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1.
J Environ Sci Health B ; : 1-8, 2020 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32065572

RESUMO

The current study estimated the dissipation rates of abamectin, chlorfenapyr and pyridaben acaricides in pods of green beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) under field conditions in Egypt. Pesticides were extracted and cleaned-up by QuEChERS method and were analyzed by HPLC. The dissipation of these acaricides followed the first order kinetics model with half-life (t1/2) values 1.00, 3.50 and 1.50 days for abamectin, chlorfenapyr and pyridaben, respectively. The lowest residues, at different time intervals of field application rate of each pesticide, were observed with abamectin followed by pyridaben and then chlorfenapyr. Pre-harvest intervals (PHIs) were 10.00, 13.50 and 6.00 days for abamectin, chlorfenapyr and pyridaben, respectively and were below the established European maximum residue limits (EU MRLs) 10-14, 14-21 and 7-10 days after application, respectively. If the fresh pods will be consumed after harvest, it is expected that the presence of these pesticides in the food will have a negative impact on human health. Therefore, the elimination of the residues of these harmful pesticides must be carried out.

2.
J Endourol ; 2019 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31813283

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To compare safety and efficacy of bipolar plasmakinetic enucleation (BPEP) versus holmium laser enucleation (HoLEP) for management of large BPH (>80gm). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with failed medical treatment, International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS)>13, peak urinary flow rate (Qmax)<15ml/sec and prostate size ≥80gm were enrolled in this randomised controlled trial from from November 2016 to February 2018 and managed by HoLEP (Group A; 33patients) or BPEP (Group B; 31patients). Patients on anticoagulants were not excluded. Patients were followed-up for 12 months. Perioperative data was compared between both groups using Student-t, Mann-Whitney, Paired-t, Wilcoxon signed rank, Chi-Square, or Fisher-Exact tests as appropriate. RESULTS: There was no significant difference between both groups in age, rate of presentation with urinary retention, recurrent hematuria, frequency of patients on anticoagulants/antiplatelets, prostate size, PSA, Qmax, IPSS, quality of life (QoL) and post-void residual urine (PVRU). Operative time was significantly longer in BPEP (p=0.003) as well as catheterization duration (p=0.019). Other perioperative parameters including level of Na+ and hemoglobin, resected tissue weight, hospital stay and complications were not significantly different between both groups. There was no need for blood transfusion in all patients. There was significant postoperative improvement in IPSS, PVRU, QoL, PSA and Qmax in each group. However, there was no significant difference between both groups in these parameters. CONCLUSION: HoLEP and BPEP are comparable regarding safety and efficacy for treatment of BPH (>80gm) including patients on anticoagulants. However, BPEP required a longer catheterization duration and operative time.

4.
Int Urol Nephrol ; 2019 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31686280

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To assess clinical presentation and outcomes of different treatment strategies in cases of spontaneous renal hemorrhage (SRH). METHODS: A retrospective analysis of patients with SRH between 2000 and 2018 was performed. Patients' demographics, clinical presentation, laboratory and radiological investigations, and different lines of treatment were retrieved. The primary outcome was to assess the predictors of the success of conservative treatment. The secondary outcome was to assess the long-term renal function outcome comparing serum creatinine, e GFF, and CT-assessed renal volume at last follow-up with baseline values. RESULTS: The study included 42 (23 males and 19 women) patients with mean ± SD age was 48.1 ± 17.8 years. Conservative management was successful in 19 (46%) patients. Trans-arterial embolization (TAE) was performed in 13 patients (30%) to control active bleeding. Ten patients (25%) required surgical exploration and nephrectomy. Lower serum creatinine (P = 0.003), higher prothrombin concentration (P = 0.04), lower hematoma size (P = 0.02), and non-AML lesions (P = 0.03) were independent predictors of conservative management success. Unlike the TAE-treated group, serum creatinine increased significantly (P = 0.04) with a significant decrease in e-GFR (P = 0.02) and renal volume (P < 0.001) of affected kidneys at last follow-up after conservative treatment. CONCLUSION: Although SRH is a life-threatening condition, conservative treatment is successful in a certain subset of patients. However, it is associated with significant deterioration of the affected kidney function as well as renal volume.

5.
Infect Drug Resist ; 12: 3113-3124, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31632100

RESUMO

Background and objective: Acinetobacter baumannii (A. baumannii) is a common nosocomial pathogen, which developed multi-drug-resistance to different classes of antibiotics including carbapenems. This study examined ten common carbapenemase genes among 32 carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii clinical isolates recovered from Taif, Saudi Arabia. Methods: Isolates were phenotypically identified to the genus level by Vitek®2 and API 20NE®. The species level was confirmed by the amplification of bla OXA-51. The susceptibility for 21 different antibiotics was performed by Vitek 2 and modified Kirby-Bauer method. Isolates were genetically screened for 10 carbapenemases. Phylogenetic relatedness between isolates was determined by ERIC-PCR. Results: Genotypically identified A. baumannii represented 100% of the total phenotypically identified Acinetobacter spp. All the carbapenem-resistant isolates were sensitive to polymyxin B and colistin. Among the other antibiotics, ampicillin/sulbactam and tigecycline were the most effective agents. 90.8% of the isolates were resistant to all ten investigated ß-lactams. bla OXA-51, bla IPM, bla NDM and bla OXA-23 were detected in 100%, 87.5%, 62.5% and 59.4% of isolates, respectively. Also, bla VIM and bla OXA-40 were less prevalent and were detected in 9.3% and 3.1% of the isolates, respectively. In addition, bla KPC, bla OXA-48, bla OXA-58, bla OXA-181 were not detected in any isolate. The A. baumannii isolates were categorised into ten genotypes on the basis of the detected carbapenemase genes and ERIC-PCR revealed a remarkable clonal diversity among these isolates. Conclusion: Class A and class D carbapenemase genes were the most commonly detected among carbapenem resistant A. baumannii (CRAB) clinical isolates.

6.
J Med Imaging Radiat Oncol ; 63(6): 786-794, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31520467

RESUMO

Cataracts are the leading cause of blindness and visual disability worldwide. Of the known contributing factors to this condition, ionising radiation is considered the primary concern in a radiological context given the particular radiosensitivity of the lens of the eye. In light of the substantially increased application of computed tomography in brain imaging, an investigation of the relevent literature is warranted to assess thresholds, lens radiation doses and dose reduction techniques in respect to the cataractogenic risk of such examinations. The value and very existence of a lens dose threshold is debatable given different considerations of radiation dose, latency, opacity classifications and historical sample populations, though ICRP guidelines suggest a threshold of 0.5 Gy. Documented CT-specific radiation doses to the eye following scans of the brain are highly variable between studies (2-130 mGy), primarily owing to discrepancies in scanning technique. These findings, when coupled with the relative ambiguity of known threshold values, present difficulties in assessing the overall risk of cataracts following serial CT examinations to the head. In the absence of definitive risk evaluations, a cautionary approach is advised. The implementation of gantry tilt along the supraorbital margin is recommended as standard practice on account of its highly effective radiation dose reduction outcomes. Organ-based tube modulation and reductions in tube current may also be considered beneficial. Bismuth eye shielding is only advised where gantry tilting is unachievable, and in such cases, ensure careful adherence to appropriate shield placement and infection control measures.

7.
J Biomech ; 94: 107-114, 2019 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31376977

RESUMO

The proportions of older and obese people are increasing in both the general and working populations worldwide. Older and obese individuals are more susceptible to work-related musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) in comparison with healthy, younger individuals. Manual material handling (MMH) is associated with the development of work-related MSDs. Although previous research has suggested that one-handed carrying is a particularly undesirable method of MMH, the effects of one-handed carrying on trunk kinetics and kinematics among older and/or obese people have not been adequately studied. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of age and obesity on trunk angles and moments during dominant side one-handed carrying of various load magnitudes. Twenty (20) participants divided into four groups with respect to age (young and older) and obesity (obese and non-obese) carried different loads (No-load [0 kg], Light [5.67 kg], and Heavy [10.21 kg]) in their dominant hand for approximately 6 m. Three-dimensional (3D) trunk angles and moments approximately about the L4/L5 vertebral segment were calculated using Visual3D. The findings indicated that while carrying a load in the dominant hand plays an important role in changing trunk kinematics and kinetics, the results were not dependent on age and/or obesity category. Absolute moments were greatest among participants in the obese groups; however, these moments were mitigated when normalized to body weight and height (%BW * Ht). Age did not exacerbate the effects of load magnitude on trunk kinetics and kinematics.

8.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 158: 156-165, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31378352

RESUMO

Culex pipiens is a main vector for Bancroftian filariasis, Rift Valley Fever and diseases caused by other viruses, leaving several peoples with disabilities. In recent years, plant derived compounds have received much attention as potential alternatives to synthetic chemicals due to their low toxicity to mammals and environmental persistence. Twenty-one monoterpenes from different chemical groups (hydrocarbons and oxygenated products) were evaluated against Culex pipiens larvae. In addition, in vivo biochemical studies including effects on acetylcholine esterase (AChE), acid and alkaline phosphatases (ACP and ALP), total adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) and gamma-aminobutyric acid transaminase (GABA-T) were investigated. Furthermore, in silico studies including pharmacophore elucidation, ADMET analysis and molecular docking of these compounds were performed. Among all tested monoterpenes, hydrocarbons [p-cymene, (R)-(+)-limonene and (+)-α-pinene], acetates (cinnamyl acetate, citronellyl acetate, eugenyl acetate and terpinyl acetate), alcohols [(±)-ß-citronellol and terpineol], aldehydes [citral and (1R)-(-)-myrtenal] and ketone [(R)-(+)-pulegone] exhibited the highest larval toxicity with LC50 = 14.88, 27.97, 26.13, 2.62, 3.81, 2.74, 21.65, 1.64, 21.70, 21.76, 1.68 and 1.90 mg/L after 48 h of exposure, respectively. The compounds proved a significant inhibition of all tested enzymes except total ATPase. The biochemical and molecular docking studies proved that AChE and GABA-T were the main targets for the tested monoterpenes.


Assuntos
Culex/virologia , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Monoterpenos/farmacologia , Fosfatase Alcalina/metabolismo , Animais , Culex/patogenicidade , Filariose Linfática/transmissão , Ativação Enzimática/efeitos dos fármacos , Esterases/metabolismo , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Transaminases/metabolismo
9.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 158: 185-200, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31378356

RESUMO

The present work describes the antimicrobial action of 25 monoterpenes (six hydrocarbons, five ketones, two aldehydes, six alcohols and six acetate analogues) against Gram-negative Escherichia coli and Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus and antifungal activity against Aspergillus flavus. The antibacterial activity was evaluated by broth microdilution technique as a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the antifungal activity was performed by mycelia radial growth technique as the effective concentration causing 50% inhibition of the mycelial growth (EC50). The results showed that thymol and α-terpineol were the most potent against E. coli (MIC = 45 and 55 mg/L, respectively) and S. aureus (MIC = 135 and 225 mg/L, respectively). The results also showed that thymol displayed the maximum antifungal action against A. flavus with EC50 20 mg/L. Furthermore, the antioxidant activity was determined using N,N-dimethyl-1,4-phenylenediamine (DMPD) and the results showed that geraniol were the most potent compound (IC50 = 19 mg/L). Molecular docking studies indicated that the compounds displayed different binding interactions with the amino acid residues at the catalytic sites of N5-carboxyaminoimidazole synthetase and oxysterol binding protein Osh4 enzymes. Non-covalent interactions including van der Waals, hydrogen bonding as well as hydrophobic were observed between the compounds and the enzymes. A significant relationship was found between the docking score and the biological activity of the tested monoterpenes compared to the ceftriaxone and carbendazim as standard bactericide and fungicide, respectively. In silico ADMET properties were also performed and displayed potential for the development of promising antimicrobial agents. For these reasons, these compounds may be considered as potential ecofriendly alternatives in food preservation to delay or prevent the microbial infection and prolong the shelf life of food products.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Monoterpenos/metabolismo , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos/química , Cicloexenos/química , Cicloexenos/farmacologia , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Hidrocarbonetos/química , Hidrocarbonetos/farmacologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Monoterpenos/química , Monoterpenos/farmacologia , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos
10.
J Environ Sci Health B ; 54(11): 898-905, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31328628

RESUMO

A selective liquid chromatographic analytical method was studied for determination of two neonicotinoids, acetamiprid and imidacloprid, in tomato fruits under greenhouse conditions in Egypt. The fruits were extracted and cleaned up by QuEChERS method followed by HPLC determination. The method showed a good linearity with a determination coefficient (R2) of higher than 0.99 for the 0.0125-0.15 µg/mL concentration range. The method was validated using a blank tomato spiked at 5, 25 and 50 mg/kg and the recovery percentages were 83.71, 94.52 and 97.49% for acetamiprid and 88.59, 89.63 and 90.18% for imidacloprid, respectively. The rates of dissipation of both pesticides were studied and the preharvest intervals (PHIs) were calculated. Imidacloprid dissipated faster than acetamiprid and half-life periods were 1.30 and 2.07 days, respectively. Acetamiprid and imidacloprid residues were below the already established European maximum residue limits (EU MRLs) (0.5 mg/kg) 3 and 5 days after application, respectively.


Assuntos
Lycopersicon esculentum/química , Neonicotinoides/análise , Nitrocompostos/análise , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Frutas/química , Lycopersicon esculentum/crescimento & desenvolvimento
11.
Urology ; 131: 234-239, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31181272

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To assess long-term clinical and functional outcomes postpyeloplasty in unilateral UPJO in poorly functioning kidneys in exclusive adult population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We reviewed the database of all cases admitted with unilateral UPJO treated with pyeloplasty and preoperative split renal function (SRF) was <30% (by diuretic MAG-3 renography). We further subdivided patients into 2 groups; group (A) SRF ≤20% and group (B) SRF >20% and <30%. Renal function difference was evaluated by the changes in SRF at last follow-up, where 5% change was considered significant. Functional success was defined as absence of obstructive pattern on diuretic renogram with no decline in renal function. Clinical success is defined as no need of secondary intervention (redo pyeloplasty, nephrectomy, stenting, or endopyelotomy). RESULTS: Among 211 patients. The mean SRF was 20.5 ± 6.6%. After a median follow-up of 67.1 ± 11.8 months, SRF increased significantly to 23.5 ± 7.5 (P<.0001). In group (A) 92 patients, SRF increased from 14.3 ± 4.9 to 18.7 ± 7.1 (P <.0001). Functional success was achieved in 88 (95.6%) patients. Whereas, in group (B), SRF increased from 24.9 ± 3.3 to 27.2 ± 6.3 (P <.0001) at last follow-up. Functional success was achieved in 121 (95%) patients. Static SRF in serial follow-up renography had been observed after 12 months of follow-up. CONCLUSION: Pyeloplasty provides high rates of functional success in poorly functioning kidneys. After 12 months follow-up, SRF seems to be static without deterioration.


Assuntos
Pelve Renal/cirurgia , Rim/fisiopatologia , Obstrução Ureteral/fisiopatologia , Obstrução Ureteral/cirurgia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Testes de Função Renal , Masculino , Indução de Remissão , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Urológicos/métodos , Adulto Jovem
12.
Appl Ergon ; 78: 217-223, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31046953

RESUMO

Manual material handling (MMH) is associated with the development of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs). One-handed carrying is a particularly challenging form of MMH. Age and obesity have been increasing among the general and working populations in the United States and worldwide. While older and obese workers are more susceptible to MSDs in comparison to younger, healthy workers, the effects of one-handed carrying on trunk muscle activity among these populations have not been comprehensively studied. In this paper, we evaluate the effects of age and obesity on trunk muscle activity of six trunk muscle pairs during one-handed carrying of different loads. The results suggest that older and obese individuals do not exhibit considerably larger muscle activity than young and non-obese individuals while carrying a load of approximately 10 kg in one hand for relatively short distances. Accordingly, 10 kg appears to be an acceptable load to be occasionally carried in one hand by older and/or obese individuals from a muscle activity perspective.


Assuntos
Remoção , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Músculos Abdominais Oblíquos/fisiologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Índice de Massa Corporal , Eletromiografia , Humanos , Vértebras Lombares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Músculos Paraespinais/fisiologia , Reto do Abdome/fisiologia , Músculos Superficiais do Dorso/fisiologia , Vértebras Torácicas , Tronco , Velocidade de Caminhada , Adulto Jovem
13.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 14: 2515-2531, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31040672

RESUMO

Background: Fungal keratitis (FK) is a serious pathogenic condition usually associated with significant ocular morbidity. Natamycin (NAT) is the first-line and only medication approved by the Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of FK. However, NAT suffers from poor corneal penetration, which limits its efficacy for treating deep keratitis. Purpose: The objective of this work was to prepare NAT solid lipid nanoparticles (NAT-SLNs) to achieve sustained drug release and increased corneal penetration. Methods: NAT-SLNs were prepared using the emulsification-ultrasonication technique. Box- Behnken experimental design was applied to optimize the effects of independent processing variables (lipid concentration [X1], surfactant concentration [X2], and sonication frequency [X3]) on particle size (R1), zeta potential (ZP; R2), and drug entrapment efficiency (EE%) (R3) as responses. Drug release profile, ex vivo corneal permeation, antifungal susceptibility, and cytotoxicity of the optimized formula were evaluated. Results: The optimized formula had a mean particle size of 42 r.nm (radius in nanometers), ZP of 26 mV, and EE% reached ~85%. NAT-SLNs showed an extended drug release profile of 10 hours, with enhanced corneal permeation in which the apparent permeability coefficient (Papp) and steady-state flux (Jss) reached 11.59×10-2 cm h-1 and 3.94 mol h-1, respectively, in comparison with 7.28×10-2 cm h-1 and 2.48 mol h-1 for the unformulated drug, respectively. Antifungal activity was significantly improved, as indicated by increases in the inhibition zone of 8 and 6 mm against Aspergillus fumigatus ATCC 1022 and a Candida albicans clinical isolate, respectively, and minimum inhibitory concentration values that were decreased 2.5-times against both of these pathogenic strains. NAT-SLNs were found to be non-irritating to corneal tissue. NAT-SLNs had a prolonged drug release rate, that improved corneal penetration, and increased antifungal activity without cytotoxic effects on corneal tissues. Conclusion: Thus, NAT-SLNs represent a promising ocular delivery system for treatment of deep corneal keratitis.


Assuntos
Córnea/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/métodos , Infecções Oculares Fúngicas/tratamento farmacológico , Ceratite/tratamento farmacológico , Lipídeos/química , Nanopartículas/química , Natamicina/administração & dosagem , Natamicina/uso terapêutico , Administração Oftálmica , Análise de Variância , Animais , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Preparações de Ação Retardada/uso terapêutico , Portadores de Fármacos/uso terapêutico , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Fungos/efeitos dos fármacos , Cabras , Humanos , Ceratite/microbiologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Natamicina/farmacologia , Tamanho da Partícula , Permeabilidade , Eletricidade Estática
14.
Infect Drug Resist ; 12: 915-923, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31118699

RESUMO

Background: Quinolones are among the most effective antibiotics against Pseudomonas spp. Several chromosomal and/or plasmid-mediated quinolone-resistance mechanisms have been found in Pseudomonas.  Plasmid-mediated quinolone-resistance (PMQR) is mediated by quinolone-resistance (QNR) proteins, modifying enzymes or efflux pumps. Only a few previous studies examined the prevalence of quinolone-resistance in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) and showed it is increasing. Mechanisms of quinolone-resistance among Pseudomonas spp. in the KSA; examined herein; have not been extensively studied. Methods: Ninety-two Pseudomonas isolates were collected and their resistance to seven different types of quinolones was determined by the microbroth dilution method. PMQR mechanisms were examined using a PCR screen to identify six PMQR genes including qnrA, qnrB, qnrD, qnrS, aac(6´)-Ib-cr, and qepA. Clonal relatedness of the quinolone-resistant isolates was determined by ERIC-PCR. Results: Of the isolates, 42.4% (39/92) were resistant to 1-7 of the tested quinolones. Gemifloxacin resistance was the lowest (28.3%) while resistance to the other six quinolones were ≥ 35%. The most common biotype among the 39 quinolone-resistant isolates was resistance to the seven tested quinolones (26/39; 66.7%). qnrD, qnrS, and aac(6´)-Ib-cr were found in 31 (79.5%), 31 (79.5%) and 28 (71.8%) of the 39 isolates, respectively, and all three genes together were found in 22 of the 39 isolates (56.4%). qnrA, qnrB, and qepA were not detected in any of the isolates and two isolates did not harbor any of the six tested genes. The isolates showed 38 different ERIC profiles and only two isolates (Pa16 and Pa17) had an identical profile. Conclusion: This is the first description of PMQR mechanisms among clinical Pseudomonas isolates from the KSA, which appears to be mainly mediated by qnrD, qnrS, and aac(6´)-Ib-cr.

15.
Curr Probl Diagn Radiol ; 48(4): 359-362, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31130179

RESUMO

The increasing utilization of computed tomography scans exposes patients to significant amounts of radiation. One of the factors that can result in unnecessary radiation dose is scanning beyond the clinically indicated anatomical region. This study aims to assess the optimization in overscan frequency, scan length, and radiation dose following targeted educational talks aimed to address a routinely over scanned protocol; the computed tomography Neck. A targeted radiation awareness talk regarding scan adherence as a method of radiation dose optimization was delivered to all medical imaging technologists employed at a large teaching hospital. An audit of the radiation dose associated with computed tomography Neck protocols was conducted in the month before, a month after and 1 year after the awareness talk. Results show that following the radiation awareness talks there was a 15% reduction in overscan frequency, an average over scan length reduction of 33% and a 20% reduction in overall radiation dose. The targeted nature of the talk, explicitly addressing scan range in the neck region, significantly reduced radiation dose to the patients. The results of this study are effective in illustrating the potential clinical radiation dose saving from strict adherence to scan range.


Assuntos
Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/diagnóstico por imagem , Doses de Radiação , Exposição à Radiação/efeitos adversos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/efeitos adversos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Austrália , Bases de Dados Factuais , Relação Dose-Resposta à Radiação , Feminino , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/patologia , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Proteção Radiológica/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Procedimentos Desnecessários
16.
J Infect Chemother ; 25(10): 791-796, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31103341

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To study risk factors for sepsis and mortality evaluating the role of platelet to leucocytic count ratio (PLR) as a marker for urosepsis and clinical outcomes in cases of emphysematous pyelonephritis (EPN). MATERIALS: Patients with EPN were retrospectively reviewed. Patients' age, sex, diabetes mellitus (DM), Body Mass Index (BMI), hydronephrosis, types of EPN, air locules volume, serum creatinine, leucocytic count, and platelet count, PLR, albumin, INR and the line of treatment were analyzed as risk factors of sepsis. Correlation between PLR and other variables was done using Pearson correlation coefficient. Univariate and multivariate analyses for sepsis and mortality were performed. RESULTS: Of fifty four patients, 38 patients had SIRS ≥2 criteria on admission. Twenty patients developed sepsis requiring ICU admission. In univariate analysis, male gender, lower BMI, higher INR, higher WBCs count and lower PLR were associated with sepsis (P = 0.0001, 0.009, 0.04, 0.003 and 0.001, respectively). In multivariate analysis, PLR ≤18.4, male sex and BMI ≤24.2 were independent risk factors. Lower PLR directly correlated with serum albumin (P = 0.01) and inversely correlated with serum creatinine and random blood glucose level and Klebsiella infection (P = 0.001, 0.007 and 0.005, respectively). Also, it was correlated with a higher total score of qSOFA and SOFA (P = 0.02 and 0.04). Lower PLR was independent risk factors for death in EPN patients with (P = 0.003). CONCLUSION: EPN is associated with sepsis development. Lower PLR is an independent simple predictor for sepsis and mortality in patients with EPN.


Assuntos
Enfisema/sangue , Pielonefrite/sangue , Choque Séptico/diagnóstico , Adulto , Enfisema/complicações , Enfisema/mortalidade , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Rim/patologia , Contagem de Leucócitos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Contagem de Plaquetas , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Pielonefrite/complicações , Pielonefrite/mortalidade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Choque Séptico/etiologia , Choque Séptico/mortalidade
17.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 156: 105-115, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31027569

RESUMO

Six natural monoterpenes (1,8-cineole, (-)-citronellal, limonene, α-pinene, pulegone and 4-terpineol) showed high acaricidal activity by fumigant and contact actions against adult females of the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch. The monoterpenes exhibited varying degrees of acaricidal potency using contact toxicity test after 24 and 48 h of treatment, where the LC50 values were <160 and 45 mg/L, respectively. In fumigation test, of these six monoterpenes, pulegone exhibited the highest toxicity (LC50 = 3.81 mg/L air), while (-)-citronellal had the lowest fumigant toxicity (LC50 = 15.20 mg/L air). All compounds had high inhibitory effect on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and gama amino butyric acid transaminase (GABA-T) activities. Pulegone was the most AChE inhibitor (IC50 = 8.79 mg/L), while 4-terpineol revealed the lowest inhibitory effect (IC50 = 32.82 mg/L). However, limonene caused the highest inhibition of GABA-T (IC50 = 11.37 mg/L). The molecular docking studies revealed that the compounds displayed different binding interactions with the amino acid residues at the catalytic sites of AChE and GABA-T enzymes. Noncovalent interactions especially van der Waals, hydrogen bonding as well as hydrophobic was found between the compounds and the enzymes. A significant relationship was found between the docking score and the biological activity of monoterpenes compared to the standard acaricide pyridaben. In silico ADMET properties were also performed and displayed potential for the development of good acaricidal candidates.


Assuntos
Monoterpenos/farmacologia , Tetranychidae/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Inibidores da Colinesterase/farmacologia , Limoneno/farmacologia , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular
18.
J Environ Sci Health B ; 54(6): 475-488, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30931735

RESUMO

The behavior of chlorantraniliprole (CAP) and dinotefuran (DNF) insecticides was investigated in clay loam soil, a common type of the Egyptian soil. Effect of temperature, pH and particle size of the soil on the adsorption process was studied. Adsorption isotherm by bulk soil and its constituents; humic acid (HA), clay, silt and sand fractions was measured using batch equilibration technique. The results showed that the adsorption of the insecticides tested was significantly affected by the temperature and was a spontaneous interfacial process in the soil. Freundlich model accurately predicted the adsorption behavior of both insecticides. The interaction between soil and insecticides was endothermic and the highest adsorption for CAP and DNF was obtained at pH 9. However, the effect of pH on the adsorption of DNF was lower than that of CAP. Sorption of CAP and DNF on HA fraction was significantly greater than on clay fraction and bulk soil. In addition, the adsorption was significantly increased with particle size decrease. It could be inferred that the adsorption of CAP and DNF on clay loam soil was physical in nature and greatly influenced by the soil components, pH and temperature.


Assuntos
Guanidinas/química , Neonicotinoides/química , Nitrocompostos/química , ortoaminobenzoatos/química , Adsorção , Argila , Egito , Substâncias Húmicas , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Inseticidas/química , Tamanho da Partícula , Solo , Poluentes do Solo , Temperatura Ambiente , Termodinâmica
19.
Clin Imaging ; 55: 126-131, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30818162

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the radiation dose and image quality of computed tomography urograms (CTU) using tin-filtration compared to conventional CTU (without tin-filtration) examinations in patients with suspected urolithiasis. METHODS: Group 1 consisted of 100 patients who were examined using the tin-filtered CTU protocols (Sn100kVp or Sn150kVp); Group 2 consisted of 100 patients who were examined using the same protocols but without tin-filtration (GE-NI41 or GE-NI43). The scanning protocol was based on the patients' body weight (<80 kg and ≥80 kg). The effective doses of all scans were compared between the two groups. Subjective image quality was evaluated by two blinded radiologists. The objective image quality was assessed for noise, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and figure-of-merit (FOM) using the CTU scans acquired from both the tin-filtered and non-tin-filtered protocols. RESULTS: Tin-filtration resulted in the reduction of effective radiation dose ranging between 72% to 88% for the ≥80 kg and <80 kg patient groups respectively. For both groups, tin-filtration resulted in no significant differences in SNR and a significant increase in FOM. For the <80 kg group, tin-filtration resulted in significantly noisier images but with no significant difference in CNR. For the ≥80 kg group, tin-filtration resulted in significantly higher CNR. There was no significant difference in subjective image quality when assessed by the radiologists in terms of diagnostic confidence for urolithiasis. CONCLUSION: Tin-filtration significantly reduces patient dose while maintaining diagnostic image quality of CTUs for patients with suspected urolithiasis.


Assuntos
Protetores contra Radiação/uso terapêutico , Estanho/uso terapêutico , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Urolitíase/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Variações Dependentes do Observador , Doses de Radiação , Proteção Radiológica/métodos , Interpretação de Imagem Radiográfica Assistida por Computador/métodos , Radiologistas , Razão Sinal-Ruído , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/normas , Urografia/métodos , Urografia/normas
20.
Bioorg Med Chem ; 27(7): 1263-1273, 2019 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30777662

RESUMO

A general strategy towards total synthesis of (-)-codonopsinine, (-)-codonopsine and codonopsinine analogues has been developed from (D)-tartaric acid via the intermediate (3S,4R)-1-methyl-2-oxo-5-(2,2,2-trichloroacetamido)pyrrolidinediacetate (7). α-amidoalkylation studies of 7 with electron rich benzene derivative 8a-g as C-nucleophiles afforded (aryl derivatives) 9a-g. The target compounds 1, 2 and 13c-g were readily obtained from 10a-gvia Grignard addition to the homochiral lactam which was produced by deoxygenation using Lewis-acid followed by deacetylation. The synthesized compounds were loaded onto solid lipid nanoparticle formulations (SLNs) prepared by hot emulsification-ultrasonication technique using Compritol as solid lipid and Pluronic f68 as surfactant. SLNs were fully evaluated and the permeation of synthesized compound from SLNs was assayed against non-formulated compounds through dialysis membranes using Franz cell. The data indicated good physical characteristics of the prepared SLNs, sustaining of release profiles and significant improvement of permeation ability when compared to the non-formulated compounds. The antibacterial and antifungal activities of 1, 2 and 13c-g were determined by disc diffusion and microbroth dilution method to determine the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) against seven microorganisms (Staphyloccus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii and Candida albicans). The most active compounds against the Gram positive S. aureus were 1, 13C, 13d, and 13g. Also, 13c, 13d, and 13e had antibacterial activity but not 13f against some Gram negative organisms (E. coli, and P. mirabilis). MIC concentrations against P. aeruginosa, and K. pneumoniae were ≥512 µg/ml, while that against A. baumannii was ≥128 µg/ml except for nanoformulae of 13e and 13f that were 16 and 64 µg/ml, respectively. No antifungal activity against Candida albicans was recorded for all compounds and their nanoformulae (MIC > 1024 µg/ml). SLNs were found to decrease the MIC values for some of the compounds with no effect on the antifungal activity. In conclusion, we demonstrated a novel, straight-forward and economical procedure for the total synthesis of (-)-codonopsinine 1, (-)-codonopsine 2 and codonopsinine analogues 13c-g from simple and commercially available starting materials; d-tartaric acid; with antimicrobial activities against Gram positive and Gram-negative organisms that were improved by SLNs formulations.

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