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1.
Pharmaceuticals (Basel) ; 14(3)2021 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33802811

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) is an antimalarial agent given to patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) as first-line therapy. It alleviates childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus cSLE skin and musculoskeletal disease, decreasing disease activity and flares. HCQ concentration-effect relationships in children remains unknown. This study aimed to investigate the pharmacokinetics of HCQ and possible concentration-effect relationships. METHODS: HCQ blood concentrations and effects were obtained during clinical follow-up on different occasions. cSLE flares were defined using the SLE Disease Activity Index (SLEDAI); flare was denoted by a SLEDAI score > 6. Blood concentration was measured using high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorometric detection. Statistical analysis was performed using a nonlinear mixed-effect approach with the Monolix software. RESULTS: A total of 168 blood samples were obtained from 55 pediatric patients. HCQ apparent blood clearance (CL/F) was dependent on patients' bodyweight and platelet count. Patients with active cSLE had a lower mean blood HCQ concentration compared with inactive cSLE patients (536 ± 294 vs. 758 ± 490 ng/mL, p = 5 × 10-6). Among patients with HCQ blood concentration ≥750 ng/mL, 87.6% had inactive cSLE. Moreover, HCQ blood concentration was a significant predictor of disease status. CONCLUSION: We developed the first HCQ blood concentration-effect relationship for cSLE associated with active or non-active disease status. A prospective randomized study is necessary to confirm these results.

2.
Euro Surveill ; 26(13)2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33797390

RESUMO

BackgroundChildren have a low rate of COVID-19 and secondary severe multisystem inflammatory syndrome (MIS) but present a high prevalence of symptomatic seasonal coronavirus infections.AimWe tested if prior infections by seasonal coronaviruses (HCoV) NL63, HKU1, 229E or OC43 as assessed by serology, provide cross-protective immunity against SARS-CoV-2 infection.MethodsWe set a cross-sectional observational multicentric study in pauci- or asymptomatic children hospitalised in Paris during the first wave for reasons other than COVID (hospitalised children (HOS), n = 739) plus children presenting with MIS (n = 36). SARS-CoV-2 antibodies directed against the nucleoprotein (N) and S1 and S2 domains of the spike (S) proteins were monitored by an in-house luciferase immunoprecipitation system assay. We randomly selected 69 SARS-CoV-2-seropositive patients (including 15 with MIS) and 115 matched SARS-CoV-2-seronegative patients (controls (CTL)). We measured antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 and HCoV as evidence for prior corresponding infections and assessed if SARS-CoV-2 prevalence of infection and levels of antibody responses were shaped by prior seasonal coronavirus infections.ResultsPrevalence of HCoV infections were similar in HOS, MIS and CTL groups. Antibody levels against HCoV were not significantly different in the three groups and were not related to the level of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in the HOS and MIS groups. SARS-CoV-2 antibody profiles were different between HOS and MIS children.ConclusionPrior infection by seasonal coronaviruses, as assessed by serology, does not interfere with SARS-CoV-2 infection and related MIS in children.

3.
Pediatr Rheumatol Online J ; 19(1): 27, 2021 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33712044

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Some patients with systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis (SJIA) and severe, refractory disease achieved remission through intensive immunosuppressive treatment followed by autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). However, disease relapsed in most cases. More recently selected SJIA patients received allogenic HSCT from a HLA-identical sibling or a HLA matched unrelated donor. While most transplanted patients achieved sustained SJIA remission off-treatment, the procedure-related morbidity was high. CASE REPORT: A girl presented SJIA with a severe disease course since the age of 15 months. She was refractory to the combination of methotrexate and steroids to anti-interleukin (IL)-1, then anti-IL-6, tumor necrosis factor alpha inhibitors, and thalidomide. Given the high disease burden and important treatment-related toxicity the indication for a haploidentical HSCT from her mother was validated, as no HLA matched donor was available. The patient received a T replete bone marrow graft at the age of 3.7 years. Conditioning regimen contained Rituximab, Alemtuzumab, Busulfan, and Fludarabine. Cyclophosphamide at D + 3 and + 4 post HSCT was used for graft-versus-host-disease prophylaxis, followed by Cyclosporin A and Mycophenolate Mofetil. Post HSCT complications included severe infections, grade 3 intestinal graft-versus-host-disease, autoimmune thyroiditis, and immune thrombocytopenia. Three years after HSCT, the child is alive and well, notwithstanding persistent hypothyroidy requiring substitution. Immune thrombocytopenia had resolved. Most importantly, SJIA was in complete remission, off immunosuppressive drugs. CONCLUSION: Allogenic HSCT may be a therapeutic option, even with a HLA haplo-identical alternative donor, in patients with inflammatory diseases such as SJIA. Despite increased experience with this treatment, the risk of life-threatening complications restrains its indication to selected patients with severe, refractory disease.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33576769

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of JAK inhibitors (JAKi) in juvenile dermatomyositis (JDM). METHODS: We conducted a single-center retrospective study of patients with JDM treated by JAKi with a follow-up of at least 6 months. Proportion of clinically inactive disease (CID) within six months of JAKi initiation was evaluated using PRINTO criteria and skin Disease Activity Score. Serum IFN-α concentration was measured by SIMOA assay. RESULTS: Nine refractory and one new-onset patients with JDM treated with ruxolitinib (n = 7) or baricitinib (n = 3) were included. The main indications for treatment were refractory muscle involvement (n = 8) and ulcerative skin disease (n = 2). CID was achieved in 5/10 patients (2/2 anti-MDA5, 3/4 anti-NXP2, 0/3 anti-TIF1γ positive patients) within six months of JAKi introduction. All responders could withdraw plasmatic exchange, immunoadsorption and other immunosuppressive drugs. The mean daily steroid dose decreased from 1.1 mg/Kg (range 0.35-2 mg/Kg/d) to 0.1 (range, 0-0.3, p= 0.008) in patients achieving CID, and was stopped in two. Serum IFN-α concentrations were elevated in all patients at the time of treatment initiation and normalized in both responder and non-responder. A muscle biopsy repeated in one patient 26 months after the initiation of JAKi, showed a complete restoration of muscle endomysial microvascular bed. Herpes zoster and skin abscesses developed in three and two patients, respectively. CONCLUSION: JAKis resulted in a CID in a subset of new-onset or refractory patients with JDM and may dramatically reverse severe muscle vasculopathy. Overall tolerance was good except for a high rate of herpes zoster infection.

5.
J Clin Immunol ; 41(3): 603-609, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33411153

RESUMO

Whilst upregulation of type I interferon (IFN) signaling is common across the type I interferonopathies (T1Is), central nervous system (CNS) involvement varies between these disorders, the basis of which remains unclear. We collected cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum from patients with Aicardi-Goutières syndrome (AGS), STING-associated vasculopathy with onset in infancy (SAVI), presumed monogenic T1Is (pT1I), childhood systemic lupus erythematosus with neuropsychiatric features (nSLE), non-IFN-related autoinflammation (AI) and non-inflammatory hydrocephalus (as controls). We measured IFN-alpha protein using digital ELISA. Eighty-two and 63 measurements were recorded respectively in CSF and serum of 42 patients and 6 controls. In an intergroup comparison (taking one sample per individual), median CSF IFN-alpha levels were elevated in AGS, SAVI, pT1I, and nSLE compared to AI and controls, with levels highest in AGS compared to all other groups. In AGS, CSF IFN-alpha concentrations were higher than in paired serum samples. In contrast, serum IFN was consistently higher compared to CSF levels in SAVI, pT1I, and nSLE. Whilst IFN-alpha is present in the CSF and serum of all IFN-related diseases studied here, our data suggest the primary sites of IFN production in the monogenic T1I AGS and SAVI are, respectively, the CNS and the periphery. These results inform the diagnosis of, and future therapeutic approaches to, monogenic and multifactorial T1Is.

6.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 2020 Dec 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33314705

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Juvenile idiopathic inflammatory/immune myopathies (JIIM) constitute a highly heterogeneous group with diagnostic difficulties and prognostic uncertainties. Circulating myositis-specific autoantibodies (MSAs) were first recognized as reliable tools for patient sub-stratification. Considering the key role of type 1 interferon (IFN-I) up-regulation in JIIM, we investigated whether the IFN-stimulated gene 15 (ISG15) could be reliable biomarker for stratification and diagnosis while shedding light on its role in JIIM pathophysiology. METHODS: We included 56 patients, 24 Juvenile Dermatomyositis (JDM), 12 Juvenile Overlap Myositis (JOM), 10 patients with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) and 10 patients with Congenital Myopathies (CM). Muscle biopsies have been studied using immunohistochemistry, immunoblotting, and real-time quantitative PCR. The negative (ISG15, USP18) and positive regulators (DDX58, and IFIH1) of IFN-I were analyzed. RESULTS: ISG15 expression discriminated JIIM from non-immune myopathies, and among JIIM, JDM from JOM. Among JDM patients, IFN-I positive upregulation (DDX58, IFIH1) was similar whatever MSAs. In contrast, the highest level of ISG15, which is a negative regulator of IFN-I was observed in MDA5(+) patients compared to others. Finally, ISG15 level was inversely correlated with the severity of muscle histological injuries, and was positively correlated with motor performance (CMAS, MMT). CONCLUSIONS: Muscle ISG15 expression is strongly associated with diagnosis of JDM. Patients present a different muscle signature of ISG15 according to their MSAs class. JDM MDA5(+) patients have a higher expression of ISG15 (gene and protein) compared to the other subgroups. Moreover, our data showed that the IFN-I negative regulation correlates with milder muscle involvement.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33217613

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gain-of-function mutations in STING1 underlie a type I interferonopathy termed SAVI (STING-associated vasculopathy with onset in infancy). This severe disease is variably characterized by early-onset systemic inflammation, skin vasculopathy and interstitial lung disease (ILD). OBJECTIVE: To describe a cohort of SAVI patients. METHODS: Assessment of clinical, radiological, and immunologic data from 21 patients (17 families). RESULTS: Patients carried heterozygous substitutions in STING1 previously described in SAVI, mainly the p.V155M. Most patients were symptomatic from infancy but late onset in adulthood occurred in one patient. Systemic inflammation, skin vasculopathy and ILD were observed in 19, 18 and 21 patients respectively. Extensive tissue loss occurred in 4 patients. Severity of ILD was highly variable with insidious progression up to end-stage respiratory failure reached at teenage in 6 patients. Lung imaging revealed early fibrotic lesions. Failure to thrive was almost constant, with severe growth failure seen in 4 patients. Seven patients presented polyarthritis and one infant mimicked a combined immune deficiency. Extended features reminiscent of other interferonopathies were also found e.g. intracranial calcification, glaucoma, glomerular nephropathy. Increased expression of interferon-stimulated genes and interferon α protein was constant. Autoantibodies were frequently found, in particular rheumatoid factor. Most patients presented with a T-cell defect, with low counts of memory CD8+ cells and impaired T-cell proliferation in response to antigens. Long-term follow-up described in 8 children confirmed the clinical benefice of ruxolitinib in SAVI unless the treatment is started early in the course of the disease underlying the need for early diagnosis. Tolerance was reasonably good. CONCLUSION: This largest worldwide cohort of SAVI patients precise core features and extends the clinical and immunological phenotype of the disease, displaying overlap with other monogenic interferonopathies.

10.
Euro Surveill ; 25(22)2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32524957

RESUMO

End of April 2020, French clinicians observed an increase in cases presenting with paediatric inflammatory multisystem syndrome (PIMS). Nationwide surveillance was set up and demonstrated temporospatial association with the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) epidemic for 156 reported cases as at 17 May: 108 were classified as confirmed (n = 79), probable (n = 16) or possible (n = 13) post-COVID-19 PIMS cases. A continuum of clinical features from Kawasaki-like disease to myocarditis was observed, requiring intensive care in 67% of cases.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Coronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Resposta Inflamatória Sistêmica/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Surtos de Doenças , Feminino , França/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Síndrome de Resposta Inflamatória Sistêmica/etiologia
12.
Semin Arthritis Rheum ; 50(4): 744-748, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32526594

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To assess the incidence rate and type of serious adverse events (SAE) in children with rheumatic inflammatory diseases treated with the interleukin 6 blocker tocilizumab (TCZ). METHODS: A retrospective review of all consecutive patients diagnosed with an inflammatory rheumatic disease and receiving at least one dose of TCZ was performed in two French tertiary pediatric rheumatology centers between 01/2007 and 06/2019. SAE were defined as a life-threatening event and/or an event requiring hospital admission, leading to permanent disability or treatment discontinuation. RESULTS: One hundred four children (64 female) were included. Most children suffered from systemic (n = 43) or polyarticular-course juvenile idiopathic arthritis (n = 43). Median age at TCZ start was 8.9 years (IQR 4.7 - 12.1), most children had received prednisone (81%), and/or a biologic agent (84%) prior to TCZ. Median TCZ treatment duration was 1.6 years (IQR 0.5 - 2.7), total TCZ exposure 215 patient years. Thirty-three SAE were observed in 26 (25%) children (SAE 15.3/100 patient years), mostly infections and infusion reactions. Children with SAE were significantly younger at disease onset (p = 0.034) and TCZ initiation (p = 0.016). Children experiencing infusion reactions were more likely to have systemic JIA or another autoinflammatory disease (p = 0.021), they all had active disease. At last follow up, 61 (59%) children remained on TCZ. CONCLUSION: In this cohort, SAE and most commonly serious infections were observed in a quarter of children. Severe infusion reactions were associated with persistently active autoinflammatory disease. Ongoing careful monitoring of TCZ-treated patients, especially young children with marked systemic inflammation is required.

13.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 79(8): 999-1006, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32527868

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Current data suggest that COVID-19 is less frequent in children, with a milder course. However, over the past weeks, an increase in the number of children presenting to hospitals in the greater Paris region with a phenotype resembling Kawasaki disease (KD) has led to an alert by the French national health authorities. METHODS: Multicentre compilation of patients with KD in Paris region since April 2020, associated with the detection of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) ('Kawa-COVID-19'). A historical cohort of 'classical' KD served as a comparator. RESULTS: Sixteen patients were included (sex ratio=1, median age 10 years IQR (4·7 to 12.5)). SARS-CoV-2 was detected in 12 cases (69%), while a further three cases had documented recent contact with a quantitative PCR-positive individual (19%). Cardiac involvement included myocarditis in 44% (n=7). Factors prognostic for the development of severe disease (ie, requiring intensive care, n=7) were age over 5 years and ferritinaemia >1400 µg/L. Only five patients (31%) were successfully treated with a single intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) infusion, while 10 patients (62%) required a second line of treatment. The Kawa-COVID-19 cohort differed from a comparator group of 'classical' KD by older age at onset 10 vs 2 years (p<0.0001), lower platelet count (188 vs 383 G/L (p<0.0001)), a higher rate of myocarditis 7/16 vs 3/220 (p=0.0001) and resistance to first IVIg treatment 10/16 vs 45/220 (p=0.004). CONCLUSION: Kawa-COVID-19 likely represents a new systemic inflammatory syndrome temporally associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection in children. Further prospective international studies are necessary to confirm these findings and better understand the pathophysiology of Kawa-COVID-19. Trial registration number NCT02377245.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Linfonodos Mucocutâneos/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Resposta Inflamatória Sistêmica/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Síndrome de Linfonodos Mucocutâneos/virologia , Pandemias , Paris/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Síndrome de Resposta Inflamatória Sistêmica/epidemiologia , Síndrome de Resposta Inflamatória Sistêmica/virologia
14.
J Rheumatol ; 47(12): 1793-1799, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32238518

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Acne fulminans (AF) is a rare, explosive systemic form of acne. Chronic nonbacterial osteomyelitis (CNO) or chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis (CRMO) is a primarily pediatric autoinflammatory disorder characterized by sterile osteolytic bone lesions. Concomitant occurrence of CNO/CRMO and AF is very rare, and little is known about the epidemiological and clinical particularities of this association. The aim of this retrospective observational study was to describe the characteristics of pediatric patients with CNO/CRMO associated to AF. METHODS: Electronic mailing lists of French medical societies were used to call for patients with CNO/CRMO and AF. A search for published patients with CNO/CRMO and AF was performed by screening PubMed. RESULTS: We identified 5 original patients and 10 patients from the literature. All patients were adolescent boys. Mean age at disease onset was 14.8 years. Nine of 15 patients had received isotretinoin before the sudden onset of AF. Osteoarticular symptoms appeared within < 1-3 months after the onset of AF. The mean numbers of clinical and radiological bone lesions were 3.6 and 5.6, respectively. The percentages of patients with involvement of vertebrae, pelvis, chest, and cranial were 40%, 40%, 33.3%, and 6.6%, respectively. Arthritis was observed in 69.2% of patients and sacroiliac arthritis in 46.2%. CONCLUSION: CNO/CRMO associated to AF occurs predominantly in male adolescents and is characterized by frequent involvement of the axial skeleton and arthritis. Epidemiological and clinical features of these patients differ from general CNO/CRMO cohorts. Clinical management requires careful handling of isotretinoin doses.

17.
Pediatr Rheumatol Online J ; 18(1): 1, 2020 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31898528

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to identify early clinical and laboratory features that distinguish acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) from juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) in children presenting with persistent bone or joint pain for at least 1 month. METHODS: We performed a multicenter case-control study and reviewed medical records of children who initially presented with bone or joint pain lasting for at least 1 month, all of whom were given a secondary diagnosis of JIA or ALL, in four French University Hospitals. Each patient with ALL was paired by age with two children with JIA. Logistic regression was used to compare clinical and laboratory data from the two groups. RESULTS: Forty-nine children with ALL and 98 with JIA were included. The single most important feature distinguishing ALL from JIA was the presence of hepatomegaly, splenomegaly or lymphadenopathy; at least one of these manifestations was present in 37 cases with ALL, but only in 2 controls with JIA, for an odds ratio (OR) of 154 [95%CI: 30-793] (regression coefficient: 5.0). If the presence of these findings is missed or disregarded, multivariate analyses showed that non-articular bone pain and/or general symptoms (asthenia, anorexia or weight loss) (regression coefficient: 4.8, OR 124 [95%CI: 11.4-236]), neutrophils < 2 × 109/L (regression coefficient: 3.9, OR 50 [95%CI: 4.3-58]), and platelets < 300 × 109/L (regression coefficient: 2.6, OR 14 [95%CI: 2.3-83.9]) were associated with the presence of ALL (area under the ROC curve: 0.96 [95%CI: 0.93-0.99]). CONCLUSIONS: Based on our findings we propose the following preliminary decision tree to be tested in prospective studies: in children presenting with at least 1 month of osteoarticular pain and no obvious ALL in peripheral smear, perform a bone marrow examination if hepatomegaly, splenomegaly or lymphadenopathy is present. If these manifestations are absent, perform a bone marrow examination if there is fever or elevated inflammatory markers associated with non-articular bone pain, general symptoms (asthenia, anorexia or weight loss), neutrophils < 2 × 109/L or platelets < 300 × 109/L.


Assuntos
Artralgia/etiologia , Artrite Juvenil/complicações , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/complicações , Artrite Juvenil/diagnóstico , Artrite Juvenil/patologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Árvores de Decisões , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Hepatomegalia/etiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/diagnóstico , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/patologia
19.
J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr ; 70(2): 247-251, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31978027

RESUMO

Juvenile dermatomyositis (JDM) is a rare and heterogeneous pediatric-onset idiopathic inflammatory myopathy. Gastrointestinal (GI) involvement occurs in 22% to 37% of JDM patients but has only been described in case reports. In this retrospective, single-center, observational study, we aimed to assess the causes and management of severe GI manifestations in JDM patients. We studied a cohort of 9 patients among 110 JDM patients followed during the study period (8.3%). The GI complications were related to JDM in most cases (17/19), with digestive tract involvement (n = 10), acute pancreatitis (n = 4), and hepatitis (n = 3). Three patients died from refractory JDM 2.9 years (2-3.6) after the JDM diagnosis. We highlight the need to consider pancreatitis as a main diagnostic factor in JDM patients with severe GI manifestations and the requirement of early aggressive treatment for these patients.

20.
J Med Genet ; 57(7): 475-478, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31772029

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adenosine deaminases acting on RNA (ADAR) mutations cause a spectrum of neurological phenotypes ranging from severe encephalopathy (Aicardi-Goutières syndrome) to isolated spastic paraplegia and are associated with enhanced type I interferon signalling. In children, non-neurological involvement in the type I interferonopathies includes autoimmune and rheumatological phenomena, with calcifying cardiac valve disease only previously reported in the context of MDA5 gain-of-function. RESULTS: We describe three patients with biallelic ADAR mutations who developed calcifying cardiac valvular disease in late childhood (9.5-14 years). Echocardiography revealed progressive calcification of the valvular leaflets resulting in valvular stenosis and incompetence. Two patients became symptomatic with biventricular failure after 5-6.5 years. In one case, disease progressed to severe cardiac failure despite maximal medical management, with death occurring at 17 years. Another child received mechanical mitral and aortic valve replacement at 16 years with good postoperative outcome. Histological examination of the affected valves showed fibrosis and calcification. CONCLUSIONS: Type I interferonopathies of differing genetic aetiology demonstrate an overlapping phenotypic spectrum which includes calcifying cardiac valvular disease. Individuals with ADAR-related type I interferonopathy may develop childhood-onset multivalvular stenosis and incompetence which can progress insidiously to symptomatic, and ultimately fatal, cardiac failure. Regular surveillance echocardiograms are recommended to detect valvular disease early.

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