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1.
Blood Adv ; 5(1): 262-273, 2021 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33570653

RESUMO

Type I and III leukocyte adhesion deficiencies (LADs) are primary immunodeficiency disorders resulting in early death due to infections and additional bleeding tendency in LAD-III. The curative treatment of LAD-I and LAD-III is allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). In this retrospective multicenter study, data were collected using the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation registry; we analyzed data from 84 LAD patients from 33 centers, all receiving an allo-HSCT from 2007 to 2017. The 3-year overall survival estimate (95% confidence interval [CI]) was 83% (74-92) for the entire cohort: 84% (75-94) and 75% (50-100) for LAD-I and LAD-III, respectively. We observed cumulative incidences (95% CI) of graft failure (GF) at 3 years of 17% (9%-26%) and grade II to IV acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) at 100 days of 24% (15%-34%). The estimate (95% CI) at 3 years for GF- and GVHD-II to IV-free survival as event-free survival (EFS) was 56% (46-69) for the entire cohort; 58% (46-72) and 56% (23-88) for LAD-I and LAD-III, respectively. Grade II to IV acute GVHD was a relevant risk factor for death (hazard ratio 3.6; 95% CI 1.4-9.1; P = .006). Patients' age at transplant ≥13 months, transplantation from a nonsibling donor, and any serological cytomegalovirus mismatch in donor-recipient pairs were significantly associated with severe acute GVHD and inferior EFS. The choice of busulfan- or treosulfan-based conditioning, type of GVHD prophylaxis, and serotherapy did not impact overall survival, EFS, or aGVHD. An intrinsic inflammatory component of LAD may contribute to inflammatory complications during allo-HSCT, thus providing the rationale for considering anti-inflammatory therapy pretreatment.

2.
J Immunol Methods ; : 112960, 2021 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33417916

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recently, new advances were made regarding the depletion of CD45RA+ naïve T cells from haploidentical grafts as they are suspected to be the most alloreactive. METHODS: Within this project we investigated CD45RA-depletion from G-CSF mobilized PBSC by two different purification strategies according to GMP, specifically direct depletion of CD45RA+ cells (one-step approach), or CD34-positive selection followed by CD45RA-depletion (two-step approach). RESULTS: With log -3.9 and - 3.8 the depletion quality of CD45RA+ T cells was equally for both approaches together with a close to complete CD19+ B cell depletion. However, due to a high expression of CD45RA the majority of NK cells were lost within both CD45RA depletion strategies. Stem cell recovery after one-step CD45RA-depletion was at median 52.0% (range: 49.7-67.2%), which was comparable to previously published recovery data received from direct CD34 positive selection. Memory T cell recovery including CD4+ and CD8+ memory T cell subsets was statistically not differing between both purification approaches. The recovery of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells was as well similar, but overall a higher amount of cytotoxic than T-helper cells were lost as indicated by an increase of the CD4/CD8 ratio. CONCLUSIONS: CD45RA-depletion from G-CSF mobilized PBSC is feasible as one- and two-step approach and results in sufficient reduction of CD45RA+ T cells as well as B cells, but also to a co-depletion of NK cells. However, by gaining two independent cell products, the two-step approach enables the highest clinical flexibility in regard to individual graft composition with precise dosage of stem cells and T cells.

3.
J Clin Oncol ; 39(4): 295-307, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33332189

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Total body irradiation (TBI) before allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in pediatric patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is efficacious, but long-term side effects are concerning. We investigated whether preparative combination chemotherapy could replace TBI in such patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: FORUM is a randomized, controlled, open-label, international, multicenter, phase III, noninferiority study. Patients ≤ 18 years at diagnosis, 4-21 years at HSCT, in complete remission pre-HSCT, and with an HLA-compatible related or unrelated donor were randomly assigned to myeloablative conditioning with fractionated 12 Gy TBI and etoposide versus fludarabine, thiotepa, and either busulfan or treosulfan. The noninferiority margin was 8%. With 1,000 patients randomly assigned in 5 years, 2-year minimum follow-up, and one-sided alpha of 5%, 80% power was calculated. A futility stopping rule would halt random assignment if chemoconditioning was significantly inferior to TBI (EudraCT: 2012-003032-22; ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01949129). RESULTS: Between April 2013 and December 2018, 543 patients were screened, 417 were randomly assigned, 212 received TBI, and 201 received chemoconditioning. The stopping rule was applied on March 31, 2019. The median follow-up was 2.1 years. In the intention-to-treat population, 2-year overall survival (OS) was significantly higher following TBI (0.91; 95% CI, 0.86 to 0.95; P < .0001) versus chemoconditioning (0.75; 95% CI, 0.67 to 0.81). Two-year cumulative incidence of relapse and treatment-related mortality were 0.12 (95% CI, 0.08 to 0.17; P < .0001) and 0.02 (95% CI, < 0.01 to 0.05; P = .0269) following TBI and 0.33 (95% CI, 0.25 to 0.40) and 0.09 (95% CI, 0.05 to 0.14) following chemoconditioning, respectively. CONCLUSION: Improved OS and lower relapse risk were observed following TBI plus etoposide compared with chemoconditioning. We therefore recommend TBI plus etoposide for patients > 4 years old with high-risk ALL undergoing allogeneic HSCT.

4.
Front Immunol ; 11: 581468, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33193388

RESUMO

High-risk rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) occurring in childhood to young adulthood is associated with a poor prognosis; especially children above the age of 10 with advanced stage alveolar RMS still succumb to the disease within a median of 2 years. The advent of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-engineered T cells marked significant progress in the treatment of refractory B cell malignancies, but experience for solid tumors has proven challenging. We speculate that this is at least in part due to the poor quality of the patient's own T cells and therefore propose using CAR-modified cytokine-induced killer (CIK) cells as effector cells. CIK cells are a heterogeneous population of polyclonal T cells that acquire phenotypic and cytotoxic properties of natural killer (NK) cells through the cultivation process, becoming so-called T-NK cells. CIK cells can be genetically modified to express CARs. They are minimally alloreactive and can therefore be acquired from haploidentical first-degree relatives. Here, we explored the potential of ERBB2-CAR-modified random-donor CIK cells as a treatment for RMS in xenotolerant mice bearing disseminated high-risk RMS tumors. In otherwise untreated mice, RMS tumors engrafted 13-35 days after intravenous tumor cell injection, as shown by in vivo bioluminescence imaging, immunohistochemistry, and polymerase chain reaction for human gDNA, and mice died shortly thereafter (median/range: 62/56-66 days, n = 5). Wild-type (WT) CIK cells given at an early stage delayed and eliminated RMS engraftment in 4 of 6 (67%) mice, while ERBB2-CAR CIK cells inhibited initial tumor load in 8 of 8 (100%) mice. WT CIK cells were detectable but not as active as CAR CIK cells at distant tumor sites. CIK cell therapies during advanced RMS delayed but did not inhibit tumor progression compared to untreated controls. ERBB2-CAR CIK cell therapy also supported innate immunity as evidenced by selective accumulation of NK and T-NK cell subpopulations in disseminated RMS tumors, which was not observed for WT CIK cells. Our data underscore the power of heterogenous immune cell populations (T, NK, and T-NK cells) to control solid tumors, which can be further enhanced with CARs, suggesting ERBB2-CAR CIK cells as a potential treatment for high-risk RMS.

5.
Orphanet J Rare Dis ; 15(1): 299, 2020 10 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33097095

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Revesz syndrome (RS) is an extremely rare variant of dyskeratosis congenita (DKC) with only anecdotal reports in the literature. METHODS: To further characterize the typical features and natural course of the disease, we screened the English literature and summarized the clinical and epidemiological features of previously published RS cases. In addition, we herein describe the first recorded patient in central Europe. RESULTS: The literature review included 18 children. Clinical features are summarized, indicating a low prevalence of the classical DKC triad. All patients experienced early bone marrow failure, in most cases within the second year of life (median age 1.5 years; 95% CI 1.4-1.6). Retinopathy occurred typically between 6 and 18 months of age (median age 1.1 years; 95% CI 0.7-1.5). The incidence of seizures was low and was present in an estimated 20% of patients. The onset of seizures was exclusively during early childhood. The Kaplan-Meier estimate of survival was dismal (median survival 6.5 years; 95% CI 3.6-9.4), and none of the patients survived beyond the age of 12 years. Stem cell transplantation (SCT) was performed in eight children, and after a median of 22 months from SCT four of these patients were alive at the last follow up visit. CONCLUSION: RS is a severe variant of DKC with early bone marrow failure and retinopathy in all patients. Survival is dismal, but stem cell transplantation may be performed successfully and might improve prognosis in the future.

6.
J Clin Apher ; 2020 Aug 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32750197

RESUMO

Autologous unstimulated leukapheresis product serves as starting material for a variety of innovative cell therapy products, including chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-modified T-cells. Although it may be reasonable to assume feasibility and efficiency of apheresis for CAR-T cell manufacture, several idiosyncrasies of these patients warrant their separate analysis: target cells (mononuclear cells [MNC] and T-cells) are relatively few which may instruct the selection of apheresis technology, low body weight, and, hence, low total blood volume (TBV) can restrict process and product volume, and patients may be in compromised health. We here report outcome data from 46 consecutive leukaphereses in 33 unique pediatric patients performed for the purpose of CD19-CAR-T-cell manufacturing. Apheresis targets of 2×109 MNC/1×109 T-cells were defined by marketing authorization holder specification. Patient weight was 8 to 84 kg; TBV was 0.6 to 5.1 L. Spectra Optia apheresis technology was used. For 23 patients, a single apheresis sufficed to generate enough cells and manufacture CAR-T-cells, the remainder required two aphereses to meet target dose and/or two apheresis series because of production failure. Aphereses were technically feasible and clinically tolerable without serious adverse effects. The median collection efficiencies for MNC and T-cells were 53% and 56%, respectively. In summary, CAR apheresis in pediatric patients, including the very young, is feasible, safe and efficient, but the specified cell dose targets can be challenging in smaller children. Continuous monitoring of apheresis outcomes is advocated in order to maintain quality.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32753706

RESUMO

Allogeneic HSCT represents the only potentially curative treatment for very high risk (VHR) ALL. Two consecutive international prospective studies, ALL-SCT-(I)BFM 2003 and 2007 were conducted in 1150 pediatric patients. 569 presented with VHR disease leading to any kind of HSCT. All patients >2 year old were transplanted after TBI-based MAC. The median follow-up was 5 years. 463 patients were transplanted from matched donor (MD) and 106 from mismatched donor (MMD). 214 were in CR1. Stem cell source was unmanipulated BM for 330 patients, unmanipulated PBSC for 135, ex vivo T-cell depleted PBSC for 62 and cord-blood for 26. There were more advanced disease, more ex vivo T-cell depletion, and more chemotherapy based conditioning regimen for patients transplanted from MMD as compared to those transplanted from MSD or MD. Median follow up (reversed Kaplan Meier estimator) was 4.99 years, median follow up of survivals was 4.88, range (0.01-11.72) years. The 4-year CI of extensive cGvHD was 13 ± 2% and 17 ± 4% (p = NS) for the patients transplanted from MD and MMD, respectively. 4-year EFS was statistically better for patients transplanted from MD (60 ± 2% vs. 42 ± 5%, p < 0.001) for the whole cohort. This difference does not exist if considering separately patients treated in the most recent study. There was no difference in 4-year CI of relapse. The 4-year NRM was lower for patients transplanted from MD (9 ± 1% vs. 23 ± 4%, p < 0.001). In multivariate analysis, donor-type appears as a negative risk-factor for OS, EFS, and NRM. This paper demonstrates the impact of donor type on overall results of allogeneic stem cell transplantation for very-high risk pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia with worse results when using MMD stem cell source.

9.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 67(9): e28523, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32618429

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Reduced toxicity conditioning for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation of patients with hemophagocyticlymphohistiocytosis (HLH) results in favorable survival, however at the expense of relevant rates of mixed chimerism. Factors predisposing to mixed chimerism remain to be determined. PROCEDURE: Patients with primary HLH transplanted 2009-2016 after treosulfan- or melphalan-based conditioning regimens were analyzed in a retrospective multicenter study for survival, engraftment, chimerism, and adverse events. Mixed chimerism was considered substantial if < 25% donor chimerism occurred and/or if secondary cell therapy was administered. Donor type, graft source, type of alkylating agent, type of serotherapy, and remission status were analyzed as potential risk factors in a multivariable logistic regression model. RESULTS: Among 60 patients, engraftment was achieved in 95%, and the five-year estimated overall survival rate was 75%. Prevalence of any recipient chimerism was 48%. Substantial recipient chimerism was recorded in 32% of patients. Secondary post-HSCT cell therapy was administered in 30% of patients. A human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-mismatched donor (< 10/10) was the only significant risk factor for the occurrence of substantial recipient chimerism (P = 0.01; odds ratio, 5.8; CI 95%, 1.5-26.3). CONCLUSION: The use of an HLA-matched donor is the most important factor to avoid substantial recipient chimerism following treosulfan -or melphalan-based conditioning in primary HLH.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32594103

RESUMO

Up to 40% of donor-recipient pairs in SCT have some degree of ABO incompatibility, which may cause severe complications. The aim of this study was to describe available options and survey current practices by means of a questionnaire circulated within the EBMT Pediatric Diseases Working Party investigators. Major ABO incompatibility (donor's RBCs have antigens missing on the recipient's cell surface, towards which the recipient has circulating isohemagglutinins) requires most frequently an intervention in case of bone marrow grafts, as immediate or delayed hemolysis, delayed erythropoiesis and pure red cell aplasia may occur. RBC depletion from the graft (82%), recipient plasma-exchange (14%) were the most common practices, according to the survey. Graft manipulation is rarely needed in mobilized peripheral blood grafts. In case of minor incompatible grafts (donor has isohemagglutinins directed against recipient RBC antigens), isohemagglutinin depletion from the graft by plasma reduction/centrifugation may be considered, but acute tolerability of minor incompatible grafts is rarely an issue. According to the survey, minor ABO incompatibility was either managed by means of plasma removal from the graft, especially when isohemagglutinin titer was above a certain threshold, or led to no intervention at all (41%). Advantages and disadvantages of each method are discussed.

12.
Cells ; 9(6)2020 06 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32531978

RESUMO

Pulmonary failure is the main cause of morbidity and mortality in the human chromosomal instability syndrome Ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T). Major phenotypes include recurrent respiratory tract infections and bronchiectasis, aspiration, respiratory muscle abnormalities, interstitial lung disease, and pulmonary fibrosis. At present, no effective pulmonary therapy for A-T exists. Cell therapy using adipose-derived mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (ASCs) might be a promising approach for tissue regeneration. The aim of the present project was to investigate whether ASCs migrate into the injured lung parenchyma of Atm-deficient mice as an indication of incipient tissue damage during A-T. Therefore, ASCs isolated from luciferase transgenic mice (mASCs) were intravenously transplanted into Atm-deficient and wild-type mice. Retention kinetics of the cells were monitored using in vivo bioluminescence imaging (BLI) and completed by subsequent verification using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The in vivo imaging and the qPCR results demonstrated migration accompanied by a significantly longer retention time of transplanted mASCs in the lung parenchyma of Atm-deficient mice compared to wild type mice. In conclusion, our study suggests incipient damage in the lung parenchyma of Atm-deficient mice. In addition, our data further demonstrate that a combination of luciferase-based PCR together with BLI is a pivotal tool for tracking mASCs after transplantation in models of inflammatory lung diseases such as A-T.

13.
Pediatr Pulmonol ; 55(7): 1725-1735, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32369682

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) is a severe, chronic inflammation of the airways leading to an obstruction of the bronchioles. So far, there are only a few studies looking at the long-term development of pulmonary impairment in children with BOS. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate the incidence and long-term outcome of BOS in children who underwent allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). METHODS: Medical charts of 526 children undergoing HSCT in Frankfurt/Main, Germany between 2000 and 2017 were analyzed retrospectively and as a result, 14 patients with BOS were identified. A total of 271 lung functions (spirometry and body plethysmography), 26 lung clearance indices (LCI), and 46 chest high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) of these 14 patients with BOS were evaluated. RESULTS: Fourteen patients suffered from BOS after HSCT (2.7%), whereby three distinctive patterns of lung function impairment were observed: three out of 14 patients showed a progressive lung function decline; two died and one received a lung transplant. In five out of 14 patients with BOS persisted with a severe obstructive and secondarily restrictive pattern in lung function (forced vital capacity [FVC] < 60%, forced expiratory volume in 1 second [FEV1] < 50%, and FEV1/FVC < 0.7) and increased LCI (11.67-20.9), six out of 14 patients recovered completely after moderate lung function impairment and signs of BOS on HRCT. Long-term FVC in absolute numbers was increased indicating that the children still have lung growth. CONCLUSION: Our results showed that the incidence of BOS in children is low. BOS was associated with high mortality and may lead to persistent obstructive lung disease; although, lung growth continued to exist.

14.
Blood Adv ; 4(8): 1760-1769, 2020 04 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32343795

RESUMO

Diamond-Blackfan anemia (DBA) is a congenital pure red cell aplasia associated with congenital abnormalities and cancer predisposition. Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) can correct the hematological phenotype and is indicated in transfusion-dependent patients. In 70 children reported to the German DBA and French HSCT registries, HSCT was performed from 1985 to 2017. Median age at HSCT was 5.5 years (range, 0.9-17.3 years). Two-thirds of patients (64%) were transplanted from a matched sibling donor (MSD), and most procedures were performed after the year 1999 (73%). Primary engraftment was achieved in all patients. One patient developed secondary graft failure. Cumulative incidence of acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) was 24% for °II-IV (95% confidence interval [CI], 16% to 37%) and 7% for °III-IV (95% CI, 3% to 17%); cumulative incidence of chronic GVHD was 11% (95% CI, 5% to 22%). The probability of chronic GVHD-free survival (cGFS) was 87% (95% CI, 79% to 95%) and significantly improved over time (<2000: 68% [95% CI, 47% to 89%] vs ≥2000: 94% [95% CI, 87% to 100%], P < .01). cGFS was comparable following HSCT from a MSD and an unrelated donor (UD). Of note, no severe chronic GVHD or deaths were reported following MSD-HSCT after 1999. The difference of cGFS in children transplanted <10 years of age compared with older patients did not reach statistical significance (<10 years: 90% [95% CI, 81% to 99%] vs 10-18 years 78% [95% CI, 58% to 98%]). In summary, these data indicate that HSCT is efficient and safe in young DBA patients and should be considered if a MSD or matched UD is available. HSCT for transfusion dependency only must be critically discussed in older patients.

15.
Wien Klin Wochenschr ; 2020 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32246210

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The psychometric properties of an instrument, the Activity Scale for Kids-performance (ASKp), were assessed which was proposed to capture physical functioning after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Additionally, this multicenter observational prospective study investigated the influence of clinical correlates focusing on chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD). METHODS: Patient-reported ASKp, clinician-reported Karnofsky/Lansky status (KPS/PSS), patient characteristics and cGVHD details were assessed of 55 patients with a median age of 12 years at baseline after day +100 post-HSCT and every 3 months during the next 18 months. The psychometric properties were evaluated and ASKp and KPS/PSS status was compared using ANOVAS and multiple regression models. RESULTS: The German version of the ASKp showed good psychometric properties except for ceiling effects. Discrimination ability of the ASKp was good regarding the need for devices but failed to predict cGVHD patients. Both the ASKp and the KPS/PSS were associated with patients after adoptive cell therapy being in need for devices, suffering from overlap cGVHD and from steroid side effects but not with patients' age and gender. In contrast to the KPS/PSS the ASKp only showed significant differences after merging moderate and severe cGHVD patients when comparing them to No-cGVHD (F = 4.050; p = 0.049), being outperformed by the KPS/PSS (F = 20.082; p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: The ASKp showed no clear advantages compared to KPS/PSS even though economical and patients' effort was higher. Further application range may be limited through ceiling effects. Both should be taken into consideration. Therefore, the results may not support the usage of ASKp after HSCT and rather suggest KPS/PSS, both patient and clinician reported.

16.
Am J Hematol ; 95(7): 809-816, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32267023

RESUMO

Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) is curative for bone marrow failure in patients with Fanconi anemia (FA), but the presence of a malignant transformation is associated with a poor prognosis and the management of these patients is still challenging. We analyzed outcome of 74 FA patients with a diagnosis of myelodysplastic syndrome (n = 35), acute leukemia (n = 35) or with cytogenetic abnormalities (n = 4), who underwent allo-HSCT from 1999 to 2016 in EBMT network. Type of diagnosis, pre-HSCT cytoreductive therapies and related toxicities, disease status pre-HSCT, donor type, and conditioning regimen were considered as main variables potentially influencing outcome. The 5-year OS and EFS were 42% (30-53%) and 39% (27-51%), respectively. Patients transplanted in CR showed better OS compared with those transplanted in presence of an active malignant disease (OS:71%[48-95] vs 37% [24-50],P = .04), while none of the other variables considered had an impact. Twenty-two patients received pre-HSCT cytoreduction and 9/22 showed a grade 3-4 toxicity, without any lethal event or negative influence on survival after HSCT(OS:toxicity pre-HSCT 48% [20-75%] vs no-toxicity 51% [25-78%],P = .98). The cumulative incidence of day-100 grade II-IV a-GvHD and of 5-year c-GvHD were 38% (26-50%) and 40% (28-52%). Non-relapse-related mortality and incidence of relapse at 5-years were 40% (29-52%) and 21% (11-30%) respectively, without any significant impact of the tested variables. Causes of death were transplant-related events in most patients (34 out of the 42 deaths, 81%). This analysis confirms the poor outcome of transformed FA patients and identifies the importance of achieving CR pre-HSCT, suggesting that, in a newly diagnosed transformed FA patient, a cytoreductive approach pre-HSCT should be considered if a donor have been secured.


Assuntos
Anemia de Fanconi , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Leucemia , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas , Doença Aguda , Aloenxertos , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Anemia de Fanconi/complicações , Anemia de Fanconi/mortalidade , Anemia de Fanconi/terapia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Leucemia/etiologia , Leucemia/mortalidade , Leucemia/terapia , Masculino , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/etiologia , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/mortalidade , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/terapia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida
17.
Bone Marrow Transplant ; 55(10): 1996-2007, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32203268

RESUMO

Treosulfan-based conditioning prior to allogeneic transplantation has been shown to have myeloablative, immunosuppressive, and antineoplastic effects associated with reduced non-relapse mortality (NRM) in adults. Therefore, we prospectively evaluated the safety and efficacy of treosulfan-based conditioning in children with hematological malignancies in this phase II trial. Overall, 65 children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (35.4%), acute myeloid leukemia (44.6%), myelodysplastic syndrome (15.4%), or juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (4.6%) received treosulfan intravenously at a dose of 10 mg/m2/day (7.7%), 12 g/m2/day (35.4%), or 14 g/m2/day (56.9%) according to their individual body surface area in combination with fludarabine and thiotepa. The incidence of complete donor chimerism at day +28 was 98.4% with no primary and only one secondary graft failure. At 36 months, NRM was only 3.1%, while relapse incidence was 21.7%, and overall survival was 83.0%. The cumulative incidence of acute graft-vs.-host disease was 45.3% for grades I-IV and 26.6% for grades II-IV. At 36 months, 25.8% overall and 19.4% moderate/severe chronic graft-vs.-host disease were reported. These data confirm the safe and effective use of treosulfan-based conditioning in pediatric patients with hematological malignancies. Therefore, treosulfan/fludarabine/thiotepa can be recommended for myeloablative conditioning in children with hematological malignancies.

18.
Transpl Int ; 33(7): 762-772, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32133691

RESUMO

Pediatric allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) practices differ from those of adults, particularly the heterogeneity of transplantable nonmalignant diseases and the lower incidence of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Several guidelines regarding the management of acute (a) GVHD in adult HCT have been published. We aimed to capture the real-life approaches for pediatric aGVHD prophylaxis/treatment, and data from 75/193 (response rate 39%) EBMT centers (26 countries) were included, representing half (48%) of the pediatric EBMT-HCT activity. Results with ≥75% approval from respondents (74/75) for GVHD prophylaxis after myeloablative HCT for malignancies partially contradict published guidelines: Single-agent cyclosporine A (CsA) was used for matched sibling donor HCT in 47%; blood CsA levels were reported lower; the relapse risk in malignant diseases influenced GVHD prophylaxis with early withdrawal of CsA; distinct longer duration of CsA was employed in nonmalignant diseases. Most centers used additional anti-thymocyte globulin for matched unrelated and mismatched donor HCT, but not for matched siblings. Regarding prophylaxis in nonmyeloablative conditioning (mainly for nonmalignant diseases), responses showed broad heterogeneity. High conformity was found for first-line treatment; however, results regarding steroid-refractory aGVHD indicate an earlier diagnosis in children. Our findings highlight the need for standardized pediatric approaches toward aGVHD prophylaxis/treatment differentiated for malignant and nonmalignant underlying diseases.

19.
Bone Marrow Transplant ; 55(9): 1744-1753, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32127657

RESUMO

This study (NCT01288573) investigated plerixafor's safety and efficacy in children with cancer. Stage 1 investigated the dosage, pharmacokinetics (PK), pharmacodynamics (PD), and safety of plerixafor + standard mobilization (G-CSF ± chemotherapy). The stage 2 primary endpoint was successful mobilization (doubling of peripheral blood CD34+ cell count in the 24 h prior to first apheresis) in patients treated with plerixafor + standard mobilization vs. standard mobilization alone. In stage 1, three patients per age group (2-<6, 6-<12, and 12-<18 years) were treated at each dose level (160, 240, and 320 µg/kg). Based on PK and PD data, the dose proposed for stage 2 was 240 µg/kg (patients 1-<18 years), in which 45 patients were enrolled (30 plerixafor arm, 15 standard arm). Patient demographics and characteristics were well balanced across treatment arms. More patients in the plerixafor arm (24/30, 80%) met the primary endpoint of successful mobilization than in the standard arm (4/14, 28.6%, p = 0.0019). Adverse events reported as related to study treatment were mild, and no new safety concerns were identified. Plerixafor + standard G-CSF ± chemotherapy mobilization was generally well tolerated and efficacious when used to mobilize CD34+ cells in pediatric cancer patients.

20.
Bone Marrow Transplant ; 55(6): 1126-1136, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32029909

RESUMO

Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is currently the standard of care for many malignant and nonmalignant blood diseases. As several treatment-emerging acute toxicities are expected, optimal supportive measurements critically affect HSCT outcomes. The paucity of good clinical studies in supportive practices gives rise to the establishment of heterogeneous guidelines across the different centers, which hampers direct clinical comparison in multicentric studies. Aiming to harmonize the supportive care provided during the pediatric HSCT in Europe, the Pediatric Diseases Working Party (PDWP) of the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT) promoted dedicated workshops during the years 2017 and 2018. The present paper describes the resulting consensus on the management of sinusoidal obstructive syndrome, mucositis, enteral and parenteral nutrition, iron overload, and emesis during HSCT.

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