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1.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(35): 1191-1194, 2021 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34473685

RESUMO

Harmful algal and cyanobacterial blooms (harmful algal blooms) are large colonies of algae or cyanobacteria that can harm humans, animals, and the environment (1-3). The number of algal blooms has been increasing in the United States, augmented by increasing water temperatures and nutrients in water from industry and agricultural run-off (4,5). The extent to which harmful algal bloom exposures cause human illness or long-term health effects is unknown. As the number of blooms increases annually, the likelihood of negative health outcomes (e.g., respiratory or gastrointestinal illness) from exposure also increases (4,5). To explore the utility of syndromic surveillance data for studying health effects from harmful algal bloom exposures, CDC queried emergency department (ED) visit data from the National Syndromic Surveillance Program (NSSP) for harmful algal bloom exposure-associated administrative discharge diagnosis codes and chief complaint text terms related to harmful algal bloom exposure (6). A total of 321 harmful algal bloom-associated ED visits were identified during January 1, 2017-December 31, 2019. An increase in harmful algal bloom-associated ED visits occurred during warmer months (June-October), consistent with seasonal fluctuations of blooms and recent publications (6,7). Although syndromic surveillance data are helpful for understanding harmful algal bloom-associated ED visits in the United States, exposures were documented infrequently with discharge diagnosis codes; 67% of harmful algal bloom-associated ED visits were identified through querying chief complaint text. Improving the documentation of harmful algal bloom exposures in medical records would further benefit future health studies.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Proliferação Nociva de Algas , Vigilância de Evento Sentinela , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Doenças Transmissíveis/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estações do Ano , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
2.
Environ Sci Technol ; 55(8): 5012-5023, 2021 04 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33729798

RESUMO

Arsenic from geologic sources is widespread in groundwater within the United States (U.S.). In several areas, groundwater arsenic concentrations exceed the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency maximum contaminant level of 10 µg per liter (µg/L). However, this standard applies only to public-supply drinking water and not to private-supply, which is not federally regulated and is rarely monitored. As a result, arsenic exposure from private wells is a potentially substantial, but largely hidden, public health concern. Machine learning models using boosted regression trees (BRT) and random forest classification (RFC) techniques were developed to estimate probabilities and concentration ranges of arsenic in private wells throughout the conterminous U.S. Three BRT models were fit separately to estimate the probability of private well arsenic concentrations exceeding 1, 5, or 10 µg/L whereas the RFC model estimates the most probable category (≤5, >5 to ≤10, or >10 µg/L). Overall, the models perform best at identifying areas with low concentrations of arsenic in private wells. The BRT 10 µg/L model estimates for testing data have an overall accuracy of 91.2%, sensitivity of 33.9%, and specificity of 98.2%. Influential variables identified across all models included average annual precipitation and soil geochemistry. Models were developed in collaboration with public health experts to support U.S.-based studies focused on health effects from arsenic exposure.


Assuntos
Arsênio , Água Subterrânea , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Arsênio/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Estados Unidos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Abastecimento de Água , Poços de Água
3.
Ann Glob Health ; 86(1): 151, 2020 12 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33354517

RESUMO

Background: Pollution - unwanted waste released to air, water, and land by human activity - is the largest environmental cause of disease in the world today. It is responsible for an estimated nine million premature deaths per year, enormous economic losses, erosion of human capital, and degradation of ecosystems. Ocean pollution is an important, but insufficiently recognized and inadequately controlled component of global pollution. It poses serious threats to human health and well-being. The nature and magnitude of these impacts are only beginning to be understood. Goals: (1) Broadly examine the known and potential impacts of ocean pollution on human health. (2) Inform policy makers, government leaders, international organizations, civil society, and the global public of these threats. (3) Propose priorities for interventions to control and prevent pollution of the seas and safeguard human health. Methods: Topic-focused reviews that examine the effects of ocean pollution on human health, identify gaps in knowledge, project future trends, and offer evidence-based guidance for effective intervention. Environmental Findings: Pollution of the oceans is widespread, worsening, and in most countries poorly controlled. It is a complex mixture of toxic metals, plastics, manufactured chemicals, petroleum, urban and industrial wastes, pesticides, fertilizers, pharmaceutical chemicals, agricultural runoff, and sewage. More than 80% arises from land-based sources. It reaches the oceans through rivers, runoff, atmospheric deposition and direct discharges. It is often heaviest near the coasts and most highly concentrated along the coasts of low- and middle-income countries. Plastic is a rapidly increasing and highly visible component of ocean pollution, and an estimated 10 million metric tons of plastic waste enter the seas each year. Mercury is the metal pollutant of greatest concern in the oceans; it is released from two main sources - coal combustion and small-scale gold mining. Global spread of industrialized agriculture with increasing use of chemical fertilizer leads to extension of Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs) to previously unaffected regions. Chemical pollutants are ubiquitous and contaminate seas and marine organisms from the high Arctic to the abyssal depths. Ecosystem Findings: Ocean pollution has multiple negative impacts on marine ecosystems, and these impacts are exacerbated by global climate change. Petroleum-based pollutants reduce photosynthesis in marine microorganisms that generate oxygen. Increasing absorption of carbon dioxide into the seas causes ocean acidification, which destroys coral reefs, impairs shellfish development, dissolves calcium-containing microorganisms at the base of the marine food web, and increases the toxicity of some pollutants. Plastic pollution threatens marine mammals, fish, and seabirds and accumulates in large mid-ocean gyres. It breaks down into microplastic and nanoplastic particles containing multiple manufactured chemicals that can enter the tissues of marine organisms, including species consumed by humans. Industrial releases, runoff, and sewage increase frequency and severity of HABs, bacterial pollution, and anti-microbial resistance. Pollution and sea surface warming are triggering poleward migration of dangerous pathogens such as the Vibrio species. Industrial discharges, pharmaceutical wastes, pesticides, and sewage contribute to global declines in fish stocks. Human Health Findings: Methylmercury and PCBs are the ocean pollutants whose human health effects are best understood. Exposures of infants in utero to these pollutants through maternal consumption of contaminated seafood can damage developing brains, reduce IQ and increase children's risks for autism, ADHD and learning disorders. Adult exposures to methylmercury increase risks for cardiovascular disease and dementia. Manufactured chemicals - phthalates, bisphenol A, flame retardants, and perfluorinated chemicals, many of them released into the seas from plastic waste - can disrupt endocrine signaling, reduce male fertility, damage the nervous system, and increase risk of cancer. HABs produce potent toxins that accumulate in fish and shellfish. When ingested, these toxins can cause severe neurological impairment and rapid death. HAB toxins can also become airborne and cause respiratory disease. Pathogenic marine bacteria cause gastrointestinal diseases and deep wound infections. With climate change and increasing pollution, risk is high that Vibrio infections, including cholera, will increase in frequency and extend to new areas. All of the health impacts of ocean pollution fall disproportionately on vulnerable populations in the Global South - environmental injustice on a planetary scale. Conclusions: Ocean pollution is a global problem. It arises from multiple sources and crosses national boundaries. It is the consequence of reckless, shortsighted, and unsustainable exploitation of the earth's resources. It endangers marine ecosystems. It impedes the production of atmospheric oxygen. Its threats to human health are great and growing, but still incompletely understood. Its economic costs are only beginning to be counted.Ocean pollution can be prevented. Like all forms of pollution, ocean pollution can be controlled by deploying data-driven strategies based on law, policy, technology, and enforcement that target priority pollution sources. Many countries have used these tools to control air and water pollution and are now applying them to ocean pollution. Successes achieved to date demonstrate that broader control is feasible. Heavily polluted harbors have been cleaned, estuaries rejuvenated, and coral reefs restored.Prevention of ocean pollution creates many benefits. It boosts economies, increases tourism, helps restore fisheries, and improves human health and well-being. It advances the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG). These benefits will last for centuries. Recommendations: World leaders who recognize the gravity of ocean pollution, acknowledge its growing dangers, engage civil society and the global public, and take bold, evidence-based action to stop pollution at source will be critical to preventing ocean pollution and safeguarding human health.Prevention of pollution from land-based sources is key. Eliminating coal combustion and banning all uses of mercury will reduce mercury pollution. Bans on single-use plastic and better management of plastic waste reduce plastic pollution. Bans on persistent organic pollutants (POPs) have reduced pollution by PCBs and DDT. Control of industrial discharges, treatment of sewage, and reduced applications of fertilizers have mitigated coastal pollution and are reducing frequency of HABs. National, regional and international marine pollution control programs that are adequately funded and backed by strong enforcement have been shown to be effective. Robust monitoring is essential to track progress.Further interventions that hold great promise include wide-scale transition to renewable fuels; transition to a circular economy that creates little waste and focuses on equity rather than on endless growth; embracing the principles of green chemistry; and building scientific capacity in all countries.Designation of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) will safeguard critical ecosystems, protect vulnerable fish stocks, and enhance human health and well-being. Creation of MPAs is an important manifestation of national and international commitment to protecting the health of the seas.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Plásticos , Animais , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Masculino , Oceanos e Mares , Água do Mar , Poluição da Água/prevenção & controle
4.
Sci Total Environ ; 6962019 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32636572

RESUMO

Background: People living in coastal communities are at risk for exposure to environmental hazards, including legacy chemicals. We can use databases such as NHANES to assess whether contaminants in coastal communities are present in higher levels than in the United States overall. We can use information from studies of local animal populations to assess which of these contaminants could have been transferred to people from their shared environment. Objective: Our objectives were to examine the POP profiles in human populations in areas where there are published POP profiles in resident dolphins and to compare our results with data from NHANES and the dolphin studies. Methods: We identified three areas where POPs have been analyzed in local resident dolphin populations (total N =73). We identified human communities in the same areas, and asked 27 eligible adults to read and sign a consent form, complete a questionnaire about demographics and seafood consumption, provide nine 10-mL blood samples, and provide one sample of seafood (N = 33). Blood and seafood were analyzed for a suite of POPs similar to those analyzed in published dolphin population studies. We compared the results from human blood analyses with NHANES and with data from the published reports of dolphin studies. Results: Levels and proportions of specific POPs found in people and animals reflect POPs found in the local environment. Compared with the nationally representative data reported in NHANES, the levels of many POPs found in high levels in dolphins were also higher in the corresponding human communities. Conclusions: Contaminants measured in marine animals, such as dolphins, can be used to identify the types and relative levels of environmental contaminants expected to occur in people sharing the same environment. Likewise, contaminants measured in coastal human populations can provide insight into which contaminants may be found in nearby animal populations.


Assuntos
Golfinho Nariz-de-Garrafa , Golfinhos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Animais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Inquéritos Nutricionais
5.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 67(25): 701-706, 2018 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29953425

RESUMO

Outbreaks associated with untreated recreational water can be caused by pathogens, toxins, or chemicals in fresh water (e.g., lakes, rivers) or marine water (e.g., ocean). During 2000-2014, public health officials from 35 states and Guam voluntarily reported 140 untreated recreational water-associated outbreaks to CDC. These outbreaks resulted in at least 4,958 cases of disease and two deaths. Among the 95 outbreaks with a confirmed infectious etiology, enteric pathogens caused 80 (84%); 21 (22%) were caused by norovirus, 19 (20%) by Escherichia coli, 14 (15%) by Shigella, and 12 (13%) by Cryptosporidium. Investigations of these 95 outbreaks identified 3,125 cases; 2,704 (87%) were caused by enteric pathogens, including 1,459 (47%) by norovirus, 362 (12%) by Shigella, 314 (10%) by Cryptosporidium, and 155 (5%) by E. coli. Avian schistosomes were identified as the cause in 345 (11%) of the 3,125 cases. The two deaths were in persons affected by a single outbreak (two cases) caused by Naegleria fowleri. Public parks (50 [36%]) and beaches (45 [32%]) were the leading settings associated with the 140 outbreaks. Overall, the majority of outbreaks started during June-August (113 [81%]); 65 (58%) started in July. Swimmers and parents of young swimmers can take steps to minimize the risk for exposure to pathogens, toxins, and chemicals in untreated recreational water by heeding posted advisories closing the beach to swimming; not swimming in discolored, smelly, foamy, or scummy water; not swimming while sick with diarrhea; and limiting water entering the nose when swimming in warm freshwater.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças/estatística & dados numéricos , Água Doce , Recreação , Praias/estatística & dados numéricos , Água Doce/microbiologia , Água Doce/parasitologia , Água Doce/virologia , Humanos , Lagos/microbiologia , Lagos/parasitologia , Lagos/virologia , Parques Recreativos/estatística & dados numéricos , Lagoas/microbiologia , Lagoas/parasitologia , Lagoas/virologia , Rios/microbiologia , Rios/parasitologia , Rios/virologia , Fatores de Tempo , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Purificação da Água
6.
Environ Sci Technol ; 51(21): 12443-12454, 2017 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29043784

RESUMO

Arsenic concentrations from 20 450 domestic wells in the U.S. were used to develop a logistic regression model of the probability of having arsenic >10 µg/L ("high arsenic"), which is presented at the county, state, and national scales. Variables representing geologic sources, geochemical, hydrologic, and physical features were among the significant predictors of high arsenic. For U.S. Census blocks, the mean probability of arsenic >10 µg/L was multiplied by the population using domestic wells to estimate the potential high-arsenic domestic-well population. Approximately 44.1 M people in the U.S. use water from domestic wells. The population in the conterminous U.S. using water from domestic wells with predicted arsenic concentration >10 µg/L is 2.1 M people (95% CI is 1.5 to 2.9 M). Although areas of the U.S. were underrepresented with arsenic data, predictive variables available in national data sets were used to estimate high arsenic in unsampled areas. Additionally, by predicting to all of the conterminous U.S., we identify areas of high and low potential exposure in areas of limited arsenic data. These areas may be viewed as potential areas to investigate further or to compare to more detailed local information. Linking predictive modeling to private well use information nationally, despite the uncertainty, is beneficial for broad screening of the population at risk from elevated arsenic in drinking water from private wells.


Assuntos
Arsênio , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Poços de Água , Modelos Logísticos , Estados Unidos , Abastecimento de Água
7.
Mar Drugs ; 15(3)2017 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28335428

RESUMO

Ciguatera Fish Poisoning (CFP) is the most frequently reported seafood-toxin illness in the world. It causes substantial human health, social, and economic impacts. The illness produces a complex array of gastrointestinal, neurological and neuropsychological, and cardiovascular symptoms, which may last days, weeks, or months. This paper is a general review of CFP including the human health effects of exposure to ciguatoxins (CTXs), diagnosis, human pathophysiology of CFP, treatment, detection of CTXs in fish, epidemiology of the illness, global dimensions, prevention, future directions, and recommendations for clinicians and patients. It updates and expands upon the previous review of CFP published by Friedman et al. (2008) and addresses new insights and relevant emerging global themes such as climate and environmental change, international market issues, and socioeconomic impacts of CFP. It also provides a proposed universal case definition for CFP designed to account for the variability in symptom presentation across different geographic regions. Information that is important but unchanged since the previous review has been reiterated. This article is intended for a broad audience, including resource and fishery managers, commercial and recreational fishers, public health officials, medical professionals, and other interested parties.


Assuntos
Intoxicação por Ciguatera/epidemiologia , Ciguatoxinas/toxicidade , Peixes/metabolismo , Alimentos Marinhos/envenenamento , Animais , Surtos de Doenças , Humanos , Saúde Pública
8.
Vet Sci ; 3(2)2016 04 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27152315

RESUMO

People, domestic animals, and wildlife are all exposed to numerous environmental threats, including harmful algal blooms (HABs). However, because animals exhibit wide variations in diet, land use and biology, they are often more frequently or heavily exposed to HAB toxins than are people occupying the same habitat, making them sentinels for human exposures. Historically, we have taken advantage of unique physiological characteristics of animals, such as the sensitivity of canaries to carbon monoxide, to more quickly recognize threats and help protect human health. As HAB events become more severe and widespread worldwide, exposure and health outcome data for animals can be extremely helpful to predict, prevent, and evaluate human exposures and health outcomes. Applying a One Health approach to investigation of HABs means that lessons learned from animal sentinels can be applied to protect people, animals and our shared environment.

9.
Sci Total Environ ; 544: 701-10, 2016 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26674699

RESUMO

There is little published literature on the efficacy of strategies to reduce exposure to residential well water arsenic. The objectives of our study were to: 1) determine if water arsenic remained a significant exposure source in households using bottled water or point-of-use treatment systems; and 2) evaluate the major sources and routes of any remaining arsenic exposure. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 167 households in Maine using one of these two strategies to prevent exposure to arsenic. Most households included one adult and at least one child. Untreated well water arsenic concentrations ranged from <10 µg/L to 640 µg/L. Urine samples, water samples, daily diet and bathing diaries, and household dietary and water use habit surveys were collected. Generalized estimating equations were used to model the relationship between urinary arsenic and untreated well water arsenic concentration, while accounting for documented consumption of untreated water and dietary sources. If mitigation strategies were fully effective, there should be no relationship between urinary arsenic and well water arsenic. To the contrary, we found that untreated arsenic water concentration remained a significant (p ≤ 0.001) predictor of urinary arsenic levels. When untreated water arsenic concentrations were <40 µg/L, untreated water arsenic was no longer a significant predictor of urinary arsenic. Time spent bathing (alone or in combination with water arsenic concentration) was not associated with urinary arsenic. A predictive analysis of the average study participant suggested that when untreated water arsenic ranged from 100 to 500 µg/L, elimination of any untreated water use would result in an 8%-32% reduction in urinary arsenic for young children, and a 14%-59% reduction for adults. These results demonstrate the importance of complying with a point-of-use or bottled water exposure reduction strategy. However, there remained unexplained, water-related routes of exposure.


Assuntos
Arsênio/análise , Água Potável/química , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poços de Água , Monitoramento Ambiental , Características da Família , Humanos , Maine , Purificação da Água
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26692586

RESUMO

Microalgal blooms are a natural part of the seasonal cycle of photosynthetic organisms in marine ecosystems. They are key components of the structure and dynamics of the oceans and thus sustain the benefits that humans obtain from these aquatic environments. However, some microalgal blooms can cause harm to humans and other organisms. These harmful algal blooms (HABs) have direct impacts on human health and negative influences on human wellbeing, mainly through their consequences to coastal ecosystem services (fisheries, tourism and recreation) and other marine organisms and environments. HABs are natural phenomena, but these events can be favoured by anthropogenic pressures in coastal areas. Global warming and associated changes in the oceans could affect HAB occurrences and toxicity as well, although forecasting the possible trends is still speculative and requires intensive multidisciplinary research. At the beginning of the 21st century, with expanding human populations, particularly in coastal and developing countries, mitigating HABs impacts on human health and wellbeing is becoming a more pressing public health need. The available tools to address this global challenge include maintaining intensive, multidisciplinary and collaborative scientific research, and strengthening the coordination with stakeholders, policymakers and the general public. Here we provide an overview of different aspects of the HABs phenomena, an important element of the intrinsic links between oceans and human health and wellbeing.

11.
Harmful Algae ; 49: 63-74, 2015 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26435706

RESUMO

Toxic cyanobacteria became more widely recognized as a potential health hazard in the 1990s, and in 1998 the World Health Organization (WHO) first published a provisional Guideline Value of 1 µg L-1 for microcystin-LR in drinking-water. In this publication we compare risk assessment and risk management of toxic cyanobacteria in 17 countries across all five continents. We focus on the three main (oral) exposure vehicles to cyanotoxins: drinking-water, water related recreational and freshwater seafood. Most countries have implemented the provisional WHO Guideline Value, some as legally binding standard, to ensure the distribution of safe drinking-water with respect to microcystins. Regulation, however, also needs to address the possible presence of a wide range of other cyanotoxins and bioactive compounds, for which no guideline values can be derived due to insufficient toxicological data. The presence of microcystins (commonly expressed as microcystin-LR equivalents) may be used as proxy for overall guidance on risk management, but this simplification may miss certain risks, for instance from dissolved fractions of cylindrospermopsin and cyanobacterial neurotoxins. An alternative approach, often taken for risk assessment and management in recreational waters, is to regulate cyanobacterial presence - as cell numbers or biomass - rather than individual toxins. Here, many countries have implemented a two or three tier alert level system with incremental severity. These systems define the levels where responses are switched from Surveillance to Alert and finally to Action Mode and they specify the short-term actions that follow. Surface bloom formation is commonly judged to be a significant risk because of the elevated concentration of microcystins in a scum. Countries have based their derivations of legally binding standards, guideline values, maximally allowed concentrations (or limits named otherwise) on very similar scientific methodology, but underlying assumptions such as bloom duration, average body size and the amount of water consumed while swimming vary according to local circumstances. Furthermore, for toxins with incomplete toxicological data elements of expert judgment become more relevant and this also leads to a larger degree of variation between countries' thresholds triggering certain actions. Cyanobacterial blooms and their cyanotoxin content are a highly variable phenomenon, largely depending on local conditions, and likely concentrations can be assessed and managed best if the specific conditions of the locality are known and their impact on bloom occurrence are understood. Risk Management Frameworks, such as for example the Water Safety Plan concept of the WHO and the 'bathing water profile' of the European Union are suggested to be effective approaches for preventing human exposure by managing toxic cyanobacteria from catchment to consumer for drinking water and at recreational sites.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26309063

RESUMO

Exposure to chlorination disinfection by-products (CxDBPs) is prevalent in populations using chlorination-based methods to disinfect public water supplies. Multifaceted research has been directed for decades to identify, characterize, and understand the toxicology of these compounds, control and minimize their formation, and conduct epidemiologic studies related to exposure. Urinary bladder cancer has been the health risk most consistently associated with CxDBPs in epidemiologic studies. An international workshop was held to (1) discuss the qualitative strengths and limitations that inform the association between bladder cancer and CxDBPs in the context of possible causation, (2) identify knowledge gaps for this topic in relation to chlorine/chloramine-based disinfection practice(s) in the United States, and (3) assess the evidence for informing risk management. Epidemiological evidence linking exposures to CxDBPs in drinking water to human bladder cancer risk provides insight into causality. However, because of imprecise, inaccurate, or incomplete estimation of CxDBPs levels in epidemiologic studies, translation from hazard identification directly to risk management and regulatory policy for CxDBPs can be challenging. Quantitative risk estimates derived from toxicological risk assessment for CxDBPs currently cannot be reconciled with those from epidemiologic studies, notwithstanding the complexities involved, making regulatory interpretation difficult. Evidence presented here has both strengths and limitations that require additional studies to resolve and improve the understanding of exposure response relationships. Replication of epidemiologic findings in independent populations with further elaboration of exposure assessment is needed to strengthen the knowledge base needed to better inform effective regulatory approaches.


Assuntos
Desinfetantes/toxicidade , Desinfecção , Exposição Ambiental , Halogenação , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/epidemiologia , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Cloraminas/toxicidade , Cloro/toxicidade , Água Potável/análise , Humanos , Medição de Risco , Estados Unidos , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/induzido quimicamente , Purificação da Água
13.
Toxins (Basel) ; 7(4): 1048-64, 2015 Mar 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25826054

RESUMO

Algae and cyanobacteria are present in all aquatic environments. We do not have a good sense of the extent of human and animal exposures to cyanobacteria or their toxins, nor do we understand the public health impacts from acute exposures associated with recreational activities or chronic exposures associated with drinking water. We describe the Harmful Algal Bloom-related Illness Surveillance System (HABISS) and summarize the collected reports describing bloom events and associated adverse human and animal health events. For the period of 2007-2011, Departments of Health and/or Environment from 11 states funded by the National Center for Environmental Health (NCEH), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention contributed reports for 4534 events. For 2007, states contributed 173 reports from historical data. The states participating in the HABISS program built response capacity through targeted public outreach and prevention activities, including supporting routine cyanobacteria monitoring for public recreation waters. During 2007-2010, states used monitoring data to support196 public health advisories or beach closures. The information recorded in HABISS and the application of these data to develop a wide range of public health prevention and response activities indicate that cyanobacteria and algae blooms are an environmental public health issue that needs continuing attention.


Assuntos
Cianobactérias , Proliferação Nociva de Algas , Toxinas Biológicas/envenenamento , Poluentes da Água/envenenamento , Animais , Carga Bacteriana , Cianobactérias/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Vigilância da População , Toxinas Biológicas/análise , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Poluentes da Água/análise
14.
BMC Res Notes ; 8: 74, 2015 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25890043

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: During an October 2005 algal bloom (i.e., a rapid increase or accumulation in the population of algae) off the coast of Nicaragua, 45 people developed symptoms of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) and one person died. PSP in humans is caused by ingestion of saxitoxin, which is a neurotoxin often associated with shellfish contaminated by algal blooms. To explore the relationship between the algal bloom and human illnesses, we performed a case-control study of residents living in a coastal island. We administered a standardized clinical questionnaire, sampled locally harvested seafood and algae, and obtained urine samples for saxitoxin testing from symptomatic and asymptomatic persons. PSP case-patients were defined as island residents who developed at least one neurological symptom during the November 4-16 intoxication period. Seafood and algal samples were analyzed for saxitoxins using the receptor-binding assay and high-performance liquid chromatography. Two urine samples were analyzed for saxitoxins using a newly developed immunoassay. FINDINGS: Three shellfish and two algal samples tested positive for saxitoxins. Ten (9%) of 107 participants developed neurological symptoms during the specified time period and five required hospitalization. While 6 (67%) of 9 possible case-patients and 21 (21%) of 98 controls had eaten fish (p=0.008), all case-patients and 17 (17%) of controls had eaten clams (P<0.0001). The saxitoxin concentration in the urine of a hospitalized case-patient was 21 ng saxitoxin/g creatinine compared to 0.16 ng saxitoxin/g creatinine in the single control patient's urine. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that a bloom of saxitoxin-producing algae resulted in saxitoxin accumulation in local clams and was responsible for the PSP intoxication.


Assuntos
Proliferação Nociva de Algas , Intoxicação por Frutos do Mar/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Surtos de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Nicarágua/epidemiologia , Alimentos Marinhos , Intoxicação por Frutos do Mar/etiologia , Adulto Jovem
15.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 63(1): 6-10, 2014 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24402466

RESUMO

Recreational water-associated disease outbreaks result from exposure to infectious pathogens or chemical agents in treated recreational water venues (e.g., pools and hot tubs or spas) or untreated recreational water venues (e.g., lakes and oceans). For 2009-2010, the most recent years for which finalized data are available, public health officials from 28 states and Puerto Rico electronically reported 81 recreational water-associated disease outbreaks to CDC's Waterborne Disease and Outbreak Surveillance System (WBDOSS) via the National Outbreak Reporting System (NORS). This report summarizes the characteristics of those outbreaks. Among the 57 outbreaks associated with treated recreational water, 24 (42%) were caused by Cryptosporidium. Among the 24 outbreaks associated with untreated recreational water, 11 (46%) were confirmed or suspected to have been caused by cyanobacterial toxins. In total, the 81 outbreaks resulted in at least 1,326 cases of illness and 62 hospitalizations; no deaths were reported. Laboratory and environmental data, in addition to epidemiologic data, can be used to direct and optimize the prevention and control of recreational water-associated disease outbreaks.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças/estatística & dados numéricos , Vigilância da População , Recreação , Banhos/efeitos adversos , Doenças Transmissíveis/etiologia , Estâncias para Tratamento de Saúde , Humanos , Lagos/química , Lagos/microbiologia , Lagos/parasitologia , Água do Mar/química , Água do Mar/microbiologia , Água do Mar/parasitologia , Piscinas , Fatores de Tempo , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Microbiologia da Água , Poluição da Água , Purificação da Água/estatística & dados numéricos
16.
Toxins (Basel) ; 5(9): 1597-628, 2013 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24064718

RESUMO

Cyanobacteria (also called blue-green algae) are ubiquitous in aquatic environments. Some species produce potent toxins that can sicken or kill people, domestic animals, and wildlife. Dogs are particularly vulnerable to cyanotoxin poisoning because of their tendency to swim in and drink contaminated water during algal blooms or to ingestalgal mats.. Here, we summarize reports of suspected or confirmed canine cyanotoxin poisonings in the U.S. from three sources: (1) The Harmful Algal Bloom-related Illness Surveillance System (HABISS) of the National Center for Environmental Health (NCEH), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC); (2) Retrospective case files from a large, regional veterinary hospital in California; and (3) Publicly available scientific and medical manuscripts; written media; and web-based reports from pet owners, veterinarians, and other individuals. We identified 231 discreet cyanobacteria harmful algal bloom (cyanoHAB) events and 368 cases of cyanotoxin poisoning associated with dogs throughout the U.S. between the late 1920s and 2012. The canine cyanotoxin poisoning events reviewed here likely represent a small fraction of cases that occur throughout the U.S. each year.


Assuntos
Toxinas Bacterianas/envenenamento , Proliferação Nociva de Algas , Toxinas Marinhas/envenenamento , Envenenamento/veterinária , Animais , Toxinas Bacterianas/metabolismo , Cianobactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cianobactérias/metabolismo , Cães , Toxinas Marinhas/metabolismo
17.
J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol ; 23(1): 39-45, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22829048

RESUMO

Although disinfection of domestic water supply is crucial for protecting public health from waterborne diseases, this process forms potentially harmful by-products, such as trihalomethanes (THMs). We evaluated the influence of physicochemical properties of four THMs (chloroform, bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane, and bromoform) on the internal dose after showering. One hundred volunteers showered for 10 min in a controlled setting with fixed water flow, air flow, and temperature. We measured THMs in shower water, shower air, bathroom air, and blood samples collected at various time intervals. The geometric mean (GM) for total THM concentration in shower water was 96.2 µg/l. The GM of total THM in air increased from 5.8 µg/m(3) pre shower to 351 µg/m(3) during showering. Similarly, the GM of total-blood THM concentration increased from 16.5 ng/l pre shower to 299 ng/l at 10 min post shower. THM levels were significantly correlated between different matrices (e.g. dibromochloromethane levels) in water and air (r=0.941); blood and water (r=0.845); and blood and air (r=0.831). The slopes of best-fit lines for THM levels in water vs air and blood vs air increased with increasing partition coefficient of water/air and blood/air. The slope of the correlation plot of THM levels in water vs air decreased in a linear (r=0.995) fashion with increasing Henry's law constant. The physicochemical properties (volatility, partition coefficients, and Henry's law constant) are useful parameters for predicting THM movement between matrices and understanding THM exposure during showering.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental , Trialometanos/administração & dosagem , Poluentes Químicos da Água/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Trialometanos/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química
18.
Environ Health Perspect ; 120(4): 526-9, 2012 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22275728

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) is the most common seafood intoxication worldwide, its burden has been difficult to establish because there are no biomarkers to diagnose human exposure. OBJECTIVE: We explored the incidence of CFP, percentage of CFP case-patients with laboratory-confirmed ciguatoxic meal remnants, cost of CFP illness, and potential risk factors for CFP. METHODS: During 2005 and again during 2006, we conducted a census of all occupied households on the island of Culebra, Puerto Rico, where locally caught fish are a staple food. We defined CFP case-patients as persons with gastrointestinal symptoms (abdominal pain, vomiting, diarrhea, or nausea) and neurological symptoms (extremity paresthesia, arthralgia, myalgia, malaise, pruritus, headache, dizziness, metallic taste, visual disturbance, circumoral paresthesia, temperature reversal, or toothache) or systemic symptoms (e.g., bradycardia) within 72 hr of eating fish during the previous year. Participants were asked to save fish remnants eaten by case-patients for ciguatoxin analysis at the Food and Drug Administration laboratory in Dauphin Island, Alabama (USA). RESULTS: We surveyed 340 households during 2005 and 335 households during 2006. The estimated annual incidence of possible CFP was 4.0 per 1,000 person-years, and that of probable CFP was 7.5 per 1,000 person-years. One of three fish samples submitted by probable case-patients was positive for ciguatoxins. None of the case-patients required respiratory support. Households that typically consumed barracuda were more likely to report CFP (p = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: Our estimates, which are consistent with previous studies using similar case findings, contribute to the overall information available to support public health decision making about CFP prevention.


Assuntos
Intoxicação por Ciguatera/epidemiologia , Perciformes/metabolismo , Alimentos Marinhos/envenenamento , Adulto , Animais , Intoxicação por Ciguatera/diagnóstico , Intoxicação por Ciguatera/economia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Porto Rico/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Estações do Ano , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
19.
Lake Line ; 32(3): 7-9, 2012 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26412937
20.
Harmful Algae ; 10(6): 744-748, 2011 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22053149

RESUMO

Having demonstrated significant and persistent adverse changes in pulmonary function for asthmatics after 1 hour exposure to brevetoxins in Florida red tide (Karenia brevis bloom) aerosols, we assessed the possible longer term health effects in asthmatics from intermittent environmental exposure to brevetoxins over 7 years. 125 asthmatic subjects were assessed for their pulmonary function and reported symptoms before and after 1 hour of environmental exposure to Florida red tide aerosols for upto 11 studies over seven years. As a group, the asthmatics came to the studies with normal standardized percent predicted pulmonary function values. The 38 asthmatics who participated in only one exposure study were more reactive compared to the 36 asthmatics who participated in ≥4 exposure studies. The 36 asthmatics participating in ≥4 exposure studies demonstrated no significant change in their standardized percent predicted pre-exposure pulmonary function over the 7 years of the study. These results indicate that stable asthmatics living in areas with intermittent Florida red tides do not exhibit chronic respiratory effects from intermittent environmental exposure to aerosolized brevetoxins over a 7 year period.

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