do Lactente/métodos , Recém-Nascido , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Texas
17.
Am J Hum Genet ; 101(4): 503-515, 2017 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28942966

RESUMO

Bromodomain PHD finger transcription factor (BPTF) is the largest subunit of nucleosome remodeling factor (NURF), a member of the ISWI chromatin-remodeling complex. However, the clinical consequences of disruption of this complex remain largely uncharacterized. BPTF is required for anterior-posterior axis formation of the mouse embryo and was shown to promote posterior neuroectodermal fate by enhancing Smad2-activated wnt8 expression in zebrafish. Here, we report eight loss-of-function and two missense variants (eight de novo and two of unknown origin) in BPTF on 17q24.2. The BPTF variants were found in unrelated individuals aged between 2.1 and 13 years, who manifest variable degrees of developmental delay/intellectual disability (10/10), speech delay (10/10), postnatal microcephaly (7/9), and dysmorphic features (9/10). Using CRISPR-Cas9 genome editing of bptf in zebrafish to induce a loss of gene function, we observed a significant reduction in head size of F0 mutants compared to control larvae. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) and phospho-histone H3 (PH3) staining to assess apoptosis and cell proliferation, respectively, showed a significant increase in cell death in F0 mutants compared to controls. Additionally, we observed a substantial increase of the ceratohyal angle of the craniofacial skeleton in bptf F0 mutants, indicating abnormal craniofacial patterning. Taken together, our data demonstrate the pathogenic role of BPTF haploinsufficiency in syndromic neurodevelopmental anomalies and extend the clinical spectrum of human disorders caused by ablation of chromatin remodeling complexes.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Antígenos Nucleares/genética , Anormalidades Craniofaciais/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Haploinsuficiência/genética , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/genética , Microcefalia/genética , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Anormalidades Múltiplas/patologia , Adolescente , Animais , Antígenos Nucleares/metabolismo , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Proliferação de Células , Células Cultivadas , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Montagem e Desmontagem da Cromatina , Estudos de Coortes , Anormalidades Craniofaciais/patologia , Feminino , Edição de Genes , Haploinsuficiência/fisiologia , Humanos , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/patologia , Larva/genética , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Masculino , Microcefalia/patologia , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Neurônios/metabolismo , Neurônios/patologia , Fenótipo , Fatores de Transcrição/antagonistas & inibidores , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Peixe-Zebra/genética , Peixe-Zebra/crescimento & desenvolvimento
18.
Genome Med ; 9(1): 83, 2017 09 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28934986

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Exon-targeted microarrays can detect small (<1000 bp) intragenic copy number variants (CNVs), including those that affect only a single exon. This genome-wide high-sensitivity approach increases the molecular diagnosis for conditions with known disease-associated genes, enables better genotype-phenotype correlations, and facilitates variant allele detection allowing novel disease gene discovery. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed data from 63,127 patients referred for clinical chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA) at Baylor Genetics laboratories, including 46,755 individuals tested using exon-targeted arrays, from 2007 to 2017. Small CNVs harboring a single gene or two to five non-disease-associated genes were identified; the genes involved were evaluated for a potential disease association. RESULTS: In this clinical population, among rare CNVs involving any single gene reported in 7200 patients (11%), we identified 145 de novo autosomal CNVs (117 losses and 28 intragenic gains), 257 X-linked deletion CNVs in males, and 1049 inherited autosomal CNVs (878 losses and 171 intragenic gains); 111 known disease genes were potentially disrupted by de novo autosomal or X-linked (in males) single-gene CNVs. Ninety-one genes, either recently proposed as candidate disease genes or not yet associated with diseases, were disrupted by 147 single-gene CNVs, including 37 de novo deletions and ten de novo intragenic duplications on autosomes and 100 X-linked CNVs in males. Clinical features in individuals with de novo or X-linked CNVs encompassing at most five genes (224 bp to 1.6 Mb in size) were compared to those in individuals with larger-sized deletions (up to 5 Mb in size) in the internal CMA database or loss-of-function single nucleotide variants (SNVs) detected by clinical or research whole-exome sequencing (WES). This enabled the identification of recently published genes (BPTF, NONO, PSMD12, TANGO2, and TRIP12), novel candidate disease genes (ARGLU1 and STK3), and further confirmation of disease association for two recently proposed disease genes (MEIS2 and PTCHD1). Notably, exon-targeted CMA detected several pathogenic single-exon CNVs missed by clinical WES analyses. CONCLUSIONS: Together, these data document the efficacy of exon-targeted CMA for detection of genic and exonic CNVs, complementing and extending WES in clinical diagnostics, and the potential for discovery of novel disease genes by genome-wide assay.


Assuntos
Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Éxons , Doenças Genéticas Inatas , Estudos de Coortes , Genoma Humano , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/genética , Humanos , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/genética , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/genética , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
19.
PLoS Genet ; 13(7): e1006905, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28742085

RESUMO

Dominant mutations in CACNA1A, encoding the α-1A subunit of the neuronal P/Q type voltage-dependent Ca2+ channel, can cause diverse neurological phenotypes. Rare cases of markedly severe early onset developmental delay and congenital ataxia can be due to de novo CACNA1A missense alleles, with variants affecting the S4 transmembrane segments of the channel, some of which are reported to be loss-of-function. Exome sequencing in five individuals with severe early onset ataxia identified one novel variant (p.R1673P), in a girl with global developmental delay and progressive cerebellar atrophy, and a recurrent, de novo p.R1664Q variant, in four individuals with global developmental delay, hypotonia, and ophthalmologic abnormalities. Given the severity of these phenotypes we explored their functional impact in Drosophila. We previously generated null and partial loss-of-function alleles of cac, the homolog of CACNA1A in Drosophila. Here, we created transgenic wild type and mutant genomic rescue constructs with the two noted conserved point mutations. The p.R1673P mutant failed to rescue cac lethality, displayed a gain-of-function phenotype in electroretinograms (ERG) recorded from mutant clones, and evolved a neurodegenerative phenotype in aging flies, based on ERGs and transmission electron microscopy. In contrast, the p.R1664Q variant exhibited loss of function and failed to develop a neurodegenerative phenotype. Hence, the novel R1673P allele produces neurodegenerative phenotypes in flies and human, likely due to a toxic gain of function.


Assuntos
Alelos , Canais de Cálcio/genética , Ataxia Cerebelar/genética , Genoma Humano , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/genética , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados , Ataxia Cerebelar/diagnóstico por imagem , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Drosophila melanogaster/genética , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Neuroimagem , Fenótipo , Mutação Puntual
20.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 25(6): 694-701, 2017 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28422132

RESUMO

16q24 deletion involving the ANKRD11 gene, ranging from 137 kb to 2 Mb, have been associated with a microdeletion syndrome characterized by variable cognitive impairment, autism spectrum disorder, facial dysmorphisms with dental anomalies, brain abnormalities essentially affecting the corpus callosum and short stature. On the other hand, patients carrying either deletions encompassing solely ANKRD11 or its loss-of-function variants were reported in association with the KBG syndrome, characterized by a very similar phenotype, including mild-to-moderate intellectual disability, short stature and macrodontia of upper incisors, with inter and intrafamilial variability. To assess whether the haploinsufficiency of ANKRD11-flanking genes, such as ZFPM1, CDH15 and ZNF778, contributed to either the severity of the neurological impairment or was associated with other clinical features, we collected 12 new cases with a 16q24.2q24.3 deletion (de novo in 11 cases), ranging from 343 kb to 2.3 Mb. In 11 of them, the deletion involved the ANKRD11 gene, whereas in 1 case only flanking genes upstream to it were deleted. By comparing the clinical and genetic features of our patients with those previously reported, we show that the severity of the neurological phenotype and the frequency of congenital heart defects characterize the deletions that, besides ANKRD11, contain ZFPM1, CDH15 and ZNF778 as well. Moreover, the presence of thrombocytopenia and astigmatism should be taken into account to distinguish between 16q24 microdeletion syndrome and KBG syndrome. The single patient not deleted for ANKRD11, whose phenotype is characterized by milder psychomotor delay, cardiac congenital malformation, thrombocytopenia and astigmatism, confirms all this data.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Doenças do Desenvolvimento Ósseo/genética , Deleção Cromossômica , Cromossomos Humanos Par 16/genética , Haploinsuficiência , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Proteínas Repressoras/genética , Anormalidades Dentárias/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Anormalidades Múltiplas/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Doenças do Desenvolvimento Ósseo/diagnóstico , Caderinas/genética , Criança , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Facies , Feminino , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/diagnóstico , Masculino , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Fenótipo , Anormalidades Dentárias/diagnóstico , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
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