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Small ; 18(11): e2105611, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35064754


Numerous studies have explored new materials for electrocatalysts, but it is difficult to discover materials that surpass the catalytic activity of current commercially available noble metal electrocatalysts. In contrast to conventional transition metal alloys, high-entropy alloys (HEAs) have immense potential to maximize their catalytic properties because of their high stability and compositional diversity as oxygen evolution reactions (OERs). This work presents medium-entropy alloys (MEAs) as OER electrocatalysts to simultaneously satisfy the requirement of high catalytic activity and long-term stability. The surface of MEA electrocatalyst is tailored to suit the OER via anodizing and cyclic voltammetry activation methods. Optimized electrical properties and hydrophilicity of the surface enable an extremely low overpotential of 187 mV for achieving the current density of 10 mA cm-2 alkaline media. Furthermore, a combined photovoltaic-electrochemical system with MEA electrocatalyst and a perovskite/Si tandem solar cell exhibits a solar-to-hydrogen conversion efficiency of 20.6% for an unassisted hydrogen generation system. These results present a new pathway for designing sustainable high efficiency water splitting cells.

Adv Mater ; 32(6): e1906160, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31799755


Controlling the feature sizes of 3D bicontinuous nanoporous (3DNP) materials is essential for their advanced applications in catalysis, sensing, energy systems, etc., requiring high specific surface area. However, the intrinsic coarsening of nanoporous materials naturally reduces their surface energy leading to the deterioration of physical properties over time, even at ambient temperatures. A novel 3DNP material beating the universal relationship of thermal coarsening is reported via high-entropy alloy (HEA) design. In newly developed TiVNbMoTa 3DNP HEAs, the nanoporous structure is constructed by very fine nanoscale ligaments of a solid-solution phase due to enhanced phase stability by maximizing the configuration entropy and suppressed surface diffusion. The smallest size of 3DNP HEA synthesized at 873 K is about 10 nm, which is one order of magnitude smaller than that of conventional porous materials. More importantly, the yield strength of ligament in 3DNP HEA approaches its theoretical strength of G/2π of the corresponding HEA alloy even after thermal exposure. This finding signifies the key benefit of high-entropy design in nanoporous materials-exceptional stability of size-related physical properties. This high-entropy strategy should thus open new opportunities for developing ultrastable nanomaterials against its environment.

Sci Rep ; 9(1): 6829, 2019 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31048776


Synergetic strengthening induced by plastic strain incompatibility at the interface, and the resulting extra geometrically necessary dislocations (GNDs) generated during plastic deformation, were investigated to understand the origin of extra strength in heterogeneous structured (HS) materials. The mechanism of extra GND generation in twinning-induced plasticity (TWIP)-interstitial free (IF) steel layered sheet was quantitatively analyzed by conducting in situ neutron scattering tensile test. Load partitioning due to the different mechanical properties between the TWIP-steel core and IF-steel sheath at the TWIP/IF interface was observed during the in situ tensile testing. Because of the plastic strain incompatibility from load partitioning, extra GNDs are generated and saturate during tensile deformation. The extra GNDs can be correlated with the back-stress evolution of the HS materials, which contributes to the strength of layered materials. Because of the back-stress evolution caused by load partitioning, the strength of TWIP-IF layered steel is higher than the strength estimated by the rule-of-mixtures. This finding offers a mechanism by which extra GNDs are generated during load partitioning and shows how they contribute to the mechanical properties of HS materials.

Entropy (Basel) ; 20(11)2018 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33266573


Annealing of severely plastic deformed materials is expected to produce a good combination of strength and ductility, which has been widely demonstrated in conventional materials. In the present study, high-pressure torsion processed CoCrNi medium entropy alloy consisting of a single face-centered cubic (FCC) phase with a grain size of ~50 nm was subjected to different annealing conditions, and its effect on microstructure and mechanical behavior was investigated. The annealing of high-pressure torsion processed CoCrNi alloy exhibits partial recrystallization and near full recrystallization based on the annealing temperature and time. The samples annealed at 700 °C for 2 min exhibit very fine grain size, a high fraction of low angle grain boundaries, and high kernel average misorientation value, indicating partially recrystallized microstructure. The samples annealed for a longer duration (>2 min) exhibit relatively larger grain size, a low fraction of low angle grain boundaries, and low kernel average misorientation value, indicating nearly full recrystallized microstructure. The annealed samples with different microstructures significantly influence the uniform elongation, tensile strength, and work hardening rate. The sample annealed at 700 °C for 15 min exhibits a remarkable combination of tensile strength (~1090 MPa) and strain to failure (~41%).