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1.
J Sleep Res ; : e12971, 2020 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31919946

RESUMO

The negative consequences of deteriorated sleep have been widely acknowledged. Therefore, research on the determinants of poor sleep is crucial. A factor potentially contributing to poor sleep is the use of a smartphone. This study aims to measure the association between overall daily smartphone use and both sleep quality and sleep duration. To this end, we exploit data on 1,889 first-year university students. Compared with previous research we control for a large set of observed confounding factors. Higher overall smartphone use is associated with lower odds of experiencing a good sleep. In addition, we explore heterogeneous differences by socioeconomic factors not yet investigated. We find that the negative association between smartphone use and sleep quality is mainly driven by female participants.

2.
PLoS One ; 14(8): e0221619, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31465504

RESUMO

In this research letter, we examine the impact of municipal budget policy on the percentage of votes for the incumbent majority parties in subsequent elections. We contribute to the academic literature by examining the combined influence of taxes, expenditures and debt. Based on data for Flanders (Belgium) between 1994 and 2012, we find no significant association between these budget variables and the actual election results.

3.
PLoS One ; 14(4): e0202852, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30990807

RESUMO

This article contributes to the literature on performance determinants in soccer by investigating country differences in goal scoring in the dying seconds of international soccer games (i.e. in the 90th minute or later). We analyse this goal-scoring behaviour in 1,008 recent soccer games played in the Union of European Football Associations (UEFA) Champions League and Europa League. In contrast to Gary Lineker's well-known quote that "at the end, the Germans always win", no significant evidence is found for German teams scoring a goal in the dying seconds more often than other teams. Our results indicate, however, that European clubs do have an interest in learning from the end-of-game tactics used by French and Spanish clubs in recent international games as these teams were less likely to concede a goal during the dying seconds. English teams were also in this situation but only if they had an English coach.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético , Futebol , Alemanha , Humanos
4.
Int J Occup Saf Ergon ; : 1-12, 2019 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30653410

RESUMO

In a sample of 3274 full-time Belgian workers, this article found that 62% of workers went to work while being sick (sickness presenteeism) at least once over the past 12 months. Of all workers who did not show sickness presenteeism themselves, another 6 out of 10 saw or heard about sickness presenteeism in their own organization. Women were more likely to report sickness presenteeism than men and junior workers were more prone to sickness presenteeism than senior workers. Education did not explain the choice for sickness presenteeism. Satisfaction with the supervisor had a direct negative effect on sickness presenteeism. Finally, indirect effects were found between satisfaction with the supervisor and sickness presenteeism via the prevalence of stress. While previous studies showed that good supervisor support can make sick workers more productive when they show up at work, this study shows that good supervisor support makes sick workers stay at home.

5.
PLoS One ; 13(3): e0194255, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29518165

RESUMO

We test the soccer myth suggesting that a particularly good moment to score a goal is just before half time. To this end, rich data on 1,179 games played in the UEFA Champions League and UEFA Europa League are analysed. In contrast to the myth, we find that, conditional on the goal difference and other game characteristics at half time, the final goal difference at the advantage of the home team is 0.520 goals lower in case of a goal just before half time by this team. We show that this finding relates to this team's lower probability of scoring a goal during the second half.


Assuntos
Comportamento Competitivo , Modelos Econométricos , Modelos Estatísticos , Futebol , Algoritmos , Humanos , Fatores de Tempo
6.
Eur J Health Econ ; 19(2): 257-266, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28341904

RESUMO

We study whether migrant health in Europe is associated with the cultural distance between their host country and country of origin. To this end, we run multilevel regression models on data merging self-rated health and social background of ≥3800 migrants from the European Social Survey with an index of cultural distance based on country differences in values, norms and attitudes measured in the World Values Survey. We find that higher levels of cultural distance are associated with worse migrant health. This association is comparable in size with the negative association between health and female (compared with male) gender but less important than the association between health and education level. In addition, this association is less significant among second-generation than first-generation migrants.


Assuntos
Características Culturais , Nível de Saúde , Autoavaliação , Migrantes , Adulto , Idoso , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
7.
Health Econ ; 27(2): e139-e152, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28833846

RESUMO

We investigate whether interventions by (a) medical doctors and (b) occupational specialists are effective in reducing sick leave durations among self-employed workers. Therefore, we exploit unique administrative data comprising all sick leave claims by self-employed workers insured with a major Dutch private insurer between January 2009 and March 2014. We estimate a multivariate duration model dealing with nonrandom selection into the two intervention types by controlling for observable and unobservable claimant characteristics. We find adverse treatment effects for both interventions, irrespective of whether they are started early or (middle) late in the sickness spell.


Assuntos
Análise Custo-Benefício , Emprego/estatística & dados numéricos , Ocupações , Licença Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Revisão da Utilização de Seguros , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Econométricos , Países Baixos
8.
J Homosex ; 65(8): 1015-1031, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28841095

RESUMO

We investigate risk aversion as a driver of labor market discrimination against homosexual men. We show that more hiring discrimination by more risk-averse employers is consistent with taste-based and statistical discrimination. To test this hypothesis we conduct a scenario experiment in which experimental employers take a fictitious hiring decision concerning a heterosexual or homosexual male job candidate. In addition, participants are surveyed on their risk aversion and other characteristics that might correlate with this risk aversion. Analysis of the (post-)experimental data confirms our hypothesis. The likelihood of a beneficial hiring decision for homosexual male candidates decreases by 31.7% when employers are a standard deviation more risk-averse.


Assuntos
Homossexualidade Masculina , Seleção de Pessoal , Adulto , Emprego , Heterossexualidade , Humanos , Masculino , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Inquéritos e Questionários
9.
PLoS One ; 12(3): e0173139, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28273163

RESUMO

Separate literatures have related volunteering to health gains and income gains. We study the association between volunteering, income and health within one statistical framework. A state-of-the-art mediation analysis is conducted on data concerning the health, volunteering and sociodemographic characteristics of 42926 individuals within 29 European countries. We find that volunteering is positively associated to self-rated health. This association is partially mediated by household income.


Assuntos
Nível de Saúde , Renda , Voluntários , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Estatísticos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários
10.
Health Soc Care Community ; 25(2): 641-651, 2017 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27112973

RESUMO

Recent figures show that discrimination in healthcare is still persistent in the European Union. Research has confirmed these results but focused mainly on the outcomes of perceived discrimination. Studies that take into account socioeconomic determinants of discrimination limit themselves to either ethnicity, income or education. This article explores the influence of several socioeconomic indicators (e.g. gender, age, income, education and ethnicity) on perceived discrimination in 30 European countries. Data from the QUALICOPC study were used. These data were collected between October 2011 and December 2013 in the participating countries. In total, 7183 GPs (general practitioners) and 61932 patients participated in the study, which had an average response rate of 74.1%. Data collection was co-ordinated by NIVEL (Dutch Institute for Research of Health Care). Bivariate binomial logistic regressions were used to estimate the impact of each socioeconomic indicator on perceived discrimination. Multivariate logistic regressions were used to estimate the unique effect of each indicator. Results indicate that in Europe, overall 7% of the respondents felt discriminated, ranging between 1.4% and 12.8% at the country level. With regard to socioeconomic determinants in perceived discrimination, income and age are both important indicators, with lower income groups and younger people having a higher chance to feel discriminated. In addition, we find significant influences of education, gender, age and ethnicity in several countries. In most countries, higher educated people, older people, women and the indigenous population appeared to feel less discriminated. In conclusion, perceived discrimination in healthcare is reported in almost all European countries, but there is large variation between European countries. A high prevalence of perceived discrimination within a country also does not imply a correlation between socioeconomic indicators and perceived discrimination.


Assuntos
Clínicos Gerais/psicologia , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Racismo , Estudos Transversais , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Racismo/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Socioeconômicos
11.
Soc Sci Med ; 170: 247-254, 2016 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27368717

RESUMO

Each year a substantial share of the European population suffers from major depression. This mental illness may affect individuals' later life outcomes indirectly by the stigma it inflicts. The present study assesses hiring discrimination based on disclosed depression. To this end, between May 2015 and July 2015, we sent out 288 trios of job applications from fictitious candidates to real vacancies in Belgium. Within each trio, one candidate claimed to have become unemployed only recently, whereas the other two candidates revealed former depression or no reason at all for their unemployment during a full year. Disclosing a year of inactivity due to former depression decreases the probability of getting a job interview invitation by about 34% when compared with candidates who just became unemployed, but the stigma effect of a year of depression is not significantly higher than the stigma effect of a year of unexplained unemployment. In addition, we found that these stigmas of depression and unemployment were driven by our male trios of fictitious candidates. As a consequence, our results are in favour of further research on gender heterogeneity in the stigma of depression and other health impairments.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo Maior/complicações , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/psicologia , Candidatura a Emprego , Estigma Social , Bélgica , Emprego/psicologia , Emprego/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Seleção de Pessoal/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Sexuais
12.
Eur J Health Econ ; 17(1): 71-86, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25501259

RESUMO

This study evaluated the effectiveness of wage subsidies as a policy instrument to integrate disabled individuals into the labor market. To identify causal effects, a large-scale field experiment was conducted in Belgium. The results show that the likelihood of a disabled candidate receiving a positive response to a job application is not positively influenced by disclosing entitlement to the Flemish Supporting Subsidy.


Assuntos
Pessoas com Deficiência/estatística & dados numéricos , Emprego/estatística & dados numéricos , Financiamento Governamental/economia , Salários e Benefícios/economia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores Socioeconômicos
13.
Soc Sci Med ; 130: 91-8, 2015 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25689666

RESUMO

There is growing evidence that health factors affect tertiary education success in a causal way. This study assesses the effect of sleep quality on academic achievement at university. To this end, we surveyed 804 students about their sleep quality by means of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) before the start of their first exam period in December 2013 at Ghent University. PSQI scores were merged with course marks in this exam period. Instrumenting PSQI scores by sleep quality during secondary education, we find that increasing total sleep quality with one standard deviation leads to 4.85 percentage point higher course marks. Based on this finding, we suggest that higher education providers might be incentivised to invest part of their resources for social facilities in professional support for students with sleep and other health problems.


Assuntos
Logro , Sono , Universidades , Adolescente , Escolaridade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
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