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1.
Eur J Public Health ; 2021 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34406384

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Italy was the first European country to be affected by COVID-19. Considering that many countries are currently battling the 2nd wave of the pandemic, understanding people's perceptions and responses to government policies remains critical for informing on-going mitigation strategies. We assessed attitudes towards COVID-19 policies, levels of adherence to preventive behaviours, and the association between COVID-19 related concerns and adherence levels. METHODS: We recruited a convenience sample of Italian individuals from an international cross-sectional survey (www.icarestudy.com) from March 27th to May 5th 2020. Multivariate regression models were used to test the association between concerns and the adoption of preventive measures. RESULTS: The survey included 1,332 participants (female (68%), younger than 25 (57%)) that reported high awareness (over 96%) and perceived importance (88%) of policies. We observed varied levels of adherence to: hand washing (96%), avoiding social gatherings (96%), self-isolation if suspected or COVID-19 positive (77%). Significantly lower adherence to self-isolation was reported by individuals with current employment. High levels of concerns regarding health of other individuals and country economy were reported. Only health concerns for others were significantly associated with higher adherence to hand washing behaviour. CONCLUSIONS: In order to inform current/future government strategies, we provide insights about population's responses to the initial pandemic phase in Italy. Communication approaches should consider addressing people's concerns regarding the health of other individuals to motivate adherence to prevention measures. Provision of social and economic support is warranted to avoid unequal impacts of governmental policies and allow effective adherence to self-isolating measures.

3.
JMIR Res Protoc ; 10(6): e24887, 2021 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34114962

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Health behaviors such as physical inactivity, unhealthy eating, smoking tobacco, and alcohol use are leading risk factors for noncommunicable chronic diseases and play a central role in limiting health and life satisfaction. To date, however, health behaviors tend to be considered separately from one another, resulting in guidelines and interventions for healthy aging siloed by specific behaviors and often focused only on a given health behavior without considering the co-occurrence of family, social, work, and other behaviors of everyday life. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to understand how behaviors cluster and how such clusters are associated with physical and mental health, life satisfaction, and health care utilization may provide opportunities to leverage this co-occurrence to develop and evaluate interventions to promote multiple health behavior changes. METHODS: Using cross-sectional baseline data from the Canadian Longitudinal Study on Aging, we will perform a predefined set of exploratory and hypothesis-generating analyses to examine the co-occurrence of health and everyday life behaviors. We will use agglomerative hierarchical cluster analysis to cluster individuals based on their behavioral tendencies. Multinomial logistic regression will then be used to model the relationships between clusters and demographic indicators, health care utilization, and general health and life satisfaction, and assess whether sex and age moderate these relationships. In addition, we will conduct network community detection analysis using the clique percolation algorithm to detect overlapping communities of behaviors based on the strength of relationships between variables. RESULTS: Baseline data for the Canadian Longitudinal Study on Aging were collected from 51,338 participants aged between 45 and 85 years. Data were collected between 2010 and 2015. Secondary data analysis for this project was approved by the Ottawa Health Science Network Research Ethics Board (protocol ID #20190506-01H). CONCLUSIONS: This study will help to inform the development of interventions tailored to subpopulations of adults (eg, physically inactive smokers) defined by the multiple behaviors that describe their everyday life experiences. INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID): DERR1-10.2196/24887.

4.
Front Public Health ; 9: 630189, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34150696

RESUMO

Objective: To assess and share learnings on the motivators and behavioural adherence across sex and age to evolving strategies in public policy to prevent the spread of SARS-CoV-2 at the end of a first COVID-19 wave and the beginning of a second COVID-19 wave in Australia. Design and Setting: A national longitudinal survey using a framework based on evidence-based behaviour change models. The survey was administered to a national sample representative across sex, age and location was undertaken at two time points: May 1st to 5th, 2020, and July 1st to 7th, 2020. Results: Overall 2,056 surveys were completed across the first and second rounds, with 63% (1,296/2,056) completing both. Age range was 18-99 years (median 53, IQR: 34-64). Suboptimal physical distancing and self-quarantining if unwell/diagnosed was reported in one in four respondents and not getting a test at onset of symptoms reported in one in three. Those non-adherent to all three behaviours (19%, 60/323), were mainly male, younger, lived in major cities and reported fewer concerns or motivators to change behaviour. Overall, government lockdown measures were considered very important by 81% (835/1,032) and appropriate by 75% (772/1,029). Conclusions: Prior to the suppression of a second COVID-19 wave, a significant minority of Australians reported suboptimal behavioural adherence to vital policy strategies to limit SARS-CoV-2 spread, mostly young adults and men. Successful wave 2 suppression required consistent communication from political and health leaders and supportive public health and economic strategies. Additional lockdown and punitive strategies were needed in Victoria and were generally well-supported and adhered to. To limit subsequent lockdown, this work reinforces the need for a mix of communication around saving lives of the vulnerable, and other strategies targeting high risk groups, facilitation of easy testing and minimisation of financial impacts.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , SARS-CoV-2 , Autorrelato , Vitória , Adulto Jovem
5.
J Asthma ; : 1-6, 2021 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33877960

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Asthma guided self-management enhances patients' control of their condition under the guidance of the treating physician. The aim of the present study was to understand how physicians perceive, endorse, uptake, and support asthma guided self-management. METHODS: We conducted a secondary supplementary analysis of data originally collected as part of a multicenter collective case study in which physicians treating patients with asthma were interviewed. Using reflective thematic analysis, we aimed to explore physicians' understanding of guided asthma self-management as related to four ideas, namely: (a) understanding of the disease management and treatment goals; (b) defining medical frame and guidance; (c) describing the importance of patient-physician relationship; and (d) implementing asthma guided self-management. RESULTS: Evidence indicates that physicians perceived optimal guided self-management as related to patients' adherence to physician's instructions and recommendations, supported by the adjustment of prescribed pharmaceutical therapy contingent upon patient's symptoms. Some physicians also perceived behavior change and environmental control along with the medical recommendations. While physicians' perception of asthma and its treatment were aligned with the recommended guidelines-i.e., patient-centered care approach based on guided self-management, the actual guidance offered to patients remained primarily directive and paternalistic. Non-pharmacological approaches, such as exercise, smoking cessation, patient self-monitoring, and self-management supported by education and written self-management plans, were given little consideration in the context of the recommended treatment plan.

6.
BMJ Open ; 11(3): e046127, 2021 03 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33707274

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In the context of a highly contagious virus with only recently approved vaccines and no cure, the key to slowing the spread of the COVID-19 disease and successfully transitioning through the phases of the pandemic, including vaccine uptake, is public adherence to rapidly evolving behaviour-based public health policies. The overall objective of the iCARE Study is to assess public awareness, attitudes, concerns and behavioural responses to COVID-19 public health policies, and their impacts, on people around the world and to link behavioural survey data with policy, mobility and case data to provide behavioural science, data-driven recommendations to governments on how to optimise current policy strategies to reduce the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS AND ANALYSES: The iCARE study (www.icarestudy.com) uses a multiple cross-sectional survey design to capture self-reported information on a variety of COVID-19 related variables from individuals around the globe. Survey data are captured using two data capture methods: convenience and representative sampling. These data are then linked to open access data for policies, cases and population movement. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The primary ethical approval was obtained from the coordinating site, the Centre intégré universitaire de santé et de services sociaux du Nord-de-l'Île-de-Montréal (REB#: 2020-2099/03-25-2020). This study will provide high-quality, accelerated and real-time evidence to help us understand the effectiveness of evolving country-level policies and communication strategies to reduce the spread of the COVID-19. Due to the urgency of the pandemic, results will be disseminated in a variety of ways, including policy briefs, social media posts, press releases and through regular scientific methods.


Assuntos
Atitude , COVID-19/psicologia , Política de Saúde , Qualidade de Vida , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Pandemias , Saúde Pública , Inquéritos e Questionários
7.
Front Public Health ; 9: 628479, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33777883

RESUMO

Background: COVID-19 has caused a global public health emergency. Government mitigation strategies included a series of behavior-based prevention policies that had a likely impact on the spread of other contagious respiratory illnesses, such as seasonal influenza. Our aim was to explore how 2019-2020 influenza tracked onto COVID-19 pandemic and its mitigation methods. Materials and Methods: We linked the WHO FluNet database and COVID-19 confirmed cases (Johns Hopkins University) for four countries across the northern (Canada, the United States) and southern hemispheres (Australia, Brazil) for the period 2016-2020. Graphical presentations of longitudinal data were provided. Results: There was a notable reduction in influenza cases for the 2019-2020 season. Northern hemisphere countries experienced a quicker ending to the 2019-2020 seasonal influenza cases (shortened by 4-7 weeks) and virtually no 2020 fall influenza season. Countries from the southern hemisphere experienced drastically low levels of seasonal influenza, with consistent trends that were approaching zero cases after the introduction of COVID-19 measures. Conclusions: It is likely that the COVID-19 mitigation measures played a notable role in the marked decrease in influenza, with little to no influenza activity in both the northern and southern hemispheres. In spite of this reduction in influenza cases, there was still community spread of COVID-19, highlighting the contagiousness of SARS-CoV-2 compared to influenza. These results, together with the higher mortality rate from SARS-CoV-2 compared to influenza, highlight that COVID-19 is a far greater health threat than influenza.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/fisiopatologia , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/fisiopatologia , Internacionalidade , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Avaliação de Sintomas/estatística & dados numéricos , Austrália/epidemiologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Canadá/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Pública/estatística & dados numéricos , SARS-CoV-2 , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
8.
Prog Cardiovasc Dis ; 67: 2-10, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33549590

RESUMO

COVID-19 is one of the biggest health crises that the world has seen. Whilst measures to abate transmission and infection are ongoing, there continues to be growing numbers of patients requiring chronic support, which is already putting a strain on health care systems around the world and which may do so for years to come. A legacy of COVID-19 will be a long-term requirement to support patients with dedicated rehabilitation and support services. With many clinical settings characterized by a lack of funding and resources, the need to provide these additional services could overwhelm clinical capacity. This position statement from the Healthy Living for Pandemic Event Protection (HL-PIVOT) Network provides a collaborative blueprint focused on leading research and developing clinical guidelines, bringing together professionals with expertise in clinical services and the exercise sciences to develop the evidence base needed to improve outcomes for patients infected by COVID-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19/reabilitação , Aptidão Cardiorrespiratória , Exercício Físico , Reabilitação Cardíaca , Tolerância ao Exercício , Política de Saúde , Humanos , Política Organizacional , Reabilitação/métodos , Doenças Respiratórias/reabilitação , Telemedicina
9.
Obes Rev ; 22(4): e13168, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33403754

RESUMO

Metabolic and bariatric surgery (MBS) yields unprecedented clinical outcomes, though variability is high in weight change and health benefits. Behavioral weight management (BWM) interventions may optimize MBS outcomes. However, there is a lack of an evidence base to inform their use in practice, particularly regarding optimal delivery timing. This paper evaluated the efficacy of BWM conducted pre- versus post- versus pre- and post-MBS. The review followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses statement and included pre- and/or post-operative BWM interventions in adults reporting anthropometric and/or body composition data. Thirty-six studies (2,919 participants) were included. Post-operative BWM yielded greater decreases in weight (standardized mean difference [SMD] = -0.41; 95% confidence interval [CI]: -0.766 to -0.049, p < 0.05; I2 = 93.5%) and body mass index (SMD = -0.60; 95% CI: -0.913 to -0.289, p < 0.001; I2 = 87.8%) relative to comparators. There was no effect of BWM delivered pre- or joint pre- and post-operatively. The risk of selection and performance bias was generally high. Delivering BWM after MBS appears to confer the most benefits on weight, though there was high variability in study characteristics and risk of bias across trials. This provides insight into the type of support that should be considered post-operatively.

10.
Transl Behav Med ; 11(2): 642-652, 2021 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32145022

RESUMO

Poor health behaviors (e.g., smoking, poor diet, and physical inactivity) are major risk factors for noncommunicable chronic diseases (NCDs). Evidence supporting traditional advice-giving approaches to promote behavior change is weak or short lived. Training physicians to improve their behavior change counseling/communication skills is important, yet the evidence for the efficacy and acceptability of existing training programs is lacking and there is little consensus on the core competencies that physicians should master in the context of NCD management. The purpose of this study is to generate an acceptable, evidence-based, stakeholder-informed list of the core communication competencies that physicians should master in the context of NCD management. Using a modified Delphi process for consensus achievement, international behavior change experts, physicians, and allied health care professionals completed four phases of research, including eight rounds of online surveys and in-person meetings over 2 years (n = 13-17 participated in Phases I, III, and IV and n = 39-46 in Phase II). Eleven core communication competencies were identified: reflective listening, expressing empathy, demonstrating acceptance, tolerance, and respect, responding to resistance, (not) negatively judging or blaming, (not) expressing hostility or impatience, eliciting "change-talk"/evocation, (not) being argumentative or confrontational, setting goals, being collaborative, and providing information neutrally. These competencies were used to define a unified approach for conducting behavior change counseling in medical settings: Motivational Communication. The results may be used to inform and standardize physician training in behavior change counseling and communication skills to reduce morbidity and mortality related to poor health behaviors in the context of NCD prevention and management.

14.
Can J Cardiol ; 36(5): 596-624, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32389335

RESUMO

Hypertension Canada's 2020 guidelines for the prevention, diagnosis, risk assessment, and treatment of hypertension in adults and children provide comprehensive, evidence-based guidance for health care professionals and patients. Hypertension Canada develops the guidelines using rigourous methodology, carefully mitigating the risk of bias in our process. All draft recommendations undergo critical review by expert methodologists without conflict to ensure quality. Our guideline panel is diverse, including multiple health professional groups (nurses, pharmacy, academics, and physicians), and worked in concert with experts in primary care and implementation to ensure optimal usability. The 2020 guidelines include new guidance on the management of resistant hypertension and the management of hypertension in women planning pregnancy.


Assuntos
Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Hipertensão/terapia , Adulto , Algoritmos , Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Monitorização Ambulatorial da Pressão Arterial , Canadá , Doenças Cardiovasculares/complicações , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Criança , Complicações do Diabetes , Resistência a Medicamentos , Feminino , Promoção da Saúde , Insuficiência Cardíaca/complicações , Humanos , Hipertensão/complicações , Hipertensão/etiologia , Hipertrofia Ventricular Esquerda/complicações , Adesão à Medicação , Cuidado Pré-Concepcional , Gravidez , Complicações Cardiovasculares na Gravidez/terapia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/complicações , Medição de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações , Telemedicina
15.
Trials ; 21(1): 292, 2020 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32293510

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Non-communicable chronic diseases are linked to behavioral risk factors (including smoking, poor diet and physical inactivity), so effective behavior change interventions are needed to improve population health. However, uptake and impact of these interventions is limited by methodological challenges. We aimed to identify and achieve consensus on priorities for methodological research in behavioral trials in health research among an international behavioral science community. METHODS: An international, Delphi consensus study was conducted. Fifteen core members of the International Behavioral Trials Network (IBTN) were invited to generate methodological items that they consider important. From these, the research team agreed a "long-list" of unique items. Two online surveys were administered to IBTN members (N = 306). Respondents rated the importance of items on a 9-point scale, and ranked their "top-five" priorities. In the second survey, respondents received feedback on others' responses, before rerating items and re-selecting their top five. RESULTS: Nine experts generated 144 items, which were condensed to a long-list of 33 items. The four most highly endorsed items, in both surveys 1 (n = 77) and 2 (n = 57), came from two thematic categories:"Intervention development" ("Specifying intervention components" and "Tailoring interventions to specific populations and contexts") and "Implementation" ("How to disseminate behavioral trial research findings to increase implementation" and "Methods for ensuring that behavioral interventions are implementable into practice and policy"). "Development of novel research designs to test behavioral interventions" also emerged as a highly ranked research priority. CONCLUSIONS: From a wide array of identified methodological issues, intervention development, implementation and novel research designs are key themes to drive the future behavioral trials' research agenda. Funding bodies should prioritize these issues in resource allocation.


Assuntos
Terapia Comportamental/normas , Comportamentos de Risco à Saúde/fisiologia , Doenças não Transmissíveis/psicologia , Consenso , Técnica Delfos , Feminino , Saúde Global/tendências , Humanos , Ciência da Implementação , Masculino , Doenças não Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Projetos de Pesquisa , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários
16.
Psychosom Med ; 82(4): 440-451, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32168109

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The importance of physician training in communication skills for motivating patients to adopt a healthy life-style and optimize clinical outcomes is increasingly recognized. This study inventoried and systematically reviewed the psychometric properties of, and the skills assessed by, existing assessment tools used to evaluate communication skills among physicians. METHODS: This review was conducted in accordance with the PRISMA guidelines (PROSPERO: CRD42018091932). Four databases (PUBMED, EMBASE, PsychINFO, and SCOPUS) were searched up to December 2018, generating 3902 unique articles, which were screened by two authors. A total of 57 articles met the inclusion criteria and underwent full data extraction. RESULTS: Forty-five different assessment tools were identified. Only 47% of the studies mentioned underlying theories or models for designing the tool. Fifteen communication skills were assessed across the tools, the five most prevalent were information giving (46%) or gathering (40%), eliciting patients' perspectives (44%), planning/goal setting (37%), and closing the session (32%). Most tools (93%) assessed communication skills using in-person role play exercises with standardized (61%) or real (32%) patients, but only 54% described the expertise of the raters who performed the evaluations. Overall, reporting of the psychometric properties of the assessment tools was poor-moderate (4.5 ± 1.3 out of 9). CONCLUSIONS: Despite identifying several existing physician communication assessment tools, a high degree of heterogeneity between these tools, in terms of skills assessed and study quality, was observed, and most have been poorly validated. Research is needed to rigorously develop and validate accessible, convenient, "user-friendly," and easy to administer and score communication assessment tools.


Assuntos
Comunicação , Relações Médico-Paciente , Médicos , Humanos , Psicometria
17.
Br J Sports Med ; 54(5): 272-278, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30728127

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess whether aerobic exercise was superior to usual care in alleviating depressive symptoms in patients living with a major non-communicable disease. DATA SOURCES: Data were obtained from online databases (PubMed, PsycINFO and SPORTDiscus) as well as from reference lists. The search and collection of eligible studies was conducted up to 18 October 2018 (PROSPERO registration number CRD42017069089). STUDY SELECTION: We included interventions that compared aerobic exercise with usual care in adults who reported depressive symptoms (ie, not necessarily the clinical diagnosis of depression) and were living with a major non-communicable disease. RESULTS: Twenty-four studies were included in the meta-analysis (4111 patients). Aerobic exercise alleviated depressive symptoms better than did usual care (standardised mean difference (SMD)=0.50; 95% CI 0.25 to 0.76; Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation: low quality). Aerobic exercise was particularly effective in alleviating depressive symptoms in cardiac patients (SMD=0.67; 95% CI 0.35 to 0.99). CONCLUSION: Aerobic exercise alleviated depressive symptoms in patients living with a major non-communicable disease, particularly in cardiac populations. Whether aerobic exercise treats clinically diagnosed depression was outside the scope of this study.


Assuntos
Doença Crônica/psicologia , Depressão/prevenção & controle , Exercício Físico , Depressão/etiologia , Terapia por Exercício , Humanos
18.
J Minim Access Surg ; 16(3): 264-268, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31031324

RESUMO

Background: Laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB) revision surgery is often necessary because of its high failure rate. The objective of this study was to demonstrate that better patient selection, when converting a failed LAGB to a laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) as a one-stage revision procedure, is safe, feasible and improves the complication rate. Patients and Methods: A retrospective chart review was performed on patients who underwent a one-stage conversion of failed gastric banding to a LSG. Collected data included age, sex, body mass index (BMI), intraoperative complications, length of stay and post-operative complications. The results were compared to a previous study of 90 cases of LSG as a revision procedure for failed LAGB. Results: There were 75 patients in the current study, 61 women and 14 men, aged 25-67 (average: 46), with a mean BMI of 45 kg/m2 (32-66). Seventy patients (93.3%) were operated for insufficient weight loss and 5 patients (6.7%) for intolerance to the band. In our previous study, 35 patients (39%) were operated for slippage, erosion or obstruction and 14 (15.6%) had post-operative complications as opposed to only 4 patients (5.3%) in this series (P = 0.0359). Gastric leak also improved to 1.3% compared to 5.5% previously. Average hospitalisation time was 2.5 days (1-40). Conclusions: Rigorous patient selection, without band complications such as slippage, erosion or obstruction, allows for a significantly lower rate of operative complications for a one-stage conversion of failed gastric banding to a LSG.

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