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1.
Genet Mol Biol ; 41(2): 434-441, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29767667

RESUMO

Alstroemeria L. (Alstroemeriaceae) represents one of the most diverse genera of vascular plants in Chile. It contains approximately 54 taxa, 40 of which are endemic. The "complex" Alstroemeria magnifica is endemic to Chile, and it comprises four varieties: A. magnifica var. magenta, A. magnifica var. magnifica, A. magnifica var. sierrae, and A. magnifica var. tofoensis. It is distributed from Coquimbo to the Valparaíso Region. We analyzed karyotypes of 10 populations along its natural distribution. All the populations presented an asymmetric karyotype, with 2n = 16 chromosomes but with three different karyotypic formulae. Alstroemeria magnifica var. magnifica and A. magnifica var. sierrae presented the same karyotypic fomula, and A. magnifica var. magenta, and A. magnifica var. tofoensis each had a different formula. The scatter plot among CVCL vs. MCA shows different groupings between populations of the four varieties. Based on the results, it is possible to consider raising Alstroemeria magnifica var. magenta to species level (A. magenta) and A. magnifica var. tofoensis to subspecies level (A. magnifica subsp. tofoensis); A. magnifica var. magnifica and A. magnifica var. sierrae should each remain as varieties. Nevertheless, these taxonomic changes should be considered tentative, as additional sources of evidence become available.

2.
Am J Bot ; 99(9): 1501-12, 2012 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22956470

RESUMO

PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Understanding the flexibility of monocot genomes requires a phylogenetic framework, which so far is available for few of the ca. 2800 genera. Here we use a molecular tree for the South American genus Alstroemeria to place karyological information, including fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) signals, in an explicit evolutionary context. METHODS: From a phylogeny based on plastid, nuclear, and mitochondrial sequences for most species of Alstroemeria, we selected early-branching (Chilean) and derived (Brazilian) species for which we obtained 18S-25S and 5S rDNA FISH signals; we also analyzed chromosome numbers, 1C-values, and telomere FISH signals (in two species). KEY RESULTS: Chromosome counts for Alstroemeria cf. rupestris and A. pulchella confirm 2n = 16 as typical of the genus, which now has chromosomes counted for 29 of its 78 species. The rDNA sites are polymorphic both among and within species, and interstitial telomeric sites in Alstroemeria cf. rupestris suggest chromosome fusion. CONCLUSIONS: In spite of a constant chromosome number, closely related species of Alstroemeria differ drastically in their rDNA, indicating rapid increase, decrease, or translocations of these genes. Previously proposed Brazilian and Chilean karyotype groups are not natural, and the n = 8 chromosomes in Alstroemeria compared to n = 9 in its sister genus Bomarea may result from a Robertsonian fusion.


Assuntos
Alstroemeria/genética , Cromossomos de Plantas/genética , DNA de Plantas/genética , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Evolução Molecular , Filogenia , Sequência de Bases , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Cariotipagem , Funções Verossimilhança , Mitose/genética , Especificidade da Espécie , Telômero/genética
3.
Am J Bot ; 97(3): 423-32, 2010 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21622405

RESUMO

The effect of colonization on the distribution of genetic diversity within and among populations in relation to species characteristics remains an open empirical question. The objective of this study was to contrast genetic diversity within and among established and colonizing populations of Nassauvia lagascae var. lanata on Volcán Lonquimay (Araucanía Region, Chile), which erupted on 25 December 1988, and relate genetic diversity to biological characteristics of the populations. We analyzed a total of 240 individuals from 15 populations distributed along the Andes Cordillera using AFLP and obtained a total of 307 AFLP bands, of which 97.7% are polymorphic. Values of population differentiation (F(ST)) did not differ significantly among established and colonizing populations, but colonizing populations did have reduced levels of genetic divergence (as indicated by private and rare bands) and genetic variation (e.g., Shannon index). We conclude that a founder effect through limited numbers of founding propagules derived from nearby source populations has not yet been compensated for by subsequent population growth and migration. Low rates of secondary dispersal via running water, kin-structure within populations, and slow population growth seem to contribute to the slow recovery of genetic diversity.

4.
Mol Ecol ; 18(17): 3668-82, 2009 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19674310

RESUMO

We report the phylogeographic pattern of the Patagonian and Subantarctic plant Hypochaeris incana endemic to southeastern South America. We applied amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) analysis to 28 and 32 populations, respectively, throughout its distributional range and assessed ploidy levels using flow cytometry. While cpDNA data suggest repeated or simultaneous parallel colonization of Patagonia and Tierra del Fuego by several haplotypes and/or hybridization, AFLPs reveal three clusters corresponding to geographic regions. The central and northern Patagonian clusters (approximately 38-51 degrees S), which are closer to the outgroup, contain mainly tetraploid, isolated and highly differentiated populations with low genetic diversity. To the contrary, the southern Patagonian and Fuegian cluster (approximately 51-55 degrees S) contains mainly diploid populations with high genetic diversity and connected by high levels of gene flow. The data suggest that H. incana originated at the diploid level in central or northern Patagonia, from where it migrated south. All three areas, northern, central and southern, have similar levels of rare and private AFLP bands, suggesting that all three served as refugia for H. incana during glacial times. In southern Patagonia and Tierra del Fuego, the species seems to have expanded its populational system in postglacial times, when the climate became warmer and more humid. In central and northern Patagonia, the populations seem to have become restricted to favourable sites with increasing temperature and decreasing moisture and there was a parallel replacement of diploids by tetraploids in local populations.


Assuntos
Asteraceae/genética , Evolução Molecular , Genética Populacional , Filogenia , Análise do Polimorfismo de Comprimento de Fragmentos Amplificados , Impressões Digitais de DNA , DNA de Cloroplastos/genética , DNA de Plantas/genética , Diploide , Citometria de Fluxo , Haplótipos , Poliploidia , Análise de Sequência de DNA , América do Sul
5.
Am J Bot ; 90(3): 496-507, 2003 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21659142

RESUMO

Nuclear internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions and chloroplast trnL intron and trnL/trnF spacer and matK sequences were used from 86 accessions to assess relationships among 31 European and South American species of Hypochaeris plus 18 representatives of related genera of tribe Cichorieae. The ITS tree shows high resolution compared to that of the maternally inherited trnL intron, trnL/F spacer, and matK sequences. The ITS and the combined tree reveal clades that agree well with sections of the genus established previously on morphological and cytological grounds, except for H. robertia, which groups with Leontodon helveticus and L. autumnalis. Monophyly of species of Hypochaeris from South America is strongly supported by both ITS and the joint matrix of ITS, trnL, and matK data. European species lie basal to South American taxa, which suggests that species in South America evolved from a single introduction from European progenitors and not from H. robertia as suggested previously. Low levels of sequence divergence among South American taxa suggest a pattern of rapid speciation, in contrast to much greater divergence among European representatives. Different species of Leontodon form two different clades that are also supported by chromosome numbers and morphology. Both nuclear and chloroplast markers suggest that Helminthotheca, Leontodon, and Picris are closely related to each other as well as to Hypochaeris.

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