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1.
J Surg Res ; 268: 79-86, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34289418

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Producing a reliable large-animal model of AAA has proven challenging. We sought to create a reproducible swine model of AAA using enzymatic degradation of the aortic wall. METHODS: Twelve male Yorkshire swine received periadventitial injections of type 1 collagenase and porcine pancreatic elastase into a 4 cm segment of infrarenal aorta. Nine survived until postoperative day (POD) 21. Aortic growth was monitored at 7 and 14 days using ultrasound. The animals were euthanized on POD 21, and the suprarenal (control) and infrarenal aorta were harvested for analysis, after gross measurement of aortic diameter (AD). Tensile strength was measured and additional segments were collected for histopathological analysis. PCR of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP9) was conducted. Groups were compared with paired t-tests, or ANOVA, where appropriate. RESULTS: Average percent growth of AD at POD 21 for treated segments was 27% versus 4.5% for control tissue. The average difference in AD by subject, was 26.7% (P<0.001). Aortic medial thickness was decreased in treated tissue; 235 µm versus 645 µm (P<0.0001). Quantities of both medial elastin fibers, and smooth muscles cells were decreased in treated tissue; 1.8% compared to 9.9% (P<0.0001), and 24% versus 37.4%, respectively. Tensile strength was also decreased in treated tissue; 16.7 MPa versus 29.5 MPa (P=0.0002). A 12-fold increase in expression of MMP9 mRNA was also demonstrated in aneurysmal tissue (P=0.002) CONCLUSION: A reproducible, large-animal model of AAA, with anatomical, histopathological, and biomechanical properties that are clinically translatable, can be achieved with extraluminal enzymatic degradation.


Assuntos
Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal , Animais , Aorta Abdominal/metabolismo , Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Masculino , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/patologia , Elastase Pancreática/metabolismo , Suínos
2.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 90(3): 557-564, 2021 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33507026

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Emergency Surgery Score (ESS) was recently validated as an accurate mortality risk calculator for emergency general surgery. We sought to prospectively evaluate whether ESS can predict the need for respiratory and/or renal support (RRS) at discharge after emergent laparotomies (EL). METHODS: This is a post hoc analysis of a 19-center prospective observational study. Between April 2018 and June 2019, all adult patients undergoing EL were enrolled. Preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative variables were systematically collected. In this analysis, patients were excluded if they died during the index hospitalization, were discharged to hospice, or transferred to other hospitals. A composite variable, the need for RRS, was defined as the need for one or more of the following at hospital discharge: tracheostomy, ventilator dependence, or dialysis. Emergency Surgery Score was calculated for all patients, and the correlation between ESS and RRS was examined using the c-statistics method. RESULTS: From a total of 1,649 patients, 1,347 were included. Median age was 60 years, 49.4% were men, and 70.9% were White. The most common diagnoses were hollow viscus organ perforation (28.1%) and small bowel obstruction (24.5%); 87 patients (6.5%) had a need for RRS (4.7% tracheostomy, 2.7% dialysis, and 1.3% ventilator dependence). Emergency Surgery Score predicted the need for RRS in a stepwise fashion; for example, 0.7%, 26.2%, and 85.7% of patients required RRS at an ESS of 2, 12, and 16, respectively. The c-statistics for the need for RRS, the need for tracheostomy, ventilator dependence, or dialysis at discharge were 0.84, 0.82, 0.79, and 0.88, respectively. CONCLUSION: Emergency Surgery Score accurately predicts the need for RRS at discharge in EL patients and could be used for preoperative patient counseling and for quality of care benchmarking. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Prognostic and epidemiological, level III.


Assuntos
Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Hospitalização , Laparotomia/efeitos adversos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Diálise Renal , Respiração Artificial , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/terapia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Medição de Risco
3.
Am J Surg ; 221(5): 935-941, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32943177

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Perforated gastric ulcers are surgical emergencies with paucity of data on the preferred treatment modality of resection versus omental patch. We aim to compare outcomes with ulcer repair and gastric resection surgeries in perforated gastric ulcers after systematic review of literature. METHODS: A systematic literature search was performed for publications in PubMed Medline, Embase, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. We included all studies which compared ulcer repair vesus gastric resection surgeries for perforated gastric ulcers. We excluded studies which did not separate outcomes gastric and duodenal ulcer perforations. RESULTS: The search included nine single-institution retrospective reviews comparing ulcer repair (449 patients) versus gastric resection surgeries (212 patients). Meta-analysis was restricted to perforated gastric ulcers and excluded perforated duodenal ulcers. The majority of these studies did not control for baseline characteristics, and surgical strategies were often chosen in a non-randomized manner. All of the studies included were at high risk of bias. The overall odds ratio of mortality in ulcer repair surgery compared to gastric resection surgery was 1.79, with 95% CI 0.72 to 4.43 and p-value 0.209. CONCLUSION: In this meta-analysis, there was no difference in mortality between the two surgical groups. The overall equivalence of clinical outcomes suggests that gastric resection is a potentially viable alternative to ulcer repair surgery and should not be considered a secondary strategy. We would recommend a multicenter randomized control trial to evaluate the surgical approach that yields superior outcomes. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Systematic review and meta-analysis, level III.


Assuntos
Gastrectomia , Omento/transplante , Úlcera Péptica Perfurada/cirurgia , Úlcera Gástrica/cirurgia , Gastrectomia/métodos , Humanos
4.
Am J Surg ; 221(5): 1069-1075, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32917366

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: We sought to evaluate whether the Emergency Surgery Score (ESS) can accurately predict outcomes in elderly patients undergoing emergent laparotomy (EL). METHODS: This is a post-hoc analysis of an EAST multicenter study. Between April 2018 and June 2019, all adult patients undergoing EL in 19 participating hospitals were prospectively enrolled, and ESS was calculated for each patient. Using the c-statistic, the correlation between ESS and mortality, morbidity, and need for ICU admission was assessed in three patient age cohorts (65-74, 75-84, ≥85 years old). RESULTS: 715 patients were included, of which 52% were 65-74, 34% were 75-84, and 14% were ≥85 years old; 51% were female, and 77% were white. ESS strongly correlated with postoperative mortality (c-statistic:0.81). Mortality gradually increased from 0% to 20%-60% at ESS of 2, 10 and 16 points, respectively. ESS predicted mortality, morbidity, and need for ICU best in patients 65-74 years old (c-statistic:0.81, 0.75, 0.83 respectively), but its performance significantly decreased in patients ≥85 years (c-statistic:0.72, 0.64, 0.67 respectively). CONCLUSION: ESS is an accurate predictor of outcome in the elderly EL patient 65-85 years old, but its performance decreases for patients ≥85. Consideration should be given to modify ESS to better predict outcomes in the very elderly patient population.


Assuntos
Tratamento de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Laparotomia/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Tratamento de Emergência/efeitos adversos , Tratamento de Emergência/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Laparotomia/efeitos adversos , Laparotomia/mortalidade , Masculino , Medição de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos
5.
Cell Biochem Funct ; 39(3): 432-441, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33349985

RESUMO

Stem cell therapy promotes tissue regeneration and wound healing. Efforts have been made to prime stem cells to enhance their regenerative abilities. Certain marijuana components, namely the non-psychoactive cannabidiol (CBD) and psychoactive tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), are defined as immunomodulators.9 We test whether two sources of stem cells, primed with CBD or THC, would demonstrate improved regenerative abilities. Human adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) and bone marrow-derived stem cells (BMDSCs), not obtained from the same individual, were treated with low (300 nM) or high (3 µM) concentration CBD. Porcine ASCs and BMDSCs were isolated from a single pig, and treated with either low or high concentrations of CBD or THC. Transwell migration and MTT proliferation assays were performed on the human ASCs and BMDSCs. Also, transwell migration assay was performed on the porcine ASCs and BMDSCs. Finally, a wound healing scratch assay in porcine primary fibroblasts (PFs) was performed, co-cultured with the cannabinoid-treated ASCs. CBD priming at low concentration induces migration by 180% (P < .01) in porcine ASCs, and by only 93% (P < .02) in porcine BMDSCs. In porcine stem cells, THC priming at low concentration induces migration by 91.6% (P < .01) in ASCs but by only 44.3% (P < .03) in BMDSCs. Compared to PFs co-cultured with untreated ASCs, PFs co-cultured with low CBD-primed ASCs had 75% faster wound closure at 18 hours (P < .01). CBD and THC priming of ASCs and BMDSCs, particularly at lower doses, enhances a number of regenerative parameters, suggesting that these major marijuana components may improve stem cell-based therapies. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY: Our study demonstrates that cannabinoids can enhance the regenerative capacity of two major sources of stem cells, adipose- and bone marrow-derived, from human and porcine donors. Stem cell isolation and expansion is invasive, costly and time consuming. Stem cells with improved regenerative properties may be effective in the treatment of acute or chronic wounds. This is the first study to compare the priming potential of two sources of stem cells from the same animal, with the same genetic and epigenetic profile, as well as the first to prime with THC.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/imunologia , Células da Medula Óssea/imunologia , Canabidiol/farmacologia , Cannabis/química , Dronabinol/imunologia , Células-Tronco/imunologia , Tecido Adiposo/citologia , Animais , Células da Medula Óssea/citologia , Canabidiol/química , Dronabinol/química , Humanos , Células-Tronco/citologia , Suínos
7.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 89(1): 118-124, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32176177

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Emergency Surgery Score (ESS) was recently developed and retrospectively validated as an accurate mortality risk calculator for emergency general surgery. We sought to prospectively validate ESS, specifically in the high-risk nontrauma emergency laparotomy (EL) patient. METHODS: This is an Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma multicenter prospective observational study. Between April 2018 and June 2019, 19 centers enrolled all adults (aged >18 years) undergoing EL. Preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative variables were prospectively and systematically collected. Emergency Surgery Score was calculated for each patient and validated using c-statistic methodology by correlating it with three postoperative outcomes: (1) 30-day mortality, (2) 30-day complications (e.g., respiratory/renal failure, infection), and (3) postoperative intensive care unit (ICU) admission. RESULTS: A total of 1,649 patients were included. The mean age was 60.5 years, 50.3% were female, and 71.4% were white. The mean ESS was 6, and the most common indication for EL was hollow viscus perforation. The 30-day mortality and complication rates were 14.8% and 53.3%; 57.0% of patients required ICU admission. Emergency Surgery Score gradually and accurately predicted 30-day mortality; 3.5%, 50.0%, and 85.7% of patients with ESS of 3, 12, and 17 died after surgery, respectively, with a c-statistic of 0.84. Similarly, ESS gradually and accurately predicted complications; 21.0%, 57.1%, and 88.9% of patients with ESS of 1, 6, and 13 developed postoperative complications, with a c-statistic of 0.74. Emergency Surgery Score also accurately predicted which patients required intensive care unit admission (c-statistic, 0.80). CONCLUSION: This is the first prospective multicenter study to validate ESS as an accurate predictor of outcome in the EL patient. Emergency Surgery Score can prove useful for (1) perioperative patient and family counseling, (2) triaging patients to the intensive care unit, and (3) benchmarking the quality of emergency general surgery care. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Prognostic study, level III.


Assuntos
Emergências , Cirurgia Geral , Medição de Risco/métodos , Ferimentos e Lesões/cirurgia , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/mortalidade , Pontuação de Propensão , Estudos Prospectivos , Ferimentos e Lesões/mortalidade
8.
J Surg Res ; 240: 201-205, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30978600

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The practice of marking gunshot wounds and obtaining X-rays (XRs) has been performed to determine the trajectory of missiles to help identify internal injuries. We hypothesized that surgeons would have poor accuracy in predicting injuries and that X-rays do not alter the clinical decision. METHODS: We developed a 50-patient (89 injury sites) PowerPoint survey based on cases seen at our level 1 trauma center from 2012 to 2014. Images of a silhouetted BodyMan (BM) with wounds marked, XRs, and vital signs (VSs) were shown in series for 20 s each. Surgeons were asked to record which organs they thought could be injured and to document their clinical decision. Data were analyzed to determine the inter-rater reliability (agreement, intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC]) for each mode of clinical information (BM, XR, VS). Predicted versus actual injuries were compared using absolute agreements. RESULTS: Ten surgeons completed the survey. We found that no single piece of information was helpful in allowing the surgeon to accurately predict injuries. Pulmonary injury had the highest agreement among all injuries (ICC = 0.727). VSs had the highest ICC in determining the clinical plan for the patient (ICC = 0.342), whereas both BM and XR had low ICCs (0.162 and 0.183, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: We found that marking wounds and obtaining X-rays, other than a chest X-ray, did not result in accuracy in predicting injury nor alter the clinical decision. VSs were the only piece of information found significant in determining clinical management. We conclude that marking wounds for X-rays is an unnecessary step during the initial resuscitation of patients with gunshot wounds.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Lesão Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Ressuscitação , Ferimentos por Arma de Fogo/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Lesão Pulmonar/terapia , Variações Dependentes do Observador , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Radiografia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Cirurgiões/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos , Centros de Traumatologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Ferimentos por Arma de Fogo/terapia
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