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1.
Brain ; 2022 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35675510

RESUMO

Vacuolar-type H+-ATPase (V-ATPase) is a multimeric complex present in a variety of cellular membranes that acts as an ATP-dependent proton pump and plays a key role in pH homeostasis and intracellular signalling pathways. In humans, 22 autosomal genes encode for a redundant set of subunits allowing the composition of diverse V-ATPase complexes with specific properties and expression. Sixteen subunits have been linked to human disease. Here we describe 26 patients harbouring 20 distinct pathogenic de novo missense ATP6V1A variants, mainly clustering within the ATP synthase α/ß family-nucleotide-binding domain. At a mean age of 7 years (extremes: 6 weeks, youngest deceased patient to 22 years, oldest patient) clinical pictures included early lethal encephalopathies with rapidly progressive massive brain atrophy, severe developmental epileptic encephalopathies and static intellectual disability with epilepsy. The first clinical manifestation was early hypotonia, in 70%; 81% developed epilepsy, manifested as developmental epileptic encephalopathies in 58% of the cohort and with infantile spasms in 62%; 63% of developmental epileptic encephalopathies failed to achieve any developmental, communicative or motor skills. Less severe outcomes were observed in 23% of patients who, at a mean age of 10 years and 6 months, exhibited moderate intellectual disability, with independent walking and variable epilepsy. None of the patients developed communicative language. Microcephaly (38%) and amelogenesis imperfecta/enamel dysplasia (42%) were additional clinical features. Brain MRI demonstrated hypomyelination and generalized atrophy in 68%. Atrophy was progressive in all eight individuals undergoing repeated MRIs. Fibroblasts of two patients with developmental epileptic encephalopathies showed decreased LAMP1 expression, Lysotracker staining and increased organelle pH, consistent with lysosomal impairment and loss of V-ATPase function. Fibroblasts of two patients with milder disease, exhibited a different phenotype with increased Lysotracker staining, decreased organelle pH and no significant modification in LAMP1 expression. Quantification of substrates for lysosomal enzymes in cellular extracts from four patients revealed discrete accumulation. Transmission electron microscopy of fibroblasts of four patients with variable severity and of induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neurons from two patients with developmental epileptic encephalopathies showed electron-dense inclusions, lipid droplets, osmiophilic material and lamellated membrane structures resembling phospholipids. Quantitative assessment in induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neurons identified significantly smaller lysosomes. ATP6V1A-related encephalopathy represents a new paradigm among lysosomal disorders. It results from a dysfunctional endo-lysosomal membrane protein causing altered pH homeostasis. Its pathophysiology implies intracellular accumulation of substrates whose composition remains unclear, and a combination of developmental brain abnormalities and neurodegenerative changes established during prenatal and early postanal development, whose severity is variably determined by specific pathogenic variants.

2.
Am J Med Genet A ; 188(7): 2198-2203, 2022 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35396900

RESUMO

White-Sutton syndrome (WHSUS), which is caused by heterozygous pathogenic variants in POGZ, is characterized by a spectrum of intellectual disabilities and global developmental delay with or without features of autism spectrum disorder. Additional features may include hypotonia, behavioral abnormalities, ophthalmic abnormalities, hearing loss, sleep apnea, microcephaly, dysmorphic facial features, and rarely, congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH). We present a 6-year-old female with features of WHSUS, including CDH, but with nondiagnostic clinical trio exome sequencing. Exome sequencing reanalysis revealed a heterozygous, de novo, intronic variant in POGZ (NM_015100.3:c.2546-20T>A). RNA sequencing revealed that this intronic variant leads to skipping of exon 18. This exon skipping event results in a frameshift with a predicted premature stop codon in the last exon and escape from nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD). To our knowledge, this case is the first case of WHSUS caused by a de novo, intronic variant that is not near a canonical splice site within POGZ. These findings emphasize the limitations of standard clinical exome filtering algorithms and the importance of research reanalysis of exome data together with RNA sequencing to confirm a suspected diagnosis of WHSUS. As the sixth reported case of CDH with heterozygous pathogenic variants in POGZ and features consistent with WHSUS, this report supports the conclusion that WHSUS should be considered in the differential diagnosis for patients with syndromic CDH.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Hérnias Diafragmáticas Congênitas , Deficiência Intelectual , Microcefalia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/genética , Criança , Exoma/genética , Feminino , Hérnias Diafragmáticas Congênitas/genética , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/diagnóstico , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/patologia , Microcefalia/genética , Mutação , Transposases/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
3.
Am J Med Genet A ; 188(6): 1868-1874, 2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35194938

RESUMO

Prune exopolyphosphatase-1 (PRUNE1) encodes a member of the aspartic acid-histidine-histidine (DHH) phosphodiesterase superfamily that regulates cell migration and proliferation during brain development. In 2015, biallelic PRUNE1 loss-of-function variants were identified to cause the neurodevelopmental disorder with microcephaly, hypotonia, and variable brain abnormalities (NMIHBA, OMIM#617481). NMIHBA is characterized by the namesake features and structural brain anomalies including thinning of the corpus callosum, cerebral and cerebellar atrophy, and delayed myelination. To date, 47 individuals have been reported in the literature, but the phenotypic spectrum of PRUNE1-related disorders and their causative variants remains to be characterized fully. Here, we report a novel homozygous PRUNE1 NM_021222.2:c.933G>A synonymous variant identified in a 6-year-old boy with intellectual and developmental disabilities, hypotonia, and spastic diplegia, but with the absence of microcephaly, brain anomalies, or seizures. Fibroblast RNA sequencing revealed that the PRUNE1 NM_021222.1:c.933G>A variant resulted in an in-frame skipping of the penultimate exon 7, removing 53 amino acids from an important protein domain. This case represents the first synonymous variant and the third pathogenic variant known to date affecting the DHH-associated domain (DHHA2 domain). These findings extend the genotypic and phenotypic spectrums in PRUNE1-related disorders and highlight the importance of considering synonymous splice site variants in atypical presentations.


Assuntos
Microcefalia , Criança , Éxons/genética , Histidina/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Microcefalia/diagnóstico , Microcefalia/genética , Hipotonia Muscular/genética , Linhagem , Monoéster Fosfórico Hidrolases/genética
4.
Mol Genet Genomic Med ; 10(3): e1843, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35150089

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Angelman syndrome (AS) is a rare neurogenetic disorder present in approximately 1/12,000 individuals and characterized by developmental delay, cognitive impairment, motor dysfunction, seizures, gastrointestinal concerns, and abnormal electroencephalographic background. AS is caused by absent expression of the paternally imprinted gene UBE3A in the central nervous system. Disparities in the management of AS are a major problem in preparing for precision therapies and occur even in patients with access to experts and recognized clinics. AS patients receive care based on collective provider experience due to limited evidence-based literature. We present a consensus statement and comprehensive literature review that proposes a standard of care practices for the management of AS at a critical time when therapeutics to alter the natural history of the disease are on the horizon. METHODS: We compiled the key recognized clinical features of AS based on consensus from a team of specialists managing patients with AS. Working groups were established to address each focus area with committees comprised of providers who manage >5 individuals. Committees developed management guidelines for their area of expertise. These were compiled into a final document to provide a framework for standardizing management. Evidence from the medical literature was also comprehensively reviewed. RESULTS: Areas covered by working groups in the consensus document include genetics, developmental medicine, psychology, general health concerns, neurology (including movement disorders), sleep, psychiatry, orthopedics, ophthalmology, communication, early intervention and therapies, and caregiver health. Working groups created frameworks, including flowcharts and tables, to help with quick access for providers. Data from the literature were incorporated to ensure providers had review of experiential versus evidence-based care guidelines. CONCLUSION: Standards of care in the management of AS are keys to ensure optimal care at a critical time when new disease-modifying therapies are emerging. This document is a framework for providers of all familiarity levels.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Angelman , Síndrome de Angelman/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Angelman/genética , Síndrome de Angelman/terapia , Humanos , Padrão de Cuidado
5.
Hum Mutat ; 43(4): 461-470, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35094443

RESUMO

PAX5 is a transcription factor associated with abnormal posterior midbrain and cerebellum development in mice. PAX5 is highly loss-of-function intolerant and missense constrained, and has been identified as a candidate gene for autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We describe 16 individuals from 12 families who carry deletions involving PAX5 and surrounding genes, de novo frameshift variants that are likely to trigger nonsense-mediated mRNA decay, a rare stop-gain variant, or missense variants that affect conserved amino acid residues. Four of these individuals were published previously but without detailed clinical descriptions. All these individuals have been diagnosed with one or more neurodevelopmental phenotypes including delayed developmental milestones (DD), intellectual disability (ID), and/or ASD. Seizures were documented in four individuals. No recurrent patterns of brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings, structural birth defects, or dysmorphic features were observed. Our findings suggest that PAX5 haploinsufficiency causes a neurodevelopmental disorder whose cardinal features include DD, variable ID, and/or ASD.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Deficiência Intelectual , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento , Animais , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/genética , Haploinsuficiência , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/diagnóstico , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Camundongos , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/genética , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/patologia , Fator de Transcrição PAX5 , Fenótipo
6.
Am J Intellect Dev Disabil ; 127(1): 1-10, 2022 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34979033

RESUMO

Angelman Syndrome (AS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder most commonly caused by the impaired expression of the maternal UBE3A gene on chromosome 15. Though anxiety has been identified as a frequently present characteristic in AS, there are limited studies examining anxiety in this population. Studies of anxiety in other neurodevelopmental disorders have found disorder specific symptoms of anxiety and age specific displays of anxiety symptoms. However, there is a consistent challenge in identifying anxiety in people with neurodevelopmental disorders given the lack of measurement instruments specifically designed for this population. Given the limited information about AS and anxiety, the aims of the current project were to (a) examine symptoms of anxiety in children with AS and (b) determine the correlates of anxiety in children with AS. Participants included 42 adult caregivers of youth with AS in the AS Natural History study who completed the Developmental Behavior Checklist (DBC). The results found that 26% of the sample demonstrated elevated symptoms of anxiety and established a relationship between elevated anxiety in youth with AS and higher levels of irritability, hyperactivity, self-absorbed behaviors, and disruptive/antisocial behaviors. Findings from this research provide a foundation for tailoring evidence-based assessments and treatments for youth with AS and anxiety.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Angelman , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento , Adolescente , Adulto , Ansiedade , Cuidadores , Lista de Checagem , Criança , Humanos
7.
Clin Pharmacokinet ; 61(2): 263-280, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34431071

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Vosoritide, an analog of C-type natriuretic peptide, has been developed for the treatment of children with achondroplasia. The pharmacokinetics of vosoritide and relationships between plasma exposure and efficacy, biomarkers, and safety endpoints were evaluated in a phase II, open-label, dose-escalation study (N = 35 patients aged 5-14 years who received daily subcutaneous injections for 24 months) and a phase III, double-blind, placebo-controlled study (N = 60 patients aged 5-18 years randomized to receive daily subcutaneous injections for 52 weeks). METHODS: Pharmacokinetic parameters for both studies were obtained from non-compartmental analysis. Potential correlations between vosoritide exposure and changes in annualized growth velocity, collagen type X marker (CXM; a biomarker of endochondral ossification), cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP; a biomarker of pharmacological activity), heart rate, and systolic and diastolic blood pressures were then evaluated. RESULTS: The exposure-response relationships for changes in both annualized growth velocity and the CXM biomarker saturated at 15 µg/kg, while systemic pharmacological activity, as measured by urinary cGMP, was near maximal or saturated at exposures obtained at the highest dose studied (i.e. 30 µg/kg). This suggested that the additional bioactivity was likely in tissues not related to endochondral bone formation. In the phase III study, following subcutaneous administration at the recommended dose of 15 µg/kg to patients with achondroplasia aged 5-18 years, vosoritide was rapidly absorbed with a median time to maximal plasma concentration (Cmax) of 15 minutes, and cleared with a mean half-life of 27.9 minutes after 52 weeks of treatment. Vosoritide exposure (Cmax and area under the concentration-time curve [AUC]) was consistent across visits. No evidence of accumulation with once-daily dosing was observed. Total anti-vosoritide antibody (TAb) responses were detected in the serum of 25 of 60 (42%) treated patients in the phase III study, with no apparent impact of TAb development noted on annualized growth velocity or vosoritide exposure. Across the exposure range obtained with 15 µg/kg in the phase III study, no meaningful correlations between vosoritide plasma exposure and changes in annualized growth velocity or CXM, or changes from predose heart rate, and systolic or diastolic blood pressures were observed. CONCLUSIONS: The results support the recommended dose of vosoritide 15 µg/kg for once-daily subcutaneous administration in patients with achondroplasia aged ≥ 5 years whose epiphyses are not closed. CLINICAL TRIALS REGISTRATION: NCT02055157, NCT03197766, and NCT01603095.


Assuntos
Acondroplasia , Peptídeo Natriurético Tipo C , Acondroplasia/induzido quimicamente , Acondroplasia/tratamento farmacológico , Área Sob a Curva , Biomarcadores , Criança , Método Duplo-Cego , Humanos , Injeções Subcutâneas , Peptídeo Natriurético Tipo C/análogos & derivados , Peptídeo Natriurético Tipo C/farmacologia , Peptídeo Natriurético Tipo C/uso terapêutico
8.
Genet Med ; 24(1): 179-191, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34906456

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Haploinsufficiency of PSMD12 has been reported in individuals with neurodevelopmental phenotypes, including developmental delay/intellectual disability (DD/ID), facial dysmorphism, and congenital malformations, defined as Stankiewicz-Isidor syndrome (STISS). Investigations showed that pathogenic variants in PSMD12 perturb intracellular protein homeostasis. Our objective was to further explore the clinical and molecular phenotypic spectrum of STISS. METHODS: We report 24 additional unrelated patients with STISS with various truncating single nucleotide variants or copy-number variant deletions involving PSMD12. We explore disease etiology by assessing patient cells and CRISPR/Cas9-engineered cell clones for various cellular pathways and inflammatory status. RESULTS: The expressivity of most clinical features in STISS is highly variable. In addition to previously reported DD/ID, speech delay, cardiac and renal anomalies, we also confirmed preaxial hand abnormalities as a feature of this syndrome. Of note, 2 patients also showed chilblains resembling signs observed in interferonopathy. Remarkably, our data show that STISS patient cells exhibit a profound remodeling of the mTORC1 and mitophagy pathways with an induction of type I interferon-stimulated genes. CONCLUSION: We refine the phenotype of STISS and show that it can be clinically recognizable and biochemically diagnosed by a type I interferon gene signature.


Assuntos
Deficiência Intelectual , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Anormalidades Musculoesqueléticas , Haploinsuficiência , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/diagnóstico , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/genética , Anormalidades Musculoesqueléticas/genética , Fenótipo
9.
Genet Med ; 23(12): 2443-2447, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34341520

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Achondroplasia is caused by pathogenic variants in the fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 gene that lead to impaired endochondral ossification. Vosoritide, an analog of C-type natriuretic peptide, stimulates endochondral bone growth and is in development for the treatment of achondroplasia. This phase 3 extension study was conducted to document the efficacy and safety of continuous, daily vosoritide treatment in children with achondroplasia, and the two-year results are reported. METHODS: After completing at least six months of a baseline observational growth study, and 52 weeks in a double-blind, placebo-controlled study, participants were eligible to continue treatment in an open-label extension study, where all participants received vosoritide at a dose of 15.0 µg/kg/day. RESULTS: In children randomized to vosoritide, annualized growth velocity increased from 4.26 cm/year at baseline to 5.39 cm/year at 52 weeks and 5.52 cm/year at week 104. In children who crossed over from placebo to vosoritide in the extension study, annualized growth velocity increased from 3.81 cm/year at week 52 to 5.43 cm/year at week 104. No new adverse effects of vosoritide were detected. CONCLUSION: Vosoritide treatment has safe and persistent growth-promoting effects in children with achondroplasia treated daily for two years.


Assuntos
Acondroplasia , Peptídeo Natriurético Tipo C , Acondroplasia/tratamento farmacológico , Acondroplasia/genética , Criança , Método Duplo-Cego , Humanos , Peptídeo Natriurético Tipo C/análogos & derivados , Peptídeo Natriurético Tipo C/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
Pediatr Neurol ; 123: 30-37, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34388423

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adequate sleep is important for proper neurodevelopment and positive health outcomes. Sleep disturbances are more prevalent in children with genetically determined neurodevelopmental syndromes compared with typically developing counterparts. We characterize sleep behavior in Rett (RTT), Angelman (AS), and Prader-Willi (PWS) syndromes to identify effective approaches for treating sleep problems in these populations. We compared sleep-related symptoms across individuals with these different syndromes with each other, and with typically developing controls. METHODS: Children were recruited from the Rare Diseases Clinical Research Network consortium registries; unaffected siblings were enrolled as related controls. For each participant, a parent completed multiple sleep questionnaires including Pediatric Sleep Questionnaire (Sleep-Disordered Breathing), Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ), and Pediatric Daytime Sleepiness Scale. RESULTS: Sleep data were analyzed from 714 participants, aged two to 18 years. Young children with AS had more reported sleep problems than children with RTT or PWS. Older children with RTT had more reported daytime sleepiness than those with AS or PWS. Finally, all individuals with RTT had more evidence of sleep-disordered breathing when compared with individuals with PWS. Notably, typically developing siblings were also reported to have sleep problems, except for sleep-related breathing disturbances, which were associated with each of the genetic syndromes. CONCLUSIONS: Individuals with RTT, AS, and PWS frequently experience sleep problems, including sleep-disordered breathing. Screening for sleep problems in individuals with these and other neurogenetic disorders should be included in clinical assessment and managements. These data may also be useful in developing treatment strategies and in clinical trials.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Angelman/fisiopatologia , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/fisiopatologia , Síndrome de Prader-Willi/fisiopatologia , Síndrome de Rett/fisiopatologia , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/diagnóstico , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Síndrome de Angelman/complicações , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/complicações , Síndrome de Prader-Willi/complicações , Doenças Raras , Síndrome de Rett/complicações , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/etiologia
11.
Genome Med ; 13(1): 63, 2021 04 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33874999

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With the increasing number of genomic sequencing studies, hundreds of genes have been implicated in neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs). The rate of gene discovery far outpaces our understanding of genotype-phenotype correlations, with clinical characterization remaining a bottleneck for understanding NDDs. Most disease-associated Mendelian genes are members of gene families, and we hypothesize that those with related molecular function share clinical presentations. METHODS: We tested our hypothesis by considering gene families that have multiple members with an enrichment of de novo variants among NDDs, as determined by previous meta-analyses. One of these gene families is the heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNPs), which has 33 members, five of which have been recently identified as NDD genes (HNRNPK, HNRNPU, HNRNPH1, HNRNPH2, and HNRNPR) and two of which have significant enrichment in our previous meta-analysis of probands with NDDs (HNRNPU and SYNCRIP). Utilizing protein homology, mutation analyses, gene expression analyses, and phenotypic characterization, we provide evidence for variation in 12 HNRNP genes as candidates for NDDs. Seven are potentially novel while the remaining genes in the family likely do not significantly contribute to NDD risk. RESULTS: We report 119 new NDD cases (64 de novo variants) through sequencing and international collaborations and combined with published clinical case reports. We consider 235 cases with gene-disruptive single-nucleotide variants or indels and 15 cases with small copy number variants. Three hnRNP-encoding genes reach nominal or exome-wide significance for de novo variant enrichment, while nine are candidates for pathogenic mutations. Comparison of HNRNP gene expression shows a pattern consistent with a role in cerebral cortical development with enriched expression among radial glial progenitors. Clinical assessment of probands (n = 188-221) expands the phenotypes associated with HNRNP rare variants, and phenotypes associated with variation in the HNRNP genes distinguishes them as a subgroup of NDDs. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, our novel approach of exploiting gene families in NDDs identifies new HNRNP-related disorders, expands the phenotypes of known HNRNP-related disorders, strongly implicates disruption of the hnRNPs as a whole in NDDs, and supports that NDD subtypes likely have shared molecular pathogenesis. To date, this is the first study to identify novel genetic disorders based on the presence of disorders in related genes. We also perform the first phenotypic analyses focusing on related genes. Finally, we show that radial glial expression of these genes is likely critical during neurodevelopment. This is important for diagnostics, as well as developing strategies to best study these genes for the development of therapeutics.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença , Ribonucleoproteínas Nucleares Heterogêneas/genética , Mutação/genética , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/genética , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Estudos de Associação Genética , Variação Genética , Ribonucleoproteínas Nucleares Heterogêneas/metabolismo , Humanos , Padrões de Herança/genética , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto/genética , Fenótipo , Processamento Pós-Transcricional do RNA/genética , Análise de Célula Única
12.
Am J Hum Genet ; 108(1): 134-147, 2021 01 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33340455

RESUMO

The ubiquitin-proteasome system facilitates the degradation of unstable or damaged proteins. UBR1-7, which are members of hundreds of E3 ubiquitin ligases, recognize and regulate the half-life of specific proteins on the basis of their N-terminal sequences ("N-end rule"). In seven individuals with intellectual disability, epilepsy, ptosis, hypothyroidism, and genital anomalies, we uncovered bi-allelic variants in UBR7. Their phenotype differs significantly from that of Johanson-Blizzard syndrome (JBS), which is caused by bi-allelic variants in UBR1, notably by the presence of epilepsy and the absence of exocrine pancreatic insufficiency and hypoplasia of nasal alae. While the mechanistic etiology of JBS remains uncertain, mutation of both Ubr1 and Ubr2 in the mouse or of the C. elegans UBR5 ortholog results in Notch signaling defects. Consistent with a potential role in Notch signaling, C. elegans ubr-7 expression partially overlaps with that of ubr-5, including in neurons, as well as the distal tip cell that plays a crucial role in signaling to germline stem cells via the Notch signaling pathway. Analysis of ubr-5 and ubr-7 single mutants and double mutants revealed genetic interactions with the Notch receptor gene glp-1 that influenced development and embryo formation. Collectively, our findings further implicate the UBR protein family and the Notch signaling pathway in a neurodevelopmental syndrome with epilepsy, ptosis, and hypothyroidism that differs from JBS. Further studies exploring a potential role in histone regulation are warranted given clinical overlap with KAT6B disorders and the interaction of UBR7 and UBR5 with histones.


Assuntos
Epilepsia/genética , Hipotireoidismo/genética , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/genética , Receptores Notch/genética , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/genética , Animais , Anus Imperfurado/genética , Caenorhabditis elegans/genética , Linhagem Celular , Displasia Ectodérmica/genética , Transtornos do Crescimento/genética , Células HEK293 , Perda Auditiva Neurossensorial/genética , Histonas/genética , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Camundongos , Mutação/genética , Nariz/anormalidades , Pancreatopatias/genética , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma/genética
13.
J Clin Invest ; 131(1)2021 01 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33001864

RESUMO

BACKGROUNDTranscriptome sequencing (RNA-seq) improves diagnostic rates in individuals with suspected Mendelian conditions to varying degrees, primarily by directing the prioritization of candidate DNA variants identified on exome or genome sequencing (ES/GS). Here we implemented an RNA-seq-guided method to diagnose individuals across a wide range of ages and clinical phenotypes.METHODSOne hundred fifteen undiagnosed adult and pediatric patients with diverse phenotypes and 67 family members (182 total individuals) underwent RNA-seq from whole blood and skin fibroblasts at the Baylor College of Medicine (BCM) Undiagnosed Diseases Network clinical site from 2014 to 2020. We implemented a workflow to detect outliers in gene expression and splicing for cases that remained undiagnosed despite standard genomic and transcriptomic analysis.RESULTSThe transcriptome-directed approach resulted in a diagnostic rate of 12% across the entire cohort, or 17% after excluding cases solved on ES/GS alone. Newly diagnosed conditions included Koolen-de Vries syndrome (KANSL1), Renpenning syndrome (PQBP1), TBCK-associated encephalopathy, NSD2- and CLTC-related intellectual disability, and others, all with negative conventional genomic testing, including ES and chromosomal microarray (CMA). Skin fibroblasts exhibited higher and more consistent expression of clinically relevant genes than whole blood. In solved cases with RNA-seq from both tissues, the causative defect was missed in blood in half the cases but none from fibroblasts.CONCLUSIONSFor our cohort of undiagnosed individuals with suspected Mendelian conditions, transcriptome-directed genomic analysis facilitated diagnoses, primarily through the identification of variants missed on ES and CMA.TRIAL REGISTRATIONNot applicable.FUNDINGNIH Common Fund, BCM Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities Research Center, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development.


Assuntos
Fibroblastos , Doenças Genéticas Inatas/genética , RNA-Seq , Pele , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
14.
Am J Med Genet A ; 182(11): 2751-2754, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32885560

RESUMO

Sudden Infant Death with Dysgenesis of the Testes syndrome (SIDDT) is a very rare condition associated with biallelic pathogenic variants in the TSPYL1 gene first reported in 2004. It is characterized by sudden cardiac or respiratory arrest, disordered testicular development, neurologic dysfunction, and is uniformly fatal before the age of 12 months. There were previously 21 reported cases of SIDDT in the literature, all from nine Old Order Amish families published in a single paper. In this report, we describe a non-Amish, phenotypically female infant with poor feeding and abnormal motor movements noted at birth. Initial testing showed that she had a 46,XY chromosome complement, and chromosomal microarray showed a significant absence of heterozygosity (AOH) totalling roughly 600 Mb across multiple different chromosomes, indicating consanguinity. Further workup with exome sequencing revealed homozygosity for a frameshift variant in TSPYL1 (c.725_726delTG, p.Val242GlufsTer52) consistent with a diagnosis of SIDDT, explaining many of her clinical features. However, she was also noted to have a mild T-cell lymphopenia and developed intractable epilepsy after hospital discharge. These features have not previously been reported in SIDDT and may represent phenotypic expansion. To our knowledge, this patient is the 22nd case of SIDDT to be reported in the literature, and the first to be of non-Amish heritage.


Assuntos
Mutação , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Fenótipo , Morte Súbita do Lactente/patologia , Testículo/anormalidades , Amish , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Morte Súbita do Lactente/genética , Testículo/patologia , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
15.
Lancet ; 396(10252): 684-692, 2020 09 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32891212

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There are no effective therapies for achondroplasia. An open-label study suggested that vosoritide administration might increase growth velocity in children with achondroplasia. This phase 3 trial was designed to further assess these preliminary findings. METHODS: This randomised, double-blind, phase 3, placebo-controlled, multicentre trial compared once-daily subcutaneous administration of vosoritide with placebo in children with achondroplasia. The trial was done in hospitals at 24 sites in seven countries (Australia, Germany, Japan, Spain, Turkey, the USA, and the UK). Eligible patients had a clinical diagnosis of achondroplasia, were ambulatory, had participated for 6 months in a baseline growth study and were aged 5 to less than 18 years at enrolment. Randomisation was done by means of a voice or web-response system, stratified according to sex and Tanner stage. Participants, investigators, and trial sponsor were masked to group assignment. Participants received either vosoritide 15·0 µg/kg or placebo, as allocated, for the duration of the 52-week treatment period administered by daily subcutaneous injections in their homes by trained caregivers. The primary endpoint was change from baseline in mean annualised growth velocity at 52 weeks in treated patients as compared with controls. All randomly assigned patients were included in the efficacy analyses (n=121). All patients who received one dose of vosoritide or placebo (n=121) were included in the safety analyses. The trial is complete and is registered, with EudraCT, number, 2015-003836-11. FINDINGS: All participants were recruited from Dec 12, 2016, to Nov 7, 2018, with 60 assigned to receive vosoritide and 61 to receive placebo. Of 124 patients screened for eligibility, 121 patients were randomly assigned, and 119 patients completed the 52-week trial. The adjusted mean difference in annualised growth velocity between patients in the vosoritide group and placebo group was 1·57 cm/year in favour of vosoritide (95% CI [1·22-1·93]; two-sided p<0·0001). A total of 119 patients had at least one adverse event; vosoritide group, 59 (98%), and placebo group, 60 (98%). None of the serious adverse events were considered to be treatment related and no deaths occurred. INTERPRETATION: Vosoritide is an effective treatment to increase growth in children with achondroplasia. It is not known whether final adult height will be increased, or what the harms of long-term therapy might be. FUNDING: BioMarin Pharmaceutical.


Assuntos
Acondroplasia/tratamento farmacológico , Peptídeo Natriurético Tipo C/análogos & derivados , Osteogênese , Absorciometria de Fóton , Acondroplasia/sangue , Adolescente , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estatura , Densidade Óssea , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Colágeno Tipo X/sangue , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Reação no Local da Injeção , Injeções Subcutâneas , Masculino , Peptídeo Natriurético Tipo C/uso terapêutico
16.
Genet Med ; 22(10): 1633-1641, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32576985

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Improved resolution of molecular diagnostic technologies enabled detection of smaller sized exonic level copy-number variants (CNVs). The contribution of CNVs to autosomal recessive (AR) conditions may be better recognized using a large clinical cohort. METHODS: We retrospectively investigated the CNVs' contribution to AR conditions in cases subjected to chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA, N = ~70,000) and/or clinical exome sequencing (ES, N = ~12,000) at Baylor Genetics; most had pediatric onset neurodevelopmental disorders. RESULTS: CNVs contributed to biallelic variations in 87 cases, including 81 singletons and three affected sibling pairs. Seventy cases had CNVs affecting both alleles, and 17 had a CNV and a single-nucleotide variant (SNV)/indel in trans. In total, 94.3% of AR-CNVs affected one gene; among these 41.4% were single-exon and 35.0% were multiexon partial-gene events. Sixty-nine percent of homozygous AR-CNVs were embedded in homozygous genomic intervals. Five cases had large deletions unmasking an SNV/indel on the intact allele for a recessive condition, resulting in multiple molecular diagnoses. CONCLUSIONS: AR-CNVs are often smaller in size, transmitted through generations, and underrecognized due to limitations in clinical CNV detection methods. Our findings from a large clinical cohort emphasized integrated CNV and SNV/indel analyses for precise clinical and molecular diagnosis especially in the context of genomic disorders.


Assuntos
Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Mutação INDEL , Criança , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA/genética , Éxons , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
17.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2441, 2020 05 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32415109

RESUMO

KIF21B is a kinesin protein that promotes intracellular transport and controls microtubule dynamics. We report three missense variants and one duplication in KIF21B in individuals with neurodevelopmental disorders associated with brain malformations, including corpus callosum agenesis (ACC) and microcephaly. We demonstrate, in vivo, that the expression of KIF21B missense variants specifically recapitulates patients' neurodevelopmental abnormalities, including microcephaly and reduced intra- and inter-hemispheric connectivity. We establish that missense KIF21B variants impede neuronal migration through attenuation of kinesin autoinhibition leading to aberrant KIF21B motility activity. We also show that the ACC-related KIF21B variant independently perturbs axonal growth and ipsilateral axon branching through two distinct mechanisms, both leading to deregulation of canonical kinesin motor activity. The duplication introduces a premature termination codon leading to nonsense-mediated mRNA decay. Although we demonstrate that Kif21b haploinsufficiency leads to an impaired neuronal positioning, the duplication variant might not be pathogenic. Altogether, our data indicate that impaired KIF21B autoregulation and function play a critical role in the pathogenicity of human neurodevelopmental disorder.


Assuntos
/genética , Atividade Motora , Mutação/genética , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/genética , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/fisiopatologia , Animais , Axônios/metabolismo , Movimento Celular , Proliferação de Células , Córtex Cerebral/embriologia , Córtex Cerebral/patologia , Córtex Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto/genética , Rede Nervosa/patologia , Rede Nervosa/fisiopatologia , Neurônios/metabolismo , Tamanho do Órgão , Organogênese/genética , Linhagem , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Peixe-Zebra/anatomia & histologia , Peixe-Zebra/genética
18.
Genomics ; 112(5): 2937-2941, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32387503

RESUMO

To further assess the scale and level of parental somatic mosaicism, we queried the CMA database at Baylor Genetics. We selected 50 unrelated families where clinically relevant apparent de novo CNV-deletions were found in the affected probands. Parental blood samples screening using deletion junction-specific PCR revealed four parents with somatic mosaicism. Droplet digital PCR (ddPCR), qPCR, and amplicon-based next-generation sequencing (NGS) were applied to validate these findings. Using ddPCR levels of mosaicism ranged from undetectable to 18.5%. Amplicon-based NGS and qPCR for the father with undetectable mosaicism was able to detect mosaicism at 0.39%. In one mother, ddPCR analysis revealed 15.6%, 10.6%, 8.2%, and undetectable levels of mosaicism in her blood, buccal cells, saliva, and urine samples, respectively. Our data suggest that more sensitive and precise methods, e.g. CNV junction-specific LR-PCR, ddPCR, or qPCR may allow for a more refined assessment of the potential disease recurrence risk for an identified variant.


Assuntos
Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Mosaicismo , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Feminino , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Padrões de Herança , Masculino , Análise de Sequência de DNA
19.
Am J Hum Genet ; 106(5): 717-725, 2020 05 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32330417

RESUMO

We identified three unrelated individuals with de novo missense variants in CDK19, encoding a cyclin-dependent kinase protein family member that predominantly regulates gene transcription. These individuals presented with hypotonia, global developmental delay, epileptic encephalopathy, and dysmorphic features. CDK19 is conserved between vertebrate and invertebrate model organisms, but currently abnormalities in CDK19 are not known to be associated with a human disorder. Loss of Cdk8, the fly homolog of CDK19, causes larval lethality, which is suppressed by expression of human CDK19 reference cDNA. In contrast, the CDK19 p.Tyr32His and p.Thr196Ala variants identified in the affected individuals fail to rescue the loss of Cdk8 and behave as null alleles. Additionally, neuronal RNAi-mediated knockdown of Cdk8 in flies results in semi-lethality. The few eclosing flies exhibit severe seizures and a reduced lifespan. Both phenotypes are fully suppressed by moderate expression of the CDK19 reference cDNA but not by expression of the two variants. Finally, loss of Cdk8 causes an obvious loss of boutons and synapses at larval neuromuscular junctions (NMJs). Together, our findings demonstrate that human CDK19 fully replaces the function of Cdk8 in the fly, the human disease-associated CDK19 variants behave as strong loss-of-function variants, and deleterious CDK19 variants underlie a syndromic neurodevelopmental disorder.


Assuntos
Encefalopatias/genética , Quinases Ciclina-Dependentes/genética , Epilepsia Generalizada/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto/genética , Adulto , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Pré-Escolar , Quinase 8 Dependente de Ciclina/deficiência , Quinase 8 Dependente de Ciclina/genética , Proteínas de Drosophila/deficiência , Proteínas de Drosophila/genética , Drosophila melanogaster/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Junção Neuromuscular , Doenças Raras/genética , Convulsões/genética , Síndrome , Adulto Jovem
20.
Hum Mutat ; 41(5): 921-925, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31999386

RESUMO

The bromodomain adjacent to zinc finger 2B gene (BAZ2B) encodes a protein involved in chromatin remodeling. Loss of BAZ2B function has been postulated to cause neurodevelopmental disorders. To determine whether BAZ2B deficiency is likely to contribute to the pathogenesis of these disorders, we performed bioinformatics analyses that demonstrated a high level of functional convergence during fetal cortical development between BAZ2B and genes known to cause autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and neurodevelopmental disorder. We also found an excess of de novo BAZ2B loss-of-function variants in exome sequencing data from previously published cohorts of individuals with neurodevelopmental disorders. We subsequently identified seven additional individuals with heterozygous deletions, stop-gain, or de novo missense variants affecting BAZ2B. All of these individuals have developmental delay (DD), intellectual disability (ID), and/or ASD. Taken together, our findings suggest that haploinsufficiency of BAZ2B causes a neurodevelopmental disorder, whose cardinal features include DD, ID, and ASD.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Haploinsuficiência , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/genética , Fatores Genéricos de Transcrição/genética , Alelos , Substituição de Aminoácidos , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/diagnóstico , Expressão Gênica , Estudos de Associação Genética , Genótipo , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/diagnóstico , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/diagnóstico , Deleção de Sequência
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