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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34890753

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with oligometastatic disease (OMD) may experience durable disease control with ablative therapy to all sites of disease. Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) is an important modality in the management of OMD patients though a validated prognostic model for OMD patients treated with SBRT is currently lacking. The purpose of this study was to develop a prognostic model for overall survival (OS) in OMD patients treated with SBRT. METHODS: A multi-institutional database of extracranial OMD patients treated with SBRT was used for model development. The final prognostic model was generated in a training set using recursive partitioning analysis representing 75% of the population. Model performance was evaluated in the reserved test set. RESULTS: 1,033 patients were included in the analysis. The median OS for the entire cohort was 44.2 months (95% confidence interval: 39.2-48.8 months). The variables used in the regression tree, in order of importance, were primary histology, lung-only OMD on presentation, the timing of OMD presentation and age at the start of SBRT. A full 5-category risk stratification system based on the terminal nodes possessed fair to good discriminative power with a Harrell's concordance statistic of 0.683 (0.634-0.731) and time-dependent area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.709 (0706-0.711) in the test set, with good calibration. A simplified risk stratification system consisting of 3 risk categories was also proposed for greater ease-of-use with comparable performance. CONCLUSION: A clinical prognostic model for OS in patients with extracranial OMD treated with SBRT has been developed and validated.

2.
Radiother Oncol ; 167: 187-194, 2021 Dec 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34952002

RESUMO

PURPOSE: In recent years, stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) has emerged as an effective treatment for oligometastatic cancers. Here, we report radiation treatment parameters and clinical outcomes for patients with oligometastatic colorectal cancer (CRC) treated with SBRT using a large multi-institutional database. METHODS: Patients with extra-cranial oligometastatic CRC (≤5 lesions) treated with SBRT at six large academic cancer centers were included. The primary outcome was local recurrence while secondary outcomes included overall survival (OS) progression free survival, oligo-progression, and widespread progression. Survival outcomes were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Univariable and multivariable analyses were performed to determine the relationship between patient and treatment characteristics and clinical outcomes. RESULTS: We identified 235 patients with a total of 381 oligometastatic CRC lesions. The 1- and 5-year local recurrence rate was 13.6% and 44.3% respectively. The median OS was 49 months with a 2-and 5-year OS of 76.1% and 35.9%, respectively. On multivariable analysis, a BED10 of ≥120 Gy, and lung versus liver metastases were associated with a reduction in local recurrence. Larger total PTV size (≥17.5 cc) was associated with worse overall survival, progression free survival, and widespread progression. CONCLUSION: This large multi-institutional analysis found that the use of SBRT for oligometastatic colorectal cancer resulted in favorable overall survival. However, local recurrence is higher than expected for ablative radiation treatment. An increase in BED10 should be considered if feasible and safe.

3.
Front Oncol ; 11: 772789, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34796118

RESUMO

Brain metastases (BMs) represent the most frequent event during the course of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) disease. Recent advancements in the diagnostic and therapeutic procedures result in increased incidence and earlier diagnosis of BMs, with an emerging need to optimize the prognosis of these patients through the adoption of tailored treatment solutions. Nowadays a personalized and multidisciplinary approach should rely on several clinical and molecular factors like patient's performance status, extent and location of brain involvement, extracranial disease control and the presence of any "druggable" molecular target. Radiation therapy (RT), in all its focal (radiosurgery and fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy) or extended (whole brain radiotherapy) declinations, is a cornerstone of BMs management, either alone or combined with surgery and systemic therapies. Our review aims to provide an overview of the many modern RT solutions available for the treatment of BMs from NSCLC in the different clinical scenarios (single lesion, oligo and poly-metastasis, leptomeningeal carcinomatosis). This includes a detailed review of the current standard of care in each setting, with a presentation of the literature data and of the possible technical solutions to offer a "state-of-art" treatment to these patients. In addition to the validated treatment options, we will also discuss the future perspectives on emerging RT technical strategies (e.g., hippocampal avoidance whole brain RT, simultaneous integrated boost, radiosurgery for multiple lesions), and present the innovative and promising findings regarding the combination of novel targeted agents such as tyrosine kinase inhibitors and immune checkpoint inhibitors with brain irradiation.

4.
Cancer Med ; 10(22): 8091-8099, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34668651

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We hypothesized that the total volume of metastases at initial oligometastatic (OM) presentation to stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) is an important prognostic factor that can refine the definition of OM disease. METHODS: Patients with extracranial oligometastatic cancer (≤5 lesions) treated with SBRT were included in an international multi-institutional database. Multivariable Cox and competing risks regression models were used to determine the relationship between distant progression-free survival (DPFS), widespread progression (WSP), and overall survival (OS) with the total planning target volume (PTV) at initial OM presentation to SBRT. All models were adjusted for histology, pre-SBRT systemic therapy, osseous-only lesions, and number of metastases. RESULTS: In total, 961 patients were included. The median follow-up was 24.4 months (IQR: 13.8-37.5). Total PTV had a significant effect on DPFS in the first 18 months after SBRT and was most profound in the first 6 months, when each twofold increase in total PTV conferred a 40.6% increased risk of distant progression (p < 0.001). Each twofold increase in total PTV increased the risk of WSP by 45.4% in the first 6 months (p < 0.001). Total PTV had a significant effect on OS in the first 2 years after SBRT, with each twofold PTV change increasing the risk of death by 60.7% during the first 6 months (p < 0.001) and by 34% thereafter (p < 0.001). Exploratory gross tumor volume (GTV) analysis confirmed the PTV-based observations. CONCLUSION: The total volumetric burden of metastases at initial OM presentation to SBRT is strongly and independently prognostic for the risk of distant and widespread progression and survival. We propose that this metric should drive the definition of OM disease and guide treatment decision-making.

5.
Radiother Oncol ; 164: 98-103, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34454974

RESUMO

PURPOSE: There is a paucity of data on SBRT to non-spine bone (NSB) lesions compared to spine metastases. We report local recurrence (LR), widespread progression (WSP), and overall survival (OS) for oligometastatic patients treated to bone lesions with SBRT and investigate the hypothesis that outcomes are different between patients with spine and non-spine bone oligometastatic disease. METHODS: Patients with oligometastatic disease (≤5 cumulative extracranial metastases) treated with bone SBRT at 6 international institutions from 2007 to 2016 were reviewed. Fine and Gray competing risks and Cox regressions were used to analyze univariable and multivariable relationships between disease/treatment factors and outcomes. RESULTS: In total, 288 spine and 233 NSB lesions are reported in 356 patients. Cumulative incidence of LR across all bone lesions was 6.3%, 12.6% and 19.3% at 6 mo, 1 yr and 2 yrs. While univariable analysis suggested inferior LC and OS in spine patients, this did not hold true in multivariable analysis. The final regression model for LR in NSB lesions included PTV ≥ median of 31.8 cc (HR 5.02, p = 0.014) and primary histology, with RCC and NSCLC conferring a 10.8- and 6.5-fold increased risk of LR compared to prostate histology, respectively. The spine LR model included radioresistant histology (HR 2.11, p = 0.0051), PTV Dmin (BED10) ≥ median of 19.1 Gy (HR 0.46, p = 0.0085), and epidural disease (HR 1.99, p = 0.016). CONCLUSION: This large multi-institutional series reports comparably excellent response to SBRT for a balanced distribution of oligometastatic NSB and spine lesions. Dose escalation for large and/or radioresistant NSB lesions should be explored, given the typical lack of an immediately adjacent dose-limiting critical structure.

6.
Cancer Med ; 10(18): 6189-6198, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34432390

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) is increasingly used to treat oligometastatic disease (OMD), but the effect of metastasis timing on patient outcomes remains uncertain. METHODS: An international database of patients with OMD treated with SBRT was assembled with rigorous quality assurance. Early versus late metastases were defined as those diagnosed ≤24 versus >24 months from the primary tumor. Overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), and incidences of wide-spread progression (WSP) were estimated using multivariable Cox proportional hazard models stratified by primary tumor types. RESULTS: The database consists of 1033 patients with median follow-up of 24.1 months (0.3-104.7). Late metastatic presentation (N = 427) was associated with improved OS compared to early metastasis (median survival 53.6 vs. 33.0 months, hazard ratio [HR] 0.59, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.47-0.72, p < 0.0001). Patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC, N = 255, HR 0.49, 95% CI: 0.33-0.74, p = 0.0005) and colorectal cancer (N = 235, HR 0.50, 95% CI: 0.30-0.84, p = 0.008) had better OS if presenting with late metastasis. Late metastasis correlated with longer PFS (median 17.1 vs. 9.0 months, HR 0.71, 95% CI: 0.61-0.83, p < 0.0001) and lower 2-year incidence of WSP (26.1% vs. 43.6%, HR 0.60, 95% CI: 0.49-0.74, p < 0.0001). Fewer WSP were observed in patients with NSCLC (HR 0.52, 95% CI: 0.33-0.83, p = 0.006) and kidney cancer (N = 63, HR 0.37, 95% CI: 0.14-0.97, p = 0.044) with late metastases. Across cancer types, greater SBRT target size was a significant predictor for worse OS. CONCLUSION: Late metastatic presentation is associated with improved survival and delayed progression in patients with OMD treated with SBRT.

8.
Radiother Oncol ; 156: 193-198, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33387584

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The prevalence of patients with a cardiac implantable device (CIED) developing cancer and requiring a course of radiotherapy (RT) is increasing remarkably. Previously published reports agree that standard and conventionally fractionated RT is usually safe for CIEDs, but no "in-vivo" reports are available on the potential effects of thoracic stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) regimens to CIEDs functioning. The purpose of our study is therefore to evaluate the effects of SABR on CIEDs (pacemakers [PM] or implantable cardiac defibrillators [ICD]) in a cohort of patients affected by primary or metastatic lung lesions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively collected all CIED-bearing patients undergoing SABR between 2007 and 2019 at our Institution. All CIEDs were interrogated before and after the SABR course to check for any malfunction. Prescription dose, beam energy and maximum dose (Dmax) to CIEDs were retrieved for each patient. Electrical records of the CIEDs were reviewed by the medical records. RESULTS: Thirty-four consecutive patients (24 with a PM and 10 with an ICD), who underwent 38 separate SABR courses, were included in the study. Eight patients (24%) were PM-dependent. Prescription dose of SABR ranged 26-60 Gy in 1-8 fractions, with a photon energy ranging 6-to-10 MV (76.3% and 23.7%, respectively) and a median Dmax to CIEDs of 0.17 Gy (range 0.04-1.97 Gy). Electrical parameters were stable in post-treatment device programming visits and no transient or persistent alteration of the CIED function was recorded in any patient. No inappropriate interventions were recorded in the 10 ICD-bearing patients during the treatment fractions. CONCLUSIONS: Thoracic SABR proved to be safe for CIEDs when the dose is kept <2 Gy and the beam energy is ≤10 MV, irrespective of the pacing-dependency and of the CIED type.


Assuntos
Desfibriladores Implantáveis , Marca-Passo Artificial , Eletrônica , Humanos , Pulmão , Estudos Retrospectivos
9.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(11): e2026312, 2020 11 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33196810

RESUMO

Importance: The outcomes and factors that influence survival in patients with oligometastasis (OM) are not well understood and have not been well described in large-scale studies. Objective: To evaluate overall progression-free survival (PFS), widespread progression (WSP) outcomes, and survival factors from a pooled data set of 1033 patients with OM treated with stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT). Design, Setting, and Participants: Case series from January 1, 2008, to December 31, 2016. The dates of analysis were April 2019 to May 2020. The setting was multi-institutional tertiary care hospitals. Participants were consecutive patients with 5 or fewer extracranial OMs whose primary tumor was treated curatively. Exposure: Definitive SBRT. Main Outcomes and Measures: Overall survival (OS), progression-free survival, rate of WSP, patterns of failure, and factors altering OS. Results: In the largest international OM case series to date (1033 participants) (mean age, 68.0 years [range, 18.0-94.3 years]; 601 [58.2%] men), 1416 SBRT courses were delivered to patients with 1 OM (596 [57.7%]), 2 OMs (245 [23.7%]), 3 OMs (105 [10.2%]), 4 OMs (55 [5.3%]), and 5 OMs (32 [3.1%]). The median follow-up was 24.1 months (range, 0.3-104.7 months), and the median OS was 44.2 months (95% CI, 39.2-48.8 months). The median PFS was 12.9 months (95% CI, 11.6-14.2 months), and the median time to WSP was 42.5 months (95% CI, 36.8-53.5 months). The OS rates were 84.1% (95% CI, 81.7%-86.2%) at 1 year, 56.7% (95% CI, 53.0%-60.2%) at 3 years, and 35.2% (95% CI, 30.1%-40.3%) at 5 years. The 3-year OS, PFS, and WSP rates were 56.7% (95% CI, 53.0%-60.2%), 23.0% (95% CI, 20.2%-25.9%), and 45.2% (95% CI, 41.4%-48.9%), respectively. The 5-year OS, PFS, and WSP rates were 35.2% (95% CI, 30.1%-40.3%), 14.8% (95% CI, 11.9%-17.9%), and 54.5% (95% CI, 49.8%-59.2%), respectively. At the time of first progression, 342 patients (33.1%) had recurrence of OM disease, and 230 patients (22.3%) underwent subsequent ablative therapies to all known metastatic sites. Multivariable analyses identified primary tumor type (hazard ratio [HR], 3.73; 95% CI, 1.75-7.94; P < .001 for breast; 5.75; 95% CI, 2.88-11.46; P < .001 for colorectal; 4.67; 95% CI, 2.12-10.31; P < .001 for kidney; 10.61; 95% CI, 5.36-20.99; P < .001 for lung; and 12.00; 95% CI, 6.06-23.76; P < .001 for other [with prostate being the reference group]), metachronous OM presentation more than 24 months since initial diagnosis (HR, 0.63; 95% CI, 0.49-0.80; P < .001), metastases confined to the lung only (HR, 0.58; 95% CI, 0.48-0.72; P < .001), and nodal or soft-tissue metastases only (HR, 0.49; 95% CI, 0.26-0.90; P = .02) as survival factors. Sixty-six (6.4%) grade 3 or higher toxic effects were observed, including 1 (0.1%) grade 5 event. Conclusions and Relevance: This study found favorable long-term OS and WSP rates associated with extracranial OM ablated with SBRT; however, modest PFS rates were observed. A substantial proportion of patients with OM developed progressive disease and were treated with local ablation. Factors that can inform clinical decision-making and clinical trial design include primary tumor type, a metachronous presentation more than 24 months since diagnosis, and the site of OM presentation.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Ósseas/radioterapia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/radioterapia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/radioterapia , Neoplasias/patologia , Radiocirurgia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias Ósseas/secundário , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Renais/patologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/secundário , Neoplasias Pulmonares/secundário , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Retratamento , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
10.
J Bone Oncol ; 25: 100320, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33088700

RESUMO

Introduction: The new concept of separation surgery has changed the surgical paradigms for the treatment of metastatic epidural spinal cord compression (MESCC), shifting from aggressive cytoreductive surgery towards less invasive surgery with the aim to achieve circumferential separation of the spinal cord and create a safe target for high dose Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy (SBRT), which turned out to be the real game-changer for disease's local control. Discussion: In this review a qualitative analysis of the English literature has been performed according to the rating of evidence, with the aim to underline the increasingly role of the concept of separation surgery in MESCC treatment. A review of the main steps in the evolution of both radiotherapy and surgery fields have been described, highlighting the important results deriving from their integration. Conclusion: Compared with more aggressive surgical approaches, the concept of separation surgery together with the advancements of radiotherapy and the use of SBRT for the treatment of MESCC showed promising results in order to achieve a valuable local control while reducing surgical related morbidities and complications.

11.
Cancers (Basel) ; 12(11)2020 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33114734

RESUMO

Mucosal melanoma is a rare disease epidemiologically and molecularly distinct from cutaneous melanoma developing from melanocytes located in mucosal membranes. Little is known about its therapy. In this paper, we aimed to evaluate the results of immunotherapy and radiotherapy in a group of patients with advanced mucosal melanoma, based on the experience of five high-volume centers in Poland and Italy. There were 82 patients (53 female, 29 male) included in this retrospective study. The median age in this group was 67.5 (IQR: 57.25-75.75). All patients received anti-PD1 or anti-CTLA4 antibodies in the first or second line of treatment. Twenty-three patients received radiotherapy during anti-PD1 treatment. In the first-line treatment, the median progression-free survival (PFS) reached six months in the anti-PD1 group, which was statistically better than 3.1 months in the other modalities group (p = 0.004). The median overall survival (OS) was 16.3 months (CI: 12.1-22.3) in the whole cohort. Patients who received radiotherapy (RT) during the anti-PD1 treatment had a median PFS of 8.9 months (CI: 7.4-NA), whereas patients treated with single-modality anti-PD1 therapy had a median PFS of 4.2 months (CI: 3.0-7.8); this difference was statistically significant (p = 0.047). Anti-PD1 antibodies are an effective treatment option in advanced mucosal melanoma (MM). The addition of RT may have been beneficial in the selected subgroup of mucosal melanoma patients.

12.
Lung Cancer ; 146: 263-275, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32593916

RESUMO

The prognosis of lung cancer patients has improved in the last few years. Despite definitive therapy, local recurrence or a second primary tumour can occur in many patients within previously irradiated areas. Recent developement of more accurate techniques in radiation oncology allows delivery of high radiation dose to the tumor with the aim of improving local control, delaying disease progression and in some cases even curing. Nevertheless, the use of high dose in the reirradiation setting is not without risks, especially when treatment volumes overlap with previously irradiated tissues. The risk of adverse effects must be balanced with the choice of an effective treatment by selecting suitable candidates and the best radiation technique. In this systemic review efficacy and toxicity of reirradiation in locoregionally recurrent non-small-cell lung cancer is extensively discussed. Results indicate that reirradiation might be beneficial in well-selected patients. Prospective and high quality studies are necessary in this field.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Reirradiação , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/radioterapia , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/radioterapia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/radioterapia , Estudos Prospectivos , Dosagem Radioterapêutica
13.
Radiol Med ; 125(2): 214-219, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31605353

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To report criticisms and barriers to the "real-life" application of international guidelines and recent developments in the management of locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in Italy. METHODS: Three 2-day courses were organized. During the first day, experts in different fields of thoracic oncology gave their lecture on diagnosis and therapy for locally advanced NSCLC. During the second day, all participants were divided into four groups to discuss on a clinical case as a multidisciplinary team (MDT). The aim was to stimulate the discussion on practical issues in the management of NSCLC patients in the real-life practice. RESULTS: A total of 196 physicians were involved in the courses as learners. Invasive diagnosis of nodal disease for staging purposes, a priori definition of "surgical resectability" and a regular MDT with all crucial participants available were the three main key points identified for a good management of these patients. The main barriers to the clinical application of a good diagnostic and therapeutic approach to the patient were the absence of a regular and complete MDT in the South and Centre of Italy, while in the North of Italy, time for discussion of clinical cases in the MDT and waiting lists for staging and therapeutic interventions were deemed as the major concerns. CONCLUSION: The meetings showed that diagnosis and treatment of locally advanced NSCLC are still extremely variable between different Italian regions. Logistic issues, waiting lists, paucity of well-trained staff and expertise seem to be the main barriers to international guidelines application.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/terapia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/terapia , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente , Padrões de Prática Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Congressos como Assunto , Humanos , Comunicação Interdisciplinar , Itália , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto
14.
Phys Med ; 58: 159-164, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30733000

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the performances of the Dolphin system for pre-treatment verification (IBA Dosimetry, Schwarzenbruck, Germany) based on transmission measurements, employing a clinical perspective. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Fifty treatment plans were verified by Dolphin and Delta4 detectors (Scandidos, Uppsala, Sweden) during the same session and subsequently by the Delta4 itself. The attenuation factor of the transmission detector (required for on-line dosimetry) was evaluated by comparing Delta4 measurements with and without Dolphin. Gamma evaluation was performed to compare the plan dose with the one delivered in case of Delta4 and Dolphin (gamma analysis within the structures). Dose-volume based parameters for PTV and OARs doses were considered for Compass calculation and Dolphin reconstruction and clinical decisions were made by two expert physicians in order to assess the "pass", "fail" or "evaluate" grade of the treatment plans. A statistical analysis was performed to investigate the eventual correlation between Delta4 gamma analysis and Dolphin clinical evaluation. RESULTS: A value of 10.7% ±â€¯0.7% was found for detector attenuation. No patients were classified as "fail" by the two instruments as well as by physicians. No correlation was found between the Delta4gamma metric and physician classification; conversely, a significant correlation was observed for Dolphin between the numbers of points with gamma ≥1 (gamma failure rate, as evaluated by the Dolphin) in the PTV area and clinical decision. CONCLUSION: The Dolphin system demonstrated to be an accurate detector for pre-treatment purposes and could be used as a clinical decision making tool for plan acceptance.


Assuntos
Imagens de Fantasmas , Dosímetros de Radiação
15.
J Thorac Dis ; 10(Suppl 13): S1461-S1467, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29951297

RESUMO

Locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) represents approximately one third of presentations at diagnosis. Most patients are judged non-surgical due to disease extension, and chemo-radiotherapy still represents the standard therapeutic option, with unsatisfactory results in terms of overall survival (OS) despite advances in staging and radiation therapy planning and delivery. Immunotherapy, and in particular immune-checkpoint inhibitors targeting the PD-1/PD-L1 axis, gained wide popularity for NSCLC in light of the positive findings of several trials in metastatic disease. Stage III unresectable NSCLC is a remarkably interesting setting for the combined use of chemo-radiation and immunotherapy, also considering the multiple experimental evidences in favor of a synergistic effect between radiation and immune checkpoint inhibitors, with the potential of enhancing immuno-modulating effects and overcoming resistance. We here summarized the biological rationale and the initial clinical experiences testing for this combination, and we briefly discussed ongoing trials and future options in this field.

17.
Br J Radiol ; 90(1078): 20170143, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28749172

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare patterns of acute and late radiological lung injury following either 3D conformal or image-guided volumetric modulated arc therapy stereotactic radiotherapy for Stage I non-small-cell lung cancer. METHODS: We included 148 patients from a prospective mono-institutional stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) series (time interval 2004-2014), treated with prescription BED10 Gy (at 80%) in the range 100-120 Gy. The first 95 patients (2004-2010) were planned with 3D-CRT, with a stereotactic body frame. The second cohort (2010-2014) included 53 patients, planned with volumetric IMRT on a smaller planning target volume generated from a patient's specific internal target volume, with a frameless approach through cone-beam CT guidance. Acute and late radiological modifications were scored based on modified Kimura's and Koenig's classifications, respectively. RESULTS: Median follow-up time was 20.5 months. The incidence of acute radiological changes was superimposable between the groups: increased density was observed in 68.4 and 64.2% of patients for 3D-CRT and VMAT, respectively, and patchy ground glass opacity in 23.7 and 24.5%, respectively; diffuse ground glass opacity was 2.6 vs 9.4%, respectively, and patchy consolidation 2.6 vs 1.9%, respectively. Late changes occurred in approximately 60% of patients: modified conventional pattern was the most frequent modification (25 vs 32.6%, respectively); other patterns were less common (mass-like 19.6 vs 17.4%, and scar-like 13 vs 10.9%, respectively). CONCLUSION: Results of the present study indicate that the pattern of radiological lung changes following SBRT for peripheral early stage non-small-cell lung cancer is not influenced by the different techniques used for planning and delivery. Advances in knowledge: This comparative observational study shows that smaller margins, image guidance and most importantly dose distribution do not change the pattern of radiological injury after lung SBRT; the same scoring system can be used, and expected incidence is similar.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/radioterapia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/radioterapia , Lesões por Radiação/etiologia , Radiocirurgia/efeitos adversos , Radioterapia Conformacional/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Estudos Prospectivos , Radiocirurgia/métodos
18.
Expert Rev Anticancer Ther ; 17(4): 347-356, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28277101

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The clinical landscape of advanced melanoma drastically changed after the introduction of both targeted therapies and immunotherapy. This rapid development in systemic therapies led to a change in the management of patients with brain metastases, with the subsequent need to re-assess the role of local therapies, in particular stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). Areas covered: In this non-systematic review, we report on the current knowledge on the use of SRS in combination with immunotherapy and BRAF/MEK inhibitors for patients with melanoma brain metastases, as well as ongoing trials in this field. Expert commentary: It is now more common to observe patients with melanoma brain metastases with better performance status and prolonged life expectancy. A combination of targeted therapy and immunotherapy, in different sequences, has been shown to be feasible and well tolerable, on the basis of retrospective reports. Additional data from ongoing prospective trials are however needed to confirm or not these findings and better explore the efficacy of the combination.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias Encefálicas/terapia , Imunoterapia/métodos , Radiocirurgia/métodos , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Neoplasias Encefálicas/secundário , Terapia Combinada , Humanos , Melanoma/patologia , Melanoma/terapia , Quinases de Proteína Quinase Ativadas por Mitógeno/antagonistas & inibidores , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/antagonistas & inibidores , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/terapia
19.
Phys Med ; 44: 150-156, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27914779

RESUMO

Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy (SBRT) is a well established therapeutic option for patients affected with peripheral early stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), given the positive clinical evidence accumulated so far on its efficacy and safety. SBRT is regarded as the best choice for inoperable patients, and could also be offered as an alternative to surgery to selected operable patients. More recently, its use for lung metastases progressively increased, and SBRT is now regarded as a low toxic and highly effective local therapy for lung oligometastases from different primary tumors, especially colorectal cancer. Improved planning and delivery techniques have facilitated over the years its use on large and/or centrally located primary tumors, and multiple nodules. Given the successful applications and the current wide dissemination of this technique, clinicians are now faced with an increasingly complex and multi-variable decision process. Some clinically relevant factors are still uncertain, and strategies are needed to reduce the risk of both local and distant failures. Secondly, aspects related to target delineation, dose prescription, image guidance and treatment planning still need to be fully addressed; this may hamper, at least for now, the standardization of SBRT procedures through different Institutions making any kind of direct outcomes comparison difficult. We here aim to provide a perspective on the current role of lung SBRT and its critical aspects, highlighting the potential future developments.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/radioterapia , Radiocirurgia/métodos , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/radioterapia , Humanos , Metástase Neoplásica , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Radiocirurgia/efeitos adversos
20.
Radiother Oncol ; 120(1): 1-12, 2016 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27345592

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The therapeutic landscape of metastatic melanoma drastically changed after the introduction of targeted therapies and immunotherapy, in particular immune checkpoints inhibitors (ICI). In recent years, positive effects on the immune system associated to radiotherapy (RT) were discovered, and radiation has been tested in combination with ICI in both pre-clinical and clinical studies (many of them still ongoing). We here summarize the rationale and the preliminary clinical results of this approach. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In the first part of this review article, redacted with narrative non-systematic methodology, we describe the clinical results of immune checkpoints blockade in melanoma as well as the biological basis for the combination of ICI with RT; in the second part, we systematically review scientific publications reporting on the clinical results of the combination of ICI and RT for advanced melanoma. RESULTS: The biological and mechanistic rationale behind the combination of ICI and radiation is well supported by several preclinical findings. Retrospective observational series and few prospective trials support the potential synergistic effect between radiation and ICI for metastatic melanoma. CONCLUSION: RT may potentiate anti-melanoma activity of ICI by enhancing response on both target and non-target lesions. Several prospective trials are ongoing with the aim of further exploring this combination in the clinical setting, hopefully confirming initial observations and opening a new therapeutic window for advanced melanoma patients.


Assuntos
Antígeno CTLA-4/antagonistas & inibidores , Melanoma/radioterapia , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Humanos , Imunoterapia , Ipilimumab , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Estudos Prospectivos
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