Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 55
Filtrar
1.
Nutrients ; 13(3)2021 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33652678

RESUMO

Obesity represents one of the most challenging public health problems of our century. It accounts for approximately 5% of deaths worldwide, mostly owing to cardiovascular disease and its associated complications. Cardiovascular noninvasive imaging may provide early accurate information about hypertrophy and ischemia/fibrosis in obese subjects. Echocardiography and nuclear cardiology have serious limitations in obese subjects owing to poor acoustic window and attenuation artifacts, respectively. Coronary computed tomography angiography can provide information about obstructive coronary disease; however, the use of radiation is a serious disadvantage. Finally, cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) holds the promise of an "all in one" examination by combining evaluation of function, wall motion/thickness, stress rest/perfusion, replacement and diffuse fibrosis without radiation. Future studies are required to document the cost/benefit ratio of the CMR in the evaluation of cardiovascular risk in overweight/obese children and adolescents.

2.
Am J Hum Genet ; 108(2): 337-345, 2021 02 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33434492

RESUMO

Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser syndrome (MRKHS) is associated with congenital absence of the uterus, cervix, and the upper part of the vagina; it is a sex-limited trait. Disrupted development of the Müllerian ducts (MD)/Wölffian ducts (WD) through multifactorial mechanisms has been proposed to underlie MRKHS. In this study, exome sequencing (ES) was performed on a Chinese discovery cohort (442 affected subjects and 941 female control subjects) and a replication MRKHS cohort (150 affected subjects of mixed ethnicity from North America, South America, and Europe). Phenotypic follow-up of the female reproductive system was performed on an additional cohort of PAX8-associated congenital hypothyroidism (CH) (n = 5, Chinese). By analyzing 19 candidate genes essential for MD/WD development, we identified 12 likely gene-disrupting (LGD) variants in 7 genes: PAX8 (n = 4), BMP4 (n = 2), BMP7 (n = 2), TBX6 (n = 1), HOXA10 (n = 1), EMX2 (n = 1), and WNT9B (n = 1), while LGD variants in these genes were not detected in control samples (p = 1.27E-06). Interestingly, a sex-limited penetrance with paternal inheritance was observed in multiple families. One additional PAX8 LGD variant from the replication cohort and two missense variants from both cohorts were revealed to cause loss-of-function of the protein. From the PAX8-associated CH cohort, we identified one individual presenting a syndromic condition characterized by CH and MRKHS (CH-MRKHS). Our study demonstrates the comprehensive utilization of knowledge from developmental biology toward elucidating genetic perturbations, i.e., rare pathogenic alleles involving the same loci, contributing to human birth defects.


Assuntos
Transtornos 46, XX do Desenvolvimento Sexual/genética , Anormalidades Congênitas/genética , Ductos Paramesonéfricos/anormalidades , Ductos Paramesonéfricos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Mutação , Ductos Mesonéfricos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Adulto , Proteína Morfogenética Óssea 4/genética , Proteína Morfogenética Óssea 7/genética , Códon sem Sentido , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Pleiotropia Genética , Proteínas Homeobox A10/genética , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/genética , Humanos , Fator de Transcrição PAX8/genética , Herança Paterna , Penetrância , Proteínas com Domínio T/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Proteínas Wnt/genética , Ductos Mesonéfricos/anormalidades
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33477410

RESUMO

Adolescent suse internet via several devices to gather information or communicate. Sleep, as a key factor of adolescents' development, contributes to their physical and mental health. Over the past decades insufficient sleep among adolescents has been wide spread, and one of its attributing factors is the increased availability of technology. This review aims to investigate the body of evidence regarding the impact of problematic internet use on adolescent sleep. Extensive search of databases was performed according to PRISMA guidelines for studies published within the last decade, regarding subjects aged 10-19. The final step of the search yielded 12 original studies. The quality of extracted data was evaluated with the AXIS tool, in order to estimate the risk of bias. All studies showed a negative correlation between adolescent sleep and problematic internet use. It was found to affect sleep quality and quantity and provoke insomnia symptoms. Interestingly, adolescent's sex, parental educational level, type of family and use for leisure or academic reasons appeared as affecting factors of the problematic internet use-sleep relationship. Problematic internet use has several effects on adolescents' sleep. Results of relevant studies should be embedded in educational interventions addressed to adolescents as well as parents, to eliminate the negative outcomes of problematic internet use on sleep and adolescence's health in general.

4.
Mol Med Rep ; 23(1): 1, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33179094

RESUMO

Studies on extracellular vesicles have increased in recent years. The multi­dimensional nature of their roles in cellular homeostasis, cell­to­cell and tissue­to­tissue communication at the level of the organism, as well as their actions on the holobiome (intra­/interspecies interaction), have garnered the interest of a large number of researchers. Exosomes are one of the most researched classes of extracellular vesicles because they are carriers of targeted protein and DNA/RNA loads. Their multi­functional cargo have been indicated to regulate a vast number of biological pathways in target cells. However, the mechanisms governing these interactions have not yet been fully determined. Endocrinology, by definition, focuses on homeostatic, and cell­to­cell and tissue­to­tissue communication mechanisms. Therefore exosomes should be included in this research topic. Exosomes have previously been associated with a number of endocrine disorders, including obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, disorders of the reproductive system and cancer. Furthermore, their biogenesis, composition and function have been associated with viruses, an entirely different domain of life. The profound roles of exosomes in homeostasis, stress and several pathological conditions, in conjunction with their selective and cell­specific composition/function, allude to their use as promising circulating clinical biomarkers of systemic stress and specific pathologic states, and as biocompatible vehicles of therapeutic cargo. The current review provides information on exosomes and discusses their endocrine implications.

5.
Psychoneuroendocrinology ; 124: 105098, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33310696

RESUMO

Literature supports a causal role of stress in major depressive disorder (MDD). Hair cortisol concentration (HCC) has been widely used as a measure of long-term stress. Although elevated HCC has been observed in healthy people experiencing chronic stress, findings regarding individuals with mental disorders have been complicated. This review attempts to systematically present all the published research on major depression and HCC. An extensive search of databases was performed to identify articles that investigated this question. The initial search retrieved 142 studies, of which, 16 original articles were included in this review. Results were contradictory; most of the studies showed no significant HCC differences between MDD patients and controls, while others indicated either higher or lower HCC in MDD patients than controls. Higher HCC was reported in first depressive episode compared to recurrent MDD and controls; patients with comorbid MDD and anxiety disorder had higher HCC than controls. No significant HCC difference was found between patients with melancholic or atypical depression and controls. Findings concerning HCC in postpartum depression were inconsistent. A meta-analysis of the data extracted from seven studies of the sample was performed to quantify the degree of cortisol change in MDD patients vs. controls. A random effects model revealed no significant hair cortisol concentrations difference between depressed patients and healthy controls (SMD: -0.02, 95% CI: -0.36 to 0.32). Significant heterogeneity was identified across included studies (P = 0.002, I2 = 71%). The disagreement among studies' results indicates that there is room for improvement in this research field. Confounding factors independent of depression should be taken into consideration.

6.
J Chem Neuroanat ; 111: 101883, 2020 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33161073

RESUMO

Neuropeptides are involved in numerous brain activities being responsible for a wide spectrum of higher mental functions. The purpose of this concise, structural and qualitative investigation was to map the possible immunoreactivity of the novel neuropeptide spexin (SPX) within the human magnocellular hypothalamus. SPX is a newly identified peptide, a natural ligand for the galanin receptors (GALR) 2/3, with no molecular structure similarities to currently known regulatory factors. SPX seems to have multiple physiological functions, with an involvement in reproduction and food-intake regulation recently revealed in animal studies. For the first time we describe SPX expressing neurons in the supraoptic (SON) and paraventricular (PVN) nuclei of the human hypothalamus using immunohistochemical and fluorescent methods, key regions involved in the mechanisms of osmotic homeostasis, energy expenditure, consummatory behaviour, reproductive processes, social recognition and stress responses. The vast majority of neurons located in both examined neurosecretory nuclei show abundant SPX expression and this may indirectly implicate a potential contribution of SPX signalling to the hypothalamic physiology in the human brain.

7.
Eur J Public Health ; 2020 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33152069

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Both deviations from normal weight, namely, underweight and overweight/obese status, have been inversely associated with psychosocial health in adolescents. This study aimed to examine the relationship between psychosocial health and body mass index (BMI) among adolescents in five European countries, while assessing the effect of sociodemographic variables. METHODS: A cross-sectional school-based study of adolescents aged 14-17.9 years was conducted in the framework of the European Network for Adolescent Addictive Behavior survey. Self-reported questionnaires from Greece, Iceland, the Netherlands, Romania and Spain were used for the current analysis. Associations between Youth Self-Report (YSR) scales and BMI status were investigated by multiple logistic regression analysis. The effect of sociodemographic variables was also measured. RESULTS: Τhe sample consisted of 7005 adolescents aged 14-17.9 years. Borderline/clinical scores on some YSR scales were independently associated with overweight/obesity, specifically total problems (OR = 1.52, 95% CI: 1.18-1.96), internalizing ( OR = 1.48, 95% CI: 1.16-1.91), externalizing (OR = 1.36, 95% CI: 1.10-1.68), social (OR = 1.67, 95% CI: 1.19-2.35) and thought problems (OR = 1.62, 95% CI: 1.20-2.20). Among subscales, overweight/obesity specifically correlated with anxiety/depression (OR = 1.83, 95% CI: 1.33-2.51), withdrawal/depression (OR = 1.58, 95% CI: 1.02-2.48) and rule-breaking behavior (OR = 1.55, 95% CI: 1.15-2.08). Underweight was associated with problems on activities (OR = 1.31, 95% CI: 1.01-1.68) and withdrawal/depression (OR = 1.95, 95% CI: 1.27-3.01). CONCLUSIONS: Lower levels of psychosocial health are associated with both deviations from normal weight. These findings suggest the need for health policies that target health habits and lifestyle, as well as positive attitudes towards the body image, with respect to the different psychosocial characteristics of each body weight status category.

8.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 146: 111805, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33038452

RESUMO

The novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 has emerged as a severe threat against public health and global economies. COVID-19, the disease caused by this virus, is highly contagious and has led to an ongoing pandemic. SARS-CoV-2 affects, mainly, the respiratory system, with most severe cases primarily showcasing acute respiratory distress syndrome. Currently, no targeted therapy exists, and since the number of infections and death toll keeps rising, it has become a necessity to study possible therapeutic targets. Antiviral drugs can target various stages of the viral infection, and in the case of SARS-CoV-2, both structural and non-structural proteins have been proposed as potential drug targets. This review focuses on the most researched SARS-CoV-2 proteins, their structure, function, and possible therapeutic approaches.

9.
EMBnet J ; 262020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32832420

RESUMO

Extracellular vesicles have been the focus of a large number of studies in the past five years. Exosomes, a subgroup of extracellular vesicles, are of particularly high interest because they partake in a wide number of biological pathways. Produced by a variety of cells, exosomes have an important role in both physiological and pathological conditions. Exosome cargo heavily defines the vesicles' unique characteristics, and the cargo with the most intriguing prospects in its' biomedical applications is the non-coding RNAs. Non-coding RNAs, and specifically microRNAs are implicated in the regulation of many biological processes and have been associated with numerous diseases. Exosomes containing such important cargo can be used as biomarkers, therapeutic biomaterials, or even drug carriers. The potential media use of exosomes seems promising. However, some obstacles should be overcome before their clinical application. Synthetic exosome-like biomolecules may be a solution, but their production is still in their beginning stages. This review provides concise information regarding the current trends in exosome studies.

10.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 144: 111532, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32645466

RESUMO

Obesity and thus, lipotoxicity, is a major health risk factor. Modern exposure to environmental chemicals has contributed significantly to the obesity epidemic. The purpose of this study was to assess, via telemedicine and using bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) in schools, the levels of adiposity and other body composition parameters of Greek adolescents in relation with their metabolic syndrome (MetS) characteristics. A representative sample (1575 adolescents, 14.4 ± 1.7 years-old) of the Attica region population, underwent body composition assessment of fat mass (FM), fat-free mass (FFM), and total body water (TBW) and was evaluated for anthropometric and MetS characteristics. Males demonstrated higher FFM% and TBW% but lower FM% than females. Adolescents with abdominal obesity/MetS (n = 149/n = 40) demonstrated significantly (P < 0.001) higher body mass index (BMI 27.8 ± 3.8 kg/m2/30.2 ± 4.2 kg/m2) and FM (33.6 ± 9.7%/35.0 ± 10.5%) but significantly (P < 0.001) lower FFM (34.2 ± 5.7%/33.8 ± 6.2%) and TBW (45.6 ± 6.7%/44.6 ± 7.2%) than adolescents without abdominal obesity/MetS (BMI 20.9 ± 2.8 kg/m2/21.3 ± 3.2 kg/m2; FM 19.2 ± 6.9%/20.2 ± 8.0%; FFM 41.3 ± 4.4%/40.8 ± 4.8%; TBW 55.5 ± 4.8%/54.8 ± 5.5%). Findings suggest that early "osteosarcopenic" elements of abdominal obesity/MetS may exist even in adolescence. The application of BIA, incorporated in the new approach methodology of telemedicine in schools, identified adolescents at risk for obesity complications.

11.
Exp Ther Med ; 20(1): 561-571, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32537014

RESUMO

Pre-participation sports examination (PPE) is a frequent reason for consultation. However, the exact role of cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) in PPE remains undefined. The additive value of CMR in adolescent athletes with ventricular rhythm disturbances (VRDs) was investigated. We prospectively recruited and evaluated with CMR 50 consecutive, asymptomatic young athletes referred to our tertiary center after identification of VRDs on electrocardiogram (ECG) with otherwise normal standard PPE and echocardiography, and 20 age- and sex-matched healthy volunteer athletes who underwent the same evaluations. The primary outcome was case-control status and the secondary outcome was the discrimination between athletes with VRDs with and without non-sustained ventricular tachycardia (VT). CMR identified arrhythmogenic substrates in all athletes with VRDs. The predominant condition was myocarditis and arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy in patients with and without VT, respectively. Based on penalized regression analysis, late gadolinium enhancement (LGE), early gadolinium enhancement (EGE), extracellular volume fraction (ECV), and T2-mapping, best distinguished between case-control status. The aforementioned indices predicted case-control status independent of age and sex: EGE [Odds ratio (95% confidence interval): 6.89 (2.19-21.62) per 0.5-unit, P<0.001], LGE (perfect prediction), ECV [1.66 (1.25-2.22), P<0.001] and T2 mapping [1.40 (1.13-1.72), P=0.002], among other independent CMR-derived predictors. Only indexed ventricular volumes independently discriminated between VRD patients with and without VT. In this study, asymptomatic young athletes with VRDs and normal PPE/echocardiography were optimally discriminated from healthy control athletes by CMR-derived indices, and CMR allowed for the identification of arrhythmogenic substrates in all cases.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32295195

RESUMO

Prediabetes in the form of impaired fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance, or both is considered as a preliminary stage for the onset of diabetes and diabetic complications. Hormonal fluctuations in adolescence are accompanied by body composition modifications, which are associated with insulin resistance and subclinical inflammation. Bioimpedance (BIA) accurately evaluates body composition, and heart rate variability (HRV) assesses cardiac autonomic function, which are frequently afflicted by insulin resistance. We aimed at evaluating the effect of glycemic status on mental stress, anxiety, and depression status in adolescents with impaired fasting glucose, body composition, and HRV parameters. This is a case-control study to evaluate the effect of the hyperglycemia on depression, anxiety, and stress levels (DASS21 questionnaire), body composition (BIA-ACC-BIOTEKNA©), and HRV (PPG Stress Flow-BIOTEKNA©), between euglycemic adolescents (euglycemic group) and adolescents with impaired fasting glucose (prediabetic group), aged 12-20 years. No differences were found between the prediabetic (n = 13) and the euglycemic (n = 16) groups in the outcome measures, possibly due to the number of participants. Interestingly, females, irrespective of their glycemic status, exhibited altered sympathovagal function as revealed by impaired HRV. In the euglycemic group, HRV parameters were significantly correlated and in line with the DASS21 scores, but in the prediabetic group, similarities to those of adults were observed. Impaired fasting glucose had no impact on mental health, body composition, or HRV parameters in adolescents. HRV parameters were impaired in females, irrespective of their glycemic status. This finding implies that females seem to be more prone to stress disorders, even from a young age. Future studies are needed to confirm these findings.


Assuntos
Ansiedade , Composição Corporal , Depressão , Frequência Cardíaca , Resistência à Insulina , Estado Pré-Diabético , Adolescente , Glicemia/análise , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Jejum , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Caracteres Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
13.
EMBnet J ; 252020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32190583

RESUMO

To evaluate the potency of potential helicase modulators, we developed an assay of helicase enzyme activity. Using a DNA or RNA biotin labelled oligonucleotide and after the addition of a recombinant helicase, the nucleic acid unwinds, causing the emission of luminescence, which is quantified with a particular antibody. In our assay, one of the DNA oligos was biotinylated, while the other was labelled with digoxygenin (DIG), both in their 5' termini. The biotin molecule immobilises the DNA duplex on a neutravidin-coated plate and the helicase activity is measured through the unwinding of DNA, due to ATP activation. The subsequent release of DIG-labelled oligos results in a luminescence signal measured with a chemiluminescence antibody. Our goal was to provide a high throughput screening method for potential helicase inhibitors. The method described in this paper has been demonstrated to be fast, easy and reproducible and doesn't use radiochemicals.

14.
Breast ; 49: 210-218, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31901782

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Breast cancer patients undergo extended treatments that affect their psychological state and quality of life. There is a lack of studies examining the effects of holistic stress management interventions (that combine stress perception, cognitive and lifestyle interventions) on mental health and biological indices (e.g. cortisol concentrations) of breast cancer patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This pilot randomized controlled trial provided the first assessment of the effects of a novel, cognitive-based intervention, the Pythagorean Self-Awareness Intervention (PSAI), on psychological symptoms, quality of life, sleep quality and lifestyle as well as on stress-related biological measures of breast cancer patients undergoing adjuvant therapy. Standardized questionnaires were administered at baseline and 8-weeksafter the intervention to evaluate quality of life, stress, depression, and anxiety (primary outcomes). Sleep quality, lifestyle and hair cortisol concentrations were also assessed (secondary outcomes). RESULTS: Forty-five breast cancer patients undergoing adjuvant therapy were randomly assigned to the PSAI group (n = 25) or the control group (n = 20).Women in the PSAI group reported significant improvements post-intervention in total Quality of Life, specific aspects of Quality of Life [Physical well-being, Social well-being, Emotional well-being, Functional well-being, Breast cancer concerns] as well as Perceived stress, depression, anxiety and stress. Improvements in secondary outcomes included increase in sleep quality, empowerment for healthy lifestyle and reduction of hair cortisol concentrations. CONCLUSIONS: The PSAI was beneficial as complementary therapy in the women studied. Larger randomized controlled trials with longer follow-up are needed to ascertain these findings.


Assuntos
Conscientização , Neoplasias da Mama/psicologia , Neoplasias da Mama/terapia , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental/métodos , Estresse Psicológico/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Ansiedade/etiologia , Ansiedade/prevenção & controle , Ansiedade/psicologia , Quimioterapia Adjuvante , Depressão/etiologia , Depressão/prevenção & controle , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Mastectomia , Saúde Mental , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Radioterapia Adjuvante , Autoimagem , Sono , Estresse Psicológico/etiologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
Med Chem ; 16(6): 796-811, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31291878

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Kisspeptin is one of the most potent stimulators of GnRH secretion and consequent gonadotropin release from the anterior pituitary. Kisspeptin is considered critical in regulating reproductive function in relation to metabolic cues. Reproductive function is gated by the energy reserves of the individual. Conditions of energy insufficiency, such as Anorexia Nervosa, often disturb reproductive function and fertility. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this research was to investigate similar or comparable hormonal patterns in kisspeptin mechanics using computational methodology tools. METHODS: Twenty-two females with typical or atypical anorexia nervosa and fifteen control females, were recruited from the Center for Adolescent Medicine of the University of Athens. Serum levels of Prolactin (PRL), 17-Hydroxy-Progesterone (17OHPR), Free Triiodothyronine (FT3), Triiodothyronine (T3), Free Thyroxine (FT4), Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH), Luteinizing Hormone (LH), Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH) and Estradiol (E2) were measured in patients and controls. Data were modelled computationally in order to find similar or comparable patterns between control and anorexic participants, with respect to kisspeptin. RESULTS: Kisspeptin manifested symmetrical regression plots between controls and anorexics with respect to 17OHPR, LH and FSH, as well as a threshold pattern among controls, typical and atypical anorexics. CONCLUSION: Kisspeptin seems to participate in the anorexic hormonal milieu through threshold or symmetrical mechanisms.

16.
J Clin Med ; 8(12)2019 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31810188

RESUMO

The Spexin gene is considered the most dysregulated in obese human fat. Limited data suggest that the novel peptide spexin may potentially impact food intake, weight regulation and body adiposity. The aim of this case-control study was to compare fasting serum spexin concentrations between normal weight (NW) and overweight/obese (OB/OW) adolescent females and explore the relationship between circulating spexin and anthropometric, bone and fat mass, metabolic and hormonal parameters. Eighty post-menarcheal females (mean age ± SD 16.23 ± 2.26 years); 55 NW (mean BMI ± SD 19.72 ± 2.52 kg/m2) and 25 OB/OW (mean BMI ± SD 29.35 ± 3.89 kg/m2) participated in the study. Circulating spexin levels did not differ significantly (p = 0.378) between NW (median (interquartile range), 0.26 (0.17) ng/mL) and OB/OW (median (interquartile range), 0.28 (0.06) ng/mL) adolescents and did not correlate with BMI (rs = -0.090, p = 0.438), % body fat (rs = -0.173, p = 0.409), glucose or insulin resistance indices derived from fasting and oral glucose tolerance states. In the total study sample, spexin concentrations correlated positively with lipoprotein(a) (rs = 0.402, p = 0.046). In the OB/OW adolescents spexin levels correlated positively with testosterone (rs = 0.727, p = 0.011) and free androgen index (rs = 0.755, p = 0.007). In the NW adolescents, spexin concentrations correlated negatively with dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (rs = -0.445, p = 0.038). Results may suggest potential involvement of spexin in the regulation of lipoprotein(a) and of the reproductive/adrenal axis in post-menarcheal adolescent females.

17.
Nutr Neurosci ; : 1-11, 2019 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31736434

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: It is hypothesized that novel neuropeptides such as phoenixin (PNX), spexin (SPX), and kisspeptin (KISS) are involved in the pathogenesis of eating disorders. The study presented here analyzed neuropeptide concentrations during the course of anorexia nervosa (AN) and aimed to correlate those values with anthropometric and psychometric measurements. METHODS: A longitudinal study was carried outin 30 AN adolescent patients and 15 age-matched healthy female controls. Selected neuroprotein serum levels were analyzed in malnourished patients (accAN) and following partial weight recovery (norAN), and these values were compared with the control group. RESULTS: In accAN patients, decreased serum PNX levels were detected while SPX serum concentrations were lower in the accAN and norAN patients. No differences were observed in KISS concentrations in all studied groups. CONCLUSIONS: In malnourished adolescent inpatients with AN, serum PNX and SPX level were decreased. The partial weight recovery normalized PNX concentrations but failed to normalize SPX levels. Therefore these two neuropeptides might be crucial for the etiology and course of the AN. The KISS levels did not change in the course of AN. The PNX levels were associated with some symptoms of eating disorders which may indicate its potential contribution in the regulation of emotions and behaviors in AN.

18.
J Clin Med ; 8(10)2019 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31640224

RESUMO

Dysbiosis of intestinal ecology could be implicated in prediabetes. The aim of this pilot randomized controlled trial (RCT) was to collect preliminary data on the effects of probiotic supplementation (Vivomixx©) on markers of glucose metabolism, intestinal microbiome composition, and intestinal health indices, of prediabetic adolescents. The intervention group was administered probiotic sachets twice daily for 4 months, while both intervention and control groups received weekly consultation sessions for a healthier lifestyle. Thirty-two participants were recruited (1.3 participants per month) and were randomized (16 in control and 16 in intervention group). Fifteen of them signed the inform consent and never entered the study (6 in control and 9 in intervention group). Thus, seventeen participants completed the study (10 in control and 7 in intervention group), with no serious adverse events. After the 4-month intervention, no difference was observed in the markers of glycemic control between the two groups, although a minor effect was observed for fasting glucose at 1-month, probably due to the initial higher adherence to the probiotic supplements. Modifications of the protocol procedures are warranted because of the high attrition rates and suboptimal compliance that were noted. Future studies and further RCTs with larger samples need to be conducted to fully elucidate the potential effects of probiotics in the glycemic control of prediabetic adolescents.

20.
Nutrients ; 11(9)2019 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31480705

RESUMO

Scarce data exist on the body composition of lean women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) on treatment with metformin and oral contraceptives (OCs). Thirty-four lean (body mass index 18.5-24.9 kg/m2) women (17 with PCOS on metformin and OCs treatment for six months and 17 controls) aged 18-40 years were assessed for body composition parameters (fat, muscle, glycogen, protein masses, bone masses, and body water compartments) and phase angles. PCOS patients demonstrated lower muscle, glycogen and protein masses (U = 60, p = 0.003), along with a lower bone mineral content and mass (U = 78, p = 0.021; U = 74, p = 0.014) than their healthy counterparts, while total and abdominal fat masses were similar between the two groups. PCOS patients also exhibited increased extracellular body water (U = 10, p < 0.001) and decreased intracellular water, compatible with low-grade inflammation and cellular dehydration. Key differences in body composition between women with PCOS and controls demonstrated an osteosarcopenic body composition phenotype in PCOS patients. A confirmation of these findings in larger studies may render osteosarcopenia management a targeted adjunct therapy in women with PCOS.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Anticoncepcionais Orais/uso terapêutico , Metformina/uso terapêutico , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Projetos Piloto , Adulto Jovem
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...