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2.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 82(3): 225-232, May-June 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1001296

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Purpose: To study the efficacy and safety of treatments with ranibizumab and bevacizumab for exudative age-related macular degeneration. Methods: A parallel randomized clinical trial was conducted to compare the efficacy and safety of three regimens (bevacizumab every month, bevacizumab every 2 weeks, and ranibizumab every month), followed by as-needed retreatments, for 1 year, in previously untreated individuals with age-related macular degeneration. The primary outcome was change in visual acuity and in central macular thickness after 1 year of follow-up. Subjects were assigned randomly to one of the three groups in a 1:1:1 ratio, and investigators and examiners were blinded to the randomization results. Results: We included 15 patients in each group. After 1 year of follow-up, we found statistically significant improvements in visual acuity and central macular thickness reduction in all groups. However, we found no statistically significant differences between the three groups. Conclusions: The bi-weekly follow-up was effective and we found no significant differences in efficacy or safety between the treatments with ranibizumab and bevacizumab.


RESUMO Objetivo: Estudar a eficácia e segurança dos tratamentos com ranibizumabe e bevacizumabe para a degeneração macular relacionada à idade exsudativa. Métodos: Ensaio clínico paralelo randomizado foi conduzido para comparar a eficácia e segurança de três regimes (bevacizumabe a cada mês, bevacizumabe a cada 2 semanas e ranibizumabe todos os meses), seguidos por retratamentos conforme necessidade, durante 1 ano, em indivíduos previamente não tratados com degeneração macular relacionada à idade. O desfecho primário foi alteração na acuidade visual e na espessura macular central após um ano de seguimento. Os indivíduos foram designados aleatoriamente para um dos 3 grupos em uma proporção de 1:1:1, e os investigadores e examinadores foram mascarados para os resultados da randomização. Resultados: Foram incluídos 15 pacientes em cada grupo. Após um ano de seguimento, encontramos melhorias estatisticamente significativas na acuidade visual e na redução da espessura macular central em todos os grupos. No entanto, não encontramos diferenças estatisticamente significativas entre os 3 grupos. Conclusões: O seguimento quinzenal foi eficaz e não encontramos diferenças significativas na eficácia ou segurança entre os tratamentos com bevacizumabe e ranibizumabe.

3.
Arq Bras Oftalmol ; 82(3): 225-232, 2019 May-Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30810619

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To study the efficacy and safety of treatments with ranibizumab and bevacizumab for exudative age-related macular degeneration. METHODS: A parallel randomized clinical trial was conducted to compare the efficacy and safety of three regimens (bevacizumab every month, bevacizumab every 2 weeks, and ranibizumab every month), followed by as-needed retreatments, for 1 year, in previously untreated individuals with age-related macular degeneration. The primary outcome was change in visual acuity and in central macular thickness after 1 year of follow-up. Subjects were assigned randomly to one of the three groups in a 1:1:1 ratio, and investigators and examiners were blinded to the randomization results. RESULTS: We included 15 patients in each group. After 1 year of follow-up, we found statistically significant improvements in visual acuity and central macular thickness reduction in all groups. However, we found no statistically significant differences between the three groups. CONCLUSIONS: The bi-weekly follow-up was effective and we found no significant differences in efficacy or safety between the treatments with ranibizumab and bevacizumab.

4.
Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina ; 49(5): 374-379, 2018 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29772050

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: To report the efficacy, safety, and benefits of femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery (FLACS) combined with sutureless 23-gauge pars plana vitrectomy (PPV). PATIENTS AND METHODS: This multicenter, retrospective study evaluated patient records and videos of 43 cases with retinal pathologies and cataract who underwent the combined procedure. RESULTS: In 44.2% and 55.8% of cases, respectively, the LenSx Laser (femtosecond machine; Alcon, Fort Worth, TX) and the Constellation (vitreous cutter; Alcon, Fort Worth, TX), and the Victus (femtosecond machine; Bausch + Lomb, Rochester, NY) and Stellaris PC (vitreous cutter; Bausch + Lomb, Rochester, NY) were used. No complications developed during capsulorrhexis, even without a red fundus reflex, retrobulbar block, or scleral indentation. Foldable intraocular lenses remained stable in the capsular bag during the vitreoretinal surgeries and postoperative visits. The mean times of femtosecond phacoemulsification, vitreoretinal surgery, and total surgery were 22.9 minutes ± 4.7 minutes, 43.1 minutes ± 9.8 minutes, and 65.3 minutes ± 8.6 minutes, respectively. CONCLUSION: This emerging technology is safe and offers several potential benefits for the success of the combined procedure. [Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina. 2018;49:374-379.].

5.
Curr Eye Res ; 42(8): 1185-1193, 2017 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28494212

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Evaluate toxicity of acai fruit (Euterpe oleracea) dye concentrations in a rabbit model. METHODS: Rabbits were injected intravitreously with 10%, 25%, and 35% acai dye concentrations. Control eyes received balanced salt solution (BSS). Electroretinogram (ERG), fundus imaging, fluorescein angiography (FA), optical coherence tomography (OCT), and light and transmission electron microscopy (LM/TEM) were performed. RESULTS: Fundus imaging showed increased vitreous opacity with increased dye concentrations. FA and OCT showed normality with all concentrations. Comparisons between BSS and dye concentrations were analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis and Mood's median test (p < 0.05). At 24 h, ERGs showed reduced amplitudes from baseline in all eyes. Median b-wave amplitudes nonsignificantly decreased and latency increased with 10% and 25%; findings were significant (p < 0.05) for 35%. LM and TEM showed no abnormalities for 10% and 25%. With 35%, TEM showed ganglion cell edema at 24 h that resolved after 7 days. Vacuolization, multilamellar bodies, and nerve bundle damage occurred at 24 h/7 days in the inner nuclear layer. Mitochondrial cristae disruption occurred in the inner photoreceptor segment at 24 h that decreased by 7 days. CONCLUSION: Ten and twenty-five percent concentrations were safe and may improve identification of the posterior hyaloid and internal limiting membrane during chromovitrectomy in humans.


Assuntos
Euterpe/toxicidade , Angiofluoresceinografia/métodos , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Retina/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças Retinianas/cirurgia , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica/métodos , Vitrectomia/métodos , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Eletrorretinografia/efeitos dos fármacos , Euterpe/metabolismo , Frutas/metabolismo , Frutas/toxicidade , Fundo de Olho , Humanos , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Extratos Vegetais/farmacocinética , Coelhos , Retina/metabolismo , Retina/ultraestrutura , Doenças Retinianas/induzido quimicamente , Doenças Retinianas/diagnóstico
6.
J Ophthalmol ; 2016: 7984576, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27721989

RESUMO

Purpose. To evaluate the best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), central retinal thickness (CRT), and the number of dexamethasone implants needed to treat cystoid macular edema (CME) from various etiologies over 12 months in vitrectomized and nonvitrectomized eyes. Methods. This multicenter retrospective cohort study included 112 patients with CME secondary to retinal diseases treated pro re nata (PRN) with a 0.7 mg intravitreal dexamethasone implant for 12 months. The BCVA, CRT, adverse events, safety data, and number of implants were recorded. Results. Vitrectomized and nonvitrectomized eyes received means of three implants and one implant, respectively, over 12 months (P < 0.001). The mean BCVA of all patients improved from 0.13 at baseline to 0.33 (P < 0.001) 12 months after one (P = 0.001), two (P = 0.041), and three (P < 0.001) implants but not four implants (P = 0.068). The mean baseline CRT decreased significantly (P < 0.001) from 463 to 254 microns after 12 months with one (P < 0.001), two (P = 0.002), and three (P = 0.001) implants but not with four implants (P = 0.114). The anatomic and functional outcomes were not significantly different between vitrectomized and nonvitrectomized eyes. Increased IOP was the most common adverse event (23.2%). Conclusions. Dexamethasone implant administered PRN improved VA and decreased CRT in CME, with possible long-term clinically relevant benefits for treating CME from various etiologies. Vitrectomized eyes needed more implants compared with nonvitrectomized eyes.

7.
J Ophthalmol ; 2016: 6971831, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27274866

RESUMO

Purpose. To evaluate daily spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) changes in naive-treatment patients with diagnosis of exudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD) treated with intravitreous bevacizumab (1.25 mg), during a 30-day follow-up period. Methods. In prospective, interventional study, SD-OCT was performed daily for 30 days after the first intravitreal injection. The baseline, initial-decrease, minimal, and final central retinal thicknesses (CRTs) were assessed. Results. Nine eyes of nine patients with neovascular AMD were enrolled. The mean baseline CRT was 625.3 ± 182.5 µm, and the mean final CRT was 383.4 ± 163.0 µm (mean difference, 206.1 ± 167.6 µm), a difference that reached significance (P = 0.006). After the first injection, the initial decrease in the CRT was seen as an average of one day after injection (mean CRT, 503.6 ± 189.10 µm; P = 0.0431). The speed of the reduction in the CRT tended to decrease by day 17. The mean CRT was 336.5 ± 105.44 µm and the mean minimal CRT on day 30 was 320.75 ± 96.38 µm. Conclusion. The CRT decreased early after the first injection. We observed a tendency for reductions in the speed with which the CRT decreased by day 17 after the first injection, which may affect retreatment regime.

9.
Am J Ophthalmol ; 162: 140-149.e1, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26548809

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To analyze the vitreoretinal interface in diabetic eyes using 3-dimensional wide-field volumes acquired using high-speed, long-wavelength swept-source optical coherence tomography (SSOCT). DESIGN: Prospective cross-sectional study. METHODS: Fifty-six diabetic patients (88 eyes) and 11 healthy nondiabetic controls (22 eyes) were recruited. Up to 8 SSOCT volumes were acquired for each eye. A registration algorithm removed motion artifacts and merged multiple SSOCT volumes to improve signal. Vitreous visualization was enhanced using vitreous windowing method. RESULTS: Of 88 diabetic eyes, 20 eyes had no retinopathy, 21 eyes had nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR) without macular edema, 20 eyes had proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) without macular edema, and 27 eyes had diabetic macular edema (DME) with either NPDR or PDR. Thick posterior hyaloid relative to healthy nondiabetic controls was observed in 0 of 20 (0%) diabetic eyes without retinopathy, 4 of 21 (19%) eyes with NPDR, 11 of 20 (55%) eyes with PDR, and 11 of 27 (41%) eyes with DME (P = .0001). Vitreoschisis was observed in 6 of 22 (27%) healthy nondiabetic eyes, 9 of 20 (45%) diabetic eyes without retinopathy, 10 of 21 (48%) eyes with NPDR, 13 of 20 (65%) eyes with PDR, and 17 of 27 (63%) eyes with DME (P = .007). While no healthy nondiabetic controls and diabetic eyes without retinopathy had adhesions/pegs between detached posterior hyaloid and retina, 1 of 21 (4%), 11 of 20 (55%), and 11 of 27 (41%) eyes with NPDR, PDR, and DME, respectively, demonstrated this feature (P = .0001). CONCLUSION: SSOCT with motion-correction and vitreous windowing provides wide-field 3-dimensional information of vitreoretinal interface in diabetic eyes. This may be useful in assessing progression of retinopathy, planning diabetic vitreous surgery, and predicting treatment outcomes.


Assuntos
Retinopatia Diabética/diagnóstico , Retina/patologia , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica , Corpo Vítreo/patologia , Descolamento do Vítreo/diagnóstico , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Aumento da Imagem/métodos , Imagem Tridimensional , Edema Macular/diagnóstico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Acuidade Visual/fisiologia
10.
Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina ; 46(9): 920-4, 2015 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26469231

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: To study the correlation between the choroidal thickness (CT) measured by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) and retrobulbar blood flow measured by color Doppler flowmetry (CD) in normal subjects. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Healthy subjects underwent enhanced-depth imaging SD-OCT and CD using a linear 6 MHz to 18 MHz transducer. The maximal peak systolic velocity and resistance index (RI) were obtained for the ophthalmic artery (OA), short posterior ciliary artery (SPCA), and central retinal artery (CRA) and correlated with the subfoveal CT measured by SD-OCT. RESULTS: Twenty-seven eyes of 27 healthy patients were enrolled (mean age: 40.6 ± 12.4 years; range: 27-68 years). An inverse proportional relationship (P = .0496) was identified between the RI of the SPCA (mean, 0.6117 ± 0.07911) and the subfoveal CT (319.9 µm ± 83.79 µm) but not between the RI and the OA (mean: 0.7019 µm ± 0.07317 µm) or the CRA (mean: 0.68843 µm ± 0.08994 µm). CONCLUSION: The results of this study suggested there is an inverse proportional relationship between the RI of the SPCA and the subfoveal CT. The data also suggested a correlation between a decrease in the CT and increased RI in the retrobulbar arteries. Therefore, lower choroidal blood flow may explain the thinner CT in normal subjects.


Assuntos
Corioide/anatomia & histologia , Artérias Ciliares/fisiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Velocidade do Fluxo Sanguíneo/fisiologia , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Fluxometria por Laser-Doppler , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Artéria Oftálmica/fisiologia , Tamanho do Órgão , Artéria Retiniana/fisiologia , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica , Ultrassonografia Doppler em Cores
11.
PLoS One ; 10(7): e0133080, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26172550

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To characterize qualitative and quantitative features of the choroid in normal eyes using enface swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT). METHODS: Fifty-two eyes of 26 consecutive normal subjects were prospectively recruited to obtain multiple three-dimensional 12 x 12 mm volumetric scans using a long-wavelength high-speed SS-OCT prototype. A motion-correction algorithm merged multiple SS-OCT volumes to improve signal. Retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) was segmented as the reference and enface images were extracted at varying depths every 4.13 µm intervals. Systematic analysis of the choroid at different depths was performed to qualitatively assess the morphology of the choroid and quantify the absolute thicknesses as well as the relative thicknesses of the choroidal vascular layers including the choroidal microvasculature (choriocapillaris, terminal arterioles and venules; CC) and choroidal vessels (CV) with respect to the subfoveal total choroidal thickness (TC). Subjects were divided into two age groups: younger (<40 years) and older (≥ 40 years). RESULTS: Mean age of subjects was 41.92 (24-66) years. Enface images at the level of the RPE, CC, CV, and choroidal-scleral interface were used to assess specific qualitative features. In the younger age group, the mean absolute thicknesses were: TC 379.4 µm (SD ± 75.7 µm), CC 81.3 µm (SD ± 21.2 µm) and CV 298.1 µm (SD ± 63.7 µm). In the older group, the mean absolute thicknesses were: TC 305.0 µm (SD ± 50.9 µm), CC 56.4µm (SD ± 12.1 µm) and CV 248.6µm (SD ± 49.7 µm). In the younger group, the relative thicknesses of the individual choroidal layers were: CC 21.5% (SD ± 4.0%) and CV 78.4% (SD ± 4.0%). In the older group, the relative thicknesses were: CC 18.9% (SD ± 4.5%) and CV 81.1% (SD ± 4.5%). The absolute thicknesses were smaller in the older age group for all choroidal layers (TC p=0.006, CC p=0.0003, CV p=0.03) while the relative thickness was smaller only for the CC (p=0.04). CONCLUSIONS: Enface SS-OCT at 1050 nm enables a precise qualitative and quantitative characterization of the individual choroidal layers in normal eyes. Only the CC is relatively thinner in the older eyes. In-vivo evaluation of the choroid at variable depths may be potentially valuable in understanding the natural history of age-related posterior segment disease.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Corioide/anatomia & histologia , Corioide/fisiologia , Epitélio Pigmentado da Retina/anatomia & histologia , Esclera/anatomia & histologia , Esclera/fisiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Corioide/irrigação sanguínea , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Microvasos/fisiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Epitélio Pigmentado da Retina/irrigação sanguínea , Epitélio Pigmentado da Retina/fisiologia , Esclera/irrigação sanguínea , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica/métodos , Adulto Jovem
12.
Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina ; 46(2): 275-8, 2015 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25707058

RESUMO

Drusen are the clinical hallmark of age-related macular degeneration. The regression of these deposits in patients treated with argon, krypton, or diode laser photocoagulation has been reported previously. However, previous protocols with conventional laser for drusen may result in retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) damage and unwanted scotomas. The authors report a case of complete regression of soft drusen in a 65-year-old man with central visual loss and metamorphopsia due to a drusenoid RPE detachment and soft drusen who underwent reduced-fluence photodynamic therapy (PDT) and three monthly intravitreal injections of ranibizumab. Reduced-fluence PDT combined with anti-VEGF therapy may reduce drusen without inducing RPE cell damage.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Angiogênese/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Fotoquimioterapia , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/uso terapêutico , Porfirinas/uso terapêutico , Drusas Retinianas/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Terapia Combinada , Angiofluoresceinografia , Humanos , Injeções Intravítreas , Masculino , Ranibizumab , Drusas Retinianas/diagnóstico , Drusas Retinianas/fisiopatologia , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/antagonistas & inibidores , Verteporfina , Acuidade Visual
13.
Curr Eye Res ; 40(7): 707-18, 2015 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25153042

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To study the safety profile of Lutein/Zeaxanthin(L/Z)-based natural dye solutions in in vitro and in vivo models. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In vitro cytotoxicity and cellular growth experiments were carried out on ARPE-19 and human corneal epithelial (HCE) cell lines using different L/Z-based dye solutions, either alone or in association with brilliant blue (BB) or trypan blue (TB). Light and transmission electron microscopy studies were performed seven days after intravitreal injection of dye solutions in rabbits. Electroretinogram (ERG) recordings were taken at baseline and before histopathology. RESULTS: In vitro cytotoxicity assays demonstrated that the different L/Z-based solutions (from 0.3 to 2%), either alone or in association with BB (0.025%) or TB (0.04%), did not significantly alter mitochondrial activity (≤15%) in the cell lines tested. In addition, in vitro cell growth was inhibited by up to 60% depending on the dye solution, and in direct proportion to the concentration assayed. There was no evidence of structural alterations in the neurosensory retina, retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), or choriocapillaris-choroidal complex. b-Wave ERG records showed no significant differences (±15.2%) in comparison with baseline. CONCLUSIONS: L/Z-based dye solutions demonstrated a safe profile in in vitro and in vivo models, and may be a useful tool for staining intraocular structures.


Assuntos
Corantes/toxicidade , Epitélio Anterior/efeitos dos fármacos , Luteína/toxicidade , Retina/efeitos dos fármacos , Epitélio Pigmentado da Retina/efeitos dos fármacos , Zeaxantinas/toxicidade , Animais , Benzenossulfonatos/toxicidade , Linhagem Celular , Combinação de Medicamentos , Eletrorretinografia/efeitos dos fármacos , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Epitélio Anterior/patologia , Humanos , Injeções Intravítreas , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Coelhos , Retina/fisiopatologia , Retina/ultraestrutura , Epitélio Pigmentado da Retina/patologia , Azul Tripano/toxicidade
14.
Retina ; 35(2): 326-33, 2015 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25158939

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To determine the effects of lens status on the success rate of primary pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) for rhegmatogenous retinal detachment using either perfluoropropane gas (C3F8) or silicone oil (SO) tamponade. METHODS: A retrospective chart analysis was made of 97 eyes from 92 patients with rhegmatogenous retinal detachment with no proliferative vitreoretinopathy that were treated with primary 23-gauge PPV. Eyes included in this were phakic (n = 28), pseudophakic (n = 41), or phakic eyes subject to simultaneous phacoemulsification, intraocular lens implantation, and PPV during primary rhegmatogenous retinal detachment repair (n = 28). Tamponade at the end of PPV was with either C3F8 (n = 65) or SO (n = 32). Success was defined as retinal reattachment at 1 year follow-up after a single procedure in eyes submitted to C3F8 injection; in eyes treated with SO injection, the success rate was defined as retina reattached 1 year after oil removal. Statistical comparisons were made between groups using chi-square, Fisher's exact test, Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney, and multivariate analysis. All eyes were operated by 2 experienced retina surgeons and had a minimum follow-up of 12 months. RESULTS: The vitreoretinal redetachment rate in eyes subjected to C3F8 tamponade was significantly higher (28.6%) for phakic eyes (P = 0.011) compared with pseudophakic or phakic eyes that underwent to phacoemulsification and intraocular lens implantation (4.5%). Eyes in which SO was used at the end of the surgical procedure demonstrated a similar trend of higher reoperation rates in phakic eyes (28.6%) compared with pseudophakic or phakic eyes (8%) subjected to phacoemulsification and intraocular lens implantation; however, no statistically significant difference was observed (P = 0.201). No statistically significant differences were found between groups in relation to the number of tears (P = 0.863) and their location (inferior: P = 0.189, superior: P = 0.708, nasal: P = 0.756, and temporal: P = 0.08). CONCLUSION: The success rates of primary 23-gauge PPV with either C3F8 or SO tamponade in pseudophakic eyes with rhegmatogenous retinal detachment was higher than the same procedure performed in phakic eyes. Still, the retrospective and limited data presented is too preliminary to suggest or recommend that practitioners perform simultaneous combined cataract surgery with retinal detachment and requires further studies in a larger and prospective design to confirm these present findings.


Assuntos
Tamponamento Interno , Cristalino/fisiologia , Pseudofacia/fisiopatologia , Descolamento Retiniano/cirurgia , Vitrectomia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Feminino , Fluorcarbonetos/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Implante de Lente Intraocular , Masculino , Microcirurgia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Facoemulsificação , Descolamento Retiniano/fisiopatologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Óleos de Silicone/administração & dosagem , Acuidade Visual/fisiologia
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27847594

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the retinal toxicity by electroretinography (ERG), clinical examination and histology after intravitreal injection of biological stains in two concentrations: Trisodium (0.50 g/L and 1.00 g/L), Orangell (0.25 g/L and 1.00 g/L) and Methyl Violet (0.50 g/L and 1.00 g/L). METHODS: Eighteen New-Zealand albinos rabbits were assigned in six groups (n = 3 in each group). The animals in group 1 received Trisodium in the dose of 0.50 g/L and group 2 received 1.00 g/L; Group 3 received Orangell in the dose of 0.25 g/L and group 4 received 1.00 g/L; Group 5 received Methyl Violet in the dose of 1.00 g/L and group 6 received 0.50 g/L. A volume of 0.05 mL of dye was injected in the right eyes, whereas the left eyes received the same volume of balanced salt solution (BSS) as control. ERG recordings and clinical examination were performed at baseline and seven days after intravitreal injection. The ERG responses at one week after injection were compared with baseline levels. A decrease in the post-injection amplitude of more than 50% was considered remarkable. After the 7-day follow-up, rabbits were euthanized and eye enucleated for light microscopy (LM) histological evaluation. RESULTS: At clinical examination by indirect ophthalmoscopy seven days after dye injection, all eyes were negative for cataract, hemorrhage, retinal detachment, and intraocular opacities. Amplitude analysis of maximum scotopic b-wave showed no significant reduction in either dye injected or control eyes. Neither dye nor BSS caused significant retinal alteration on LM at doses tested. CONCLUSIONS: Trisodium, Orangell and Methyl Violet can be applied in future studies in order to prove the capacity to stain preretinal tissues and vitreous without toxicity. The three dyes did not induce significant ERG amplitude reduction or LM alterations in this preliminary experimental research. Trisodium, Orangell and Methyl Violet may be potentially useful vital dyes for ocular surgery, and deserve further investigation.

16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27847597

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate retinal changes prior to vascular signs in patients with type 2 diabetes without diabetic retinopathy or with mild non proliferative diabetic retinopathy. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed in three groups: patients without diabetes, patients with type 2 diabetes without diabetic retinopathy, and patients with diabetes with mild diabetic retinopathy. Analysis of retinal layers was performed objectively with the Cirrus Review Software 6.0 (Carl Zeiss Meditec, Dublin, CA, USA). Macular cube scans were analyzed with regard to: the ganglion cell layer + inner plexiform layer analysis, retinal nerve fiber layer thickness, central subfoveal retinal thickness and average macular thickness. RESULTS: In total, 102 patients were included in this study, of which 28 (27.4%) were classified into control group, 46 (45.0%) classified as diabetic patients with no diabetic retinopathy and 28 (27.4%) classified as mild diabetic retinopathy. Quantitative analysis with the Cirrus software showed that the mean ganglion cell layer and mean retinal nerve fiber layer were thinner in diabetes without diabetic retinopathy group when compared to controls. ANOVA with Bonferroni post test indicated a statistically significant reduction in average retinal thickness in mild diabetic retinopathy group (P = 0.032) compared to control and reduction in ganglion cell layer in diabetes with no diabetic retinopathy (P = 0.039) and mild diabetic retinopathy (P = 0.003). Also indicated reduction in retinal nerve fiber layer in diabetic without diabetic retinopathy and eyes with mild diabetic retinopathy (P < 0.001), compared to controls. CONCLUSIONS: Our study found reduction in thickness of ganglion cell layer and retinal nerve fiber layer in patients with diabetes without diabetic retinopathy, which suggests neuroretinal changes before vascular signs of diabetic retinopathy.

17.
Arq Bras Oftalmol ; 77(5): 288-292, 2014 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25494373

RESUMO

Purpose: To compare intraocular pressure (IOP) using the simplified daily tensional curve (SDTC) between supine and sitting positions in terms of peak levels and amount of fluctuation in both, glaucomatous and healthy subjects. The secondary endpoint was the comparison of these measures with those derived from the water drinking test (WDT). Methods: Thirty patients with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) that were undergoing medical therapy and 30 healthy subjects were enrolled in this study. Each patient underwent a diurnal curve between 8 am and 4 pm. After lying down for 5 minutes, the IOP was measured with the Perkins tonometer. Patients were instructed to sit in the upright position for 5 minutes and the tonometry was repeated. At 4:15 pm, the WDT test was performed. Fluctuation was defined as the difference between the highest and the lowest IOP readings (range). The Student's t test was used to assess differences and a P value <0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results: The diurnal curve in the supine position demonstrated higher IOP average values (on average 3-4 mmHg higher) compared to the sitting position (p<0.0001) for both groups. IOP peaks were higher in the supine position; however, the IOP range was essentially the same between the three methods. Treated glaucomatous patients had higher IOP levels in all measurements, but the fluctuation for all tests performed appeared to be similar to that of healthy patients. Conclusion: The data suggested that WDT can be used to estimate the diurnal IOP peak and fluctuation observed in the SDTC of the supine position for treated glaucomatous patients. Further studies can compare the possible correlation between the WDT results and those obtained from nocturnal supine measurements.

18.
Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina ; 45(6): 577-84, 2014 Nov-Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25423640

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: To investigate the retinal safety of intravitreal (IVT) ziv-aflibercept in rabbits. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighteen rabbits were given an IVT injection of ziv-aflibercept (25 mg/mL) or aflibercept (40 mg/mL) and examined by funduscopy, electroretinography (ERG), optical coherence tomography (OCT), light microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Serum, aqueous, and vitreous were obtained afterward for osmolarity analysis. The effect of ziv-aflibercept on human retinal cultured cells (ARPE-19) was assessed by the MTT cell viability assay. RESULTS: All eyes showed normal funduscopy, OCT, and ERG findings at baseline and 24 hours or 7 days after the procedure. Median baseline serum, vitreous, and aqueous osmolarity remained unchanged. Histology and TEM showed no major anatomic signs of toxicity. No cytotoxic effect was observed in ARPE-19 cells exposed to ziv-aflibercept. CONCLUSION: IVT injection ziv-aflibercept at a concentration of 25 mg/mL proved to be safe for the rabbit retina.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Angiogênese/toxicidade , Receptores de Fatores de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/toxicidade , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/toxicidade , Retina/efeitos dos fármacos , Epitélio Pigmentado da Retina/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Sobrevivência Celular , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Eletrorretinografia , Humanos , Injeções Intravítreas , Masculino , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Oftalmoscopia , Concentração Osmolar , Coelhos , Retina/fisiopatologia , Epitélio Pigmentado da Retina/ultraestrutura , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/antagonistas & inibidores
19.
Arq Bras Oftalmol ; 77(3): 188-90, 2014 May-Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25295909

RESUMO

We report a case of a 19-year-old woman presenting bilateral neurosensorial hearing loss, mental abnormalities, and loss of visual field in the left eye. Visual acuity was 20/20 in OD and 20/25 in OS. Patient was examined systemically. Audiometry showed sensorineural hearing loss in both ears. The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of brain revealed multiple small lesions in the white matter in both cerebral hemispheres and at the corpus callosum. Fundoscopy showed bilateral normal optic disc and sheathing of the arterioles in the middle periphery of OD. Retinal edema and cotton-wool spots were observed. Fluorescein angiography showed bilateral peripheral occlusive arterial vasculopathy. The patient was diagnosed with Susac syndrome and treated with quetiapine fumarate, flunitrazepam, and prednisone, which resulted in stabile outcome. This case shows that a high index of suspicion leading to early recognition and treatment is important to avoid irreversible damage.


Assuntos
Perda Auditiva Bilateral/patologia , Síndrome de Susac/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome de Susac/patologia , Audiometria , Feminino , Angiofluoresceinografia , Perda Auditiva Bilateral/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Síndrome de Susac/fisiopatologia , Acuidade Visual , Adulto Jovem
20.
J Ophthalmic Vis Res ; 9(2): 204-9, 2014 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25279122

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the retinal biocompatibility of Brilliant Blue G with deuterated water (BBG-D2O) as a vital dye for chromovitrectomy. METHODS: In this animal study, 0.05 mL of 0.25 g/L Brilliant Blue G (BBG) associated with 0.13 mL/mL of deuterium oxide (D2O) was injected intravitreally in the right eye and the same amount of balanced salt solution (BSS) was injected similarly in the left eye of rabbits. Clinical examination and histology with light microscopy were performed after seven days. Retinal cell layers were evaluated for morphologic alterations. Electroretinographic (ERG) changes were also assessed at baseline and 7 days after the injections. RESULTS: A total of 6 rabbits were included in the study. The gross histopathologic appearance of the retina, choroid, sclera and optic nerve was within normal limits without any sign of severe retinal necrosis or cystic degeneration. Light microscopy showed that BBG-D2O caused no substantial alterations in retinal layers as compared to control eyes. The injection of BBG-D2O did not induce considerable functional ERG alterations. CONCLUSION: Intravitreal injection of BBG-D2O 0.25 g/L seems to induce no retinal toxicity as documented by lack of functional and histological changes.

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