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1.
Geophys Res Lett ; 48(12): e2021GL092446, 2021 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34219835

RESUMO

We carried out a series of silicate fractional crystallization experiments at lower mantle pressures using the laser-heated diamond anvil cell. Phase relations and the compositional evolution of the cotectic melt and equilibrium solids along the liquid line of descent were determined and used to assemble the melting phase diagram. In a pyrolitic magma ocean, the first mineral to crystallize in the deep mantle is iron-depleted calcium-bearing bridgmanite. From the phase diagram, we estimate that the initial 33%-36% of the magma ocean will crystallize to form such a buoyant bridgmanite. Substantial calcium solubility in bridgmanite is observed up to 129 GPa, and significantly delays the crystallization of the calcium silicate perovskite phase during magma ocean solidification. Residual melts are strongly iron-enriched as crystallization proceeds, making them denser than any of the coexisting solids at deep mantle conditions, thus supporting the terrestrial basal magma ocean hypothesis (Labrosse et al., 2007).

2.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1712, 2021 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33731704

RESUMO

The stable forms of carbon in Earth's deep interior control storage and fluxes of carbon through the planet over geologic time, impacting the surface climate as well as carrying records of geologic processes in the form of diamond inclusions. However, current estimates of the distribution of carbon in Earth's mantle are uncertain, due in part to limited understanding of the fate of carbonates through subduction, the main mechanism that transports carbon from Earth's surface to its interior. Oxidized carbon carried by subduction has been found to reside in MgCO3 throughout much of the mantle. Experiments in this study demonstrate that at deep mantle conditions MgCO3 reacts with silicates to form CaCO3. In combination with previous work indicating that CaCO3 is more stable than MgCO3 under reducing conditions of Earth's lowermost mantle, these observations allow us to predict that the signature of surface carbon reaching Earth's lowermost mantle may include CaCO3.

3.
Sci Adv ; 6(48)2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33239296

RESUMO

Exchange between a magma ocean and vapor produced Earth's earliest atmosphere. Its speciation depends on the oxygen fugacity (fO2) set by the Fe3+/Fe2+ ratio of the magma ocean at its surface. Here, we establish the relationship between fO2 and Fe3+/Fe2+ in quenched liquids of silicate Earth-like composition at 2173 K and 1 bar. Mantle-derived rocks have Fe3+/(Fe3++Fe2+) = 0.037 ± 0.005, at which the magma ocean defines an fO2 0.5 log units above the iron-wüstite buffer. At this fO2, the solubilities of H-C-N-O species in the magma ocean produce a CO-rich atmosphere. Cooling and condensation of H2O would have led to a prebiotic terrestrial atmosphere composed of CO2-N2, in proportions and at pressures akin to those observed on Venus. Present-day differences between Earth's atmosphere and those of her planetary neighbors result from Earth's heliocentric location and mass, which allowed geologically long-lived oceans, in-turn facilitating CO2 drawdown and, eventually, the development of life.

4.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(45): 27893-27898, 2020 11 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33106398

RESUMO

The bulk silicate Earth (BSE), and all its sampleable reservoirs, have a subchondritic niobium-to-tantalum ratio (Nb/Ta). Because both elements are refractory, and Nb/Ta is fairly constant across chondrite groups, this can only be explained by a preferential sequestration of Nb relative to Ta in a hidden (unsampled) reservoir. Experiments have shown that Nb becomes more siderophile than Ta under very reducing conditions, leading the way for the accepted hypothesis that Earth's core could have stripped sufficient amounts of Nb during its formation to account for the subchondritic signature of the BSE. Consequently, this suggestion has been used as an argument that Earth accreted and differentiated, for most of its history, under very reducing conditions. Here, we present a series of metal-silicate partitioning experiments of Nb and Ta in a laser-heated diamond anvil cell, at pressure and temperature conditions directly comparable to those of core formation; we find that Nb is more siderophile than Ta under any conditions relevant to a deep magma ocean, confirming that BSE's missing Nb is in the core. However, multistage core formation modeling only allows for moderately reducing or oxidizing accretionary conditions, ruling out the need for very reducing conditions, which lead to an overdepletion of Nb from the mantle (and a low Nb/Ta ratio) that is incompatible with geochemical observations. Earth's primordial magma ocean cannot have contained less than 2% or more than 18% FeO since the onset of core formation.

5.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 1327, 2018 04 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29666368

RESUMO

Planetary formation models show that terrestrial planets are formed by the accretion of tens of Moon- to Mars-sized planetary embryos through energetic giant impacts. However, relics of these large proto-planets are yet to be found. Ureilites are one of the main families of achondritic meteorites and their parent body is believed to have been catastrophically disrupted by an impact during the first 10 million years of the solar system. Here we studied a section of the Almahata Sitta ureilite using transmission electron microscopy, where large diamonds were formed at high pressure inside the parent body. We discovered chromite, phosphate, and (Fe,Ni)-sulfide inclusions embedded in diamond. The composition and morphology of the inclusions can only be explained if the formation pressure was higher than 20 GPa. Such pressures suggest that the ureilite parent body was a Mercury- to Mars-sized planetary embryo.

6.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 113(40): 11127-11130, 2016 10 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27647917

RESUMO

We performed laser-heated diamond anvil cell experiments combined with state-of-the-art electron microanalysis (focused ion beam and aberration-corrected transmission electron microscopy) to study the distribution and valence of iron in Earth's lower mantle as a function of depth and composition. Our data reconcile the apparently discrepant existing dataset, by clarifying the effects of spin (high/low) and valence (ferrous/ferric) states on iron partitioning in the deep mantle. In aluminum-bearing compositions relevant to Earth's mantle, iron concentration in silicates drops above 70 GPa before increasing up to 110 GPa with a minimum at 85 GPa; it then dramatically drops in the postperovskite stability field above 116 GPa. This compositional variation should strengthen the lowermost mantle between 1,800 km depth and 2,000 km depth, and weaken it between 2,000 km depth and the D" layer. The succession of layers could dynamically decouple the mantle above 2,000 km from the lowermost mantle, and provide a rheological basis for the stabilization and nonentrainment of large low-shear-velocity provinces below that depth.

8.
Nature ; 536(7616): 326-8, 2016 08 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27437583

RESUMO

Recent palaeomagnetic observations report the existence of a magnetic field on Earth that is at least 3.45 billion years old. Compositional buoyancy caused by inner-core growth is the primary driver of Earth's present-day geodynamo, but the inner core is too young to explain the existence of a magnetic field before about one billion years ago. Theoretical models propose that the exsolution of magnesium oxide--the major constituent of Earth's mantle--from the core provided a major source of the energy required to drive an early dynamo, but experimental evidence for the incorporation of mantle components into the core has been lacking. Indeed, terrestrial core formation occurred in the early molten Earth by gravitational segregation of immiscible metal and silicate melts, transporting iron-loving (siderophile) elements from the silicate mantle to the metallic core and leaving rock-loving (lithophile) mantle components behind. Here we present experiments showing that magnesium oxide dissolves in core-forming iron melt at very high temperatures. Using core-formation models, we show that extreme events during Earth's accretion (such as the Moon-forming giant impact) could have contributed large amounts of magnesium to the early core. As the core subsequently cooled, exsolution of buoyant magnesium oxide would have taken place at the core­mantle boundary, generating a substantial amount of gravitational energy as a result of compositional buoyancy. This amount of energy is comparable to, if not more than, that produced by inner-core growth, resolving the conundrum posed by the existence of an ancient magnetic field prior to the formation of the inner core.

9.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 112(40): 12310-4, 2015 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26392555

RESUMO

The formation of Earth's core left behind geophysical and geochemical signatures in both the core and mantle that remain to this day. Seismology requires that the core be lighter than pure iron and therefore must contain light elements, and the geochemistry of mantle-derived rocks reveals extensive siderophile element depletion and fractionation. Both features are inherited from metal-silicate differentiation in primitive Earth and depend upon the nature of physiochemical conditions that prevailed during core formation. To date, core formation models have only attempted to address the evolution of core and mantle compositional signatures separately, rather than seeking a joint solution. Here we combine experimental petrology, geochemistry, mineral physics and seismology to constrain a range of core formation conditions that satisfy both constraints. We find that core formation occurred in a hot (liquidus) yet moderately deep magma ocean not exceeding 1,800 km depth, under redox conditions more oxidized than present-day Earth. This new scenario, at odds with the current belief that core formation occurred under reducing conditions, proposes that Earth's magma ocean started oxidized and has become reduced through time, by oxygen incorporation into the core. This core formation model produces a core that contains 2.7-5% oxygen along with 2-3.6% silicon, with densities and velocities in accord with radial seismic models, and leaves behind a silicate mantle that matches the observed mantle abundances of nickel, cobalt, chromium, and vanadium.

10.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 111(48): 17029-32, 2014 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25404309

RESUMO

Inner solar system bodies, including the Earth, Moon, and asteroids, are depleted in volatile elements relative to chondrites. Hypotheses for this volatile element depletion include incomplete condensation from the solar nebula and volatile loss during energetic impacts. These processes are expected to each produce characteristic stable isotope signatures. However, processes of planetary differentiation may also modify the isotopic composition of geochemical reservoirs. Angrites are rare meteorites that crystallized only a few million years after calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions and exhibit extreme depletions in volatile elements relative to chondrites, making them ideal samples with which to study volatile element depletion in the early solar system. Here we present high-precision Si isotope data that show angrites are enriched in the heavy isotopes of Si relative to chondritic meteorites by 50-100 ppm/amu. Silicon is sufficiently volatile such that it may be isotopically fractionated during incomplete condensation or evaporative mass loss, but theoretical calculations and experimental results also predict isotope fractionation under specific conditions of metal-silicate differentiation. We show that the Si isotope composition of angrites cannot be explained by any plausible core formation scenario, but rather reflects isotope fractionation during impact-induced evaporation. Our results indicate planetesimals initially formed from volatile-rich material and were subsequently depleted in volatile elements during accretion.

11.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 111(21): 7542-5, 2014 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24821817

RESUMO

Earth's core is less dense than iron, and therefore it must contain "light elements," such as S, Si, O, or C. We use ab initio molecular dynamics to calculate the density and bulk sound velocity in liquid metal alloys at the pressure and temperature conditions of Earth's outer core. We compare the velocity and density for any composition in the (Fe-Ni, C, O, Si, S) system to radial seismological models and find a range of compositional models that fit the seismological data. We find no oxygen-free composition that fits the seismological data, and therefore our results indicate that oxygen is always required in the outer core. An oxygen-rich core is a strong indication of high-pressure and high-temperature conditions of core differentiation in a deep magma ocean with an FeO concentration (oxygen fugacity) higher than that of the present-day mantle.


Assuntos
Planeta Terra , Geologia/métodos , Ferro/química , Modelos Químicos , Oxigênio/química , Simulação por Computador , Silício/química , Gravidade Específica , Enxofre/química
12.
Science ; 339(6124): 1194-7, 2013 Mar 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23306436

RESUMO

The abundance of siderophile elements in the mantle preserves the signature of core formation. On the basis of partitioning experiments at high pressure (35 to 74 gigapascals) and high temperature (3100 to 4400 kelvin), we demonstrate that depletions of slightly siderophile elements (vanadium and chromium), as well as moderately siderophile elements (nickel and cobalt), can be produced by core formation under more oxidizing conditions than previously proposed. Enhanced solubility of oxygen in the metal perturbs the metal-silicate partitioning of vanadium and chromium, precluding extrapolation of previous results. We propose that Earth accreted from materials as oxidized as ordinary or carbonaceous chondrites. Transfer of oxygen from the mantle to the core provides a mechanism to reduce the initial magma ocean redox state to that of the present-day mantle, reconciling the observed mantle vanadium and chromium concentrations with geophysical constraints on light elements in the core.

13.
Science ; 331(6013): 64-7, 2011 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21212352

RESUMO

Seismic discontinuities in Earth typically arise from structural, chemical, or temperature variations with increasing depth. The pressure-induced iron spin state transition in the lower mantle may influence seismic wave velocities by changing the elasticity of iron-bearing minerals, but no seismological evidence of an anomaly exists. Inelastic x-ray scattering measurements on (Mg(0.83)Fe(0.17))O-ferropericlase at pressures across the spin transition show effects limited to the only shear moduli of the elastic tensor. This explains the absence of deviation in the aggregate seismic velocities and, thus, the lack of a one-dimensional seismic signature of the spin crossover. The spin state transition does, however, influence shear anisotropy of ferropericlase and should contribute to the seismic shear wave anisotropy of the lower mantle.

14.
Phys Rev Lett ; 98(19): 196404, 2007 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17677640

RESUMO

We investigate the magnetic properties of archetypal transition-metal oxides MnO, FeO, CoO, and NiO under very high pressure by x-ray emission spectroscopy at the Kbeta line. We observe a strong modification of the magnetism in the megabar range in all the samples except NiO. The results are analyzed within a multiplet approach including charge-transfer effects. The spectral changes are well accounted for by changes of the ligand field acting on the d electrons and allows us to extract the d-hybridization strength, O-2p bandwidth and ionic crystal field across the magnetic transition. This approach allows first-hand insight into the mechanism of the pressure-induced spin transition.

15.
Phys Rev Lett ; 96(11): 115502, 2006 Mar 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16605838

RESUMO

We have determined the lattice dynamics of molybdenum at high pressure to 37 GPa using high-resolution inelastic x-ray scattering. Over the investigated pressure range, we find a significant decrease in the H-point phonon anomaly. We also present calculations based on density functional theory that accurately predict this pressure dependence. Based on these results, we infer that the likely explanation for the H-point anomaly in molybdenum is strong electron-phonon coupling, which decreases upon compression due to the shift of the Fermi level with respect to the relevant electronic bands.

16.
J Phys Condens Matter ; 18(25): S963-8, 2006 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22611105

RESUMO

The elasticity and plasticity of materials at high pressure are of great importance for the fundamental insight they provide on bonding properties in dense matter and for applications ranging from geophysics to materials technology. We studied pressure-solidified argon with a boron-epoxy-beryllium composite gasket in a diamond anvil cell (DAC). Employing monochromatic synchrotron x-radiation and imaging plates in a radial diffraction geometry (Singh et al 1998 Phys. Rev. Lett. 80 2157; Mao et al 1998 Nature 396 741), we observed low strength in solid argon below 20 GPa, but the strength increases drastically with applied pressure, such that at 55 GPa, the shear strength exceeded 2.7 GPa. The elastic anisotropy at 55 GPa was four times higher than the extrapolated value from 30 GPa. Extensive (111) slip develops under uniaxial compression, as manifested by the preferred crystallographic orientation of (220) in the compression direction. These macroscopic properties reflect basic changes in van der Waals bondings under ultrahigh pressures.

17.
Phys Rev Lett ; 93(9): 095502, 2004 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15447111

RESUMO

We have measured the isothermal equation of state (EOS) of osmium to 75 GPa under hydrostatic conditions at room temperature using angle-dispersive x-ray diffraction. A least-squares fit of this data using a third-order Birch-Murnaghan EOS yields an isothermal bulk modulus K0=411+/-6 GPa, showing osmium is more compressible than diamond. Most importantly, we have documented an anomaly in the compressibility around 25 GPa associated with a discontinuity in the first pressure derivative of the c/a ratio. This discontinuity plausibly arises from the collapse of the small hole-ellipsoid in the Fermi surface near the L point.

18.
Science ; 305(5682): 383-6, 2004 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15256667

RESUMO

We measured the spin state of iron in magnesium silicate perovskite (Mg(0.9),Fe(0.1))SiO(3) at high pressure and found two electronic transitions occurring at 70 gigapascals and at 120 gigapascals, corresponding to partial and full electron pairing in iron, respectively. The proportion of iron in the low spin state thus grows with depth, increasing the transparency of the mantle in the infrared region, with a maximum at pressures consistent with the D" layer above the core-mantle boundary. The resulting increase in radiative thermal conductivity suggests the existence of nonconvecting layers in the lowermost mantle.

19.
Nat Mater ; 3(5): 294-7, 2004 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15107839

RESUMO

There has been considerable interest in the synthesis of new nitrides because of their technological and fundamental importance. Although numerous metals react with nitrogen there are no known binary nitrides of the noble metals. We report the discovery and characterization of platinum nitride (PtN), the first binary nitride of the noble metals group. This compound can be formed above 45-50 GPa and temperatures exceeding 2,000 K, and is stable after quenching to room pressure and temperature. It is characterized by a very high Raman-scattering cross-section with easily observed second- and third-order Raman bands. Synchrotron X-ray diffraction shows that the new phase is cubic with a remarkably high bulk modulus of 372(+/-5) GPa.


Assuntos
Modelos Moleculares , Compostos de Nitrogênio/química , Compostos de Platina/química , Simulação por Computador , Teste de Materiais , Metais/síntese química , Metais/química , Conformação Molecular , Compostos de Nitrogênio/síntese química , Compostos de Platina/síntese química , Pressão , Análise Espectral Raman , Propriedades de Superfície
20.
Science ; 300(5620): 789-91, 2003 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12677070

RESUMO

We measured the spin state of iron in ferropericlase (Mg0.83Fe0.17)O at high pressure and found a high-spin to low-spin transition occurring in the 60- to 70-gigapascal pressure range, corresponding to depths of 2000 kilometers in Earth's lower mantle. This transition implies that the partition coefficient of iron between ferropericlase and magnesium silicate perovskite, the two main constituents of the lower mantle, may increase by several orders of magnitude, depleting the perovskite phase of its iron. The lower mantle may then be composed of two different layers. The upper layer would consist of a phase mixture with about equal partitioning of iron between magnesium silicate perovskite and ferropericlase, whereas the lower layer would consist of almost iron-free perovskite and iron-rich ferropericlase. This stratification is likely to have profound implications for the transport properties of Earth's lowermost mantle.

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