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1.
J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract ; 7(6): 1793-1802.e2, 2019 Jul - Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30772477

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: For the prevention of attacks of hereditary angioedema (HAE), the efficacy and safety of subcutaneous human C1-esterase inhibitor (C1-INH[SC]; HAEGARDA, CSL Behring) was established in the 16-week Clinical Study for Optimal Management of Preventing Angioedema with Low-Volume Subcutaneous C1-Inhibitor Replacement Therapy (COMPACT). OBJECTIVE: To assess the long-term safety, occurrence of angioedema attacks, and use of rescue medication with C1-INH(SC). METHODS: Open-label, randomized, parallel-arm extension of COMPACT across 11 countries. Patients with frequent angioedema attacks, either study treatment-naive or who had completed COMPACT, were randomly assigned (1:1) to 40 IU/kg or 60 IU/kg C1-INH(SC) twice per week, with conditional uptitration to optimize prophylaxis (ClinicalTrials.gov registration no. NCT02316353). RESULTS: A total of 126 patients with a monthly attack rate of 4.3 in 3 months before entry in COMPACT were enrolled and treated for a mean of 1.5 years; 44 patients (34.9%) had more than 2 years of exposure. Mean steady-state C1-INH functional activity increased to 66.6% with 60 IU/kg. Incidence of adverse events was low and similar in both dose groups (11.3 and 8.5 events per patient-year for 40 IU/kg and 60 IU/kg, respectively). For 40 IU/kg and 60 IU/kg, median annualized attack rates were 1.3 and 1.0, respectively, and median rescue medication use was 0.2 and 0.0 times per year, respectively. Of 23 patients receiving 60 IU/kg for more than 2 years, 19 (83%) were attack-free during months 25 to 30 of treatment. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with frequent HAE attacks, long-term replacement therapy with C1-INH(SC) is safe and exhibits a substantial and sustained prophylactic effect, with the vast majority of patients becoming free from debilitating disease symptoms.

3.
N Engl J Med ; 379(4): 352-362, 2018 07 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30044938

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hereditary angioedema is a life-threatening illness caused by mutations in the gene encoding C1 inhibitor (also called C1 esterase inhibitor) that lead to overactivation of the kallikrein-bradykinin cascade. BCX7353 is a potent oral small-molecule inhibitor of plasma kallikrein with a pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profile that may help prevent angioedema attacks. METHODS: In this international, three-part, dose-ranging, placebo-controlled trial, we evaluated four doses of BCX7353 (62.5 mg, 125 mg, 250 mg, and 350 mg once daily) for the prevention of angioedema attacks over a 28-day period. Patients with type I or II hereditary angioedema with a history of at least two angioedema attacks per month were randomly assigned to BCX7353 or placebo. The primary efficacy end point was the number of confirmed angioedema attacks. Key secondary end points included angioedema attacks according to anatomical location and quality of life. RESULTS: A total of 77 patients underwent randomization, 75 received BCX7353 or placebo, and 72 completed the trial. The rate of confirmed angioedema attacks was significantly lower among patients who received BCX7353 at daily doses of 125 mg or more than among those who received placebo, with a 73.8% difference at 125 mg (P<0.001). Significant benefits with respect to quality-of-life scores were observed in the 125-mg and 250-mg dose groups (P<0.05). Gastrointestinal adverse events, predominantly of grade 1, were the most commonly reported adverse events, particularly in the two highest BCX7353 dose groups. CONCLUSIONS: Once-daily oral administration of BCX7353 at a dose of 125 mg or more resulted in a significantly lower rate of attacks of hereditary angioedema than placebo. Mild gastrointestinal symptoms were the principal side effect. (Funded by BioCryst Pharmaceuticals; APeX-1 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02870972 .).


Assuntos
Angioedemas Hereditários/prevenção & controle , Inibidores Enzimáticos/administração & dosagem , Calicreína Plasmática/antagonistas & inibidores , Administração Oral , Adulto , Idoso , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Método Duplo-Cego , Esquema de Medicação , Inibidores Enzimáticos/efeitos adversos , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacocinética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Qualidade de Vida
4.
Clin Transl Allergy ; 7: 45, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29238519

RESUMO

Anaphylaxis is defined as a severe life-threatening generalized or systemic hypersensitivity reaction characterized by rapidly developing airway and/or circulation problems. It presents with very different combinations of symptoms and apparently mild signs and can progress to fatal anaphylactic shock unpredictably. The difficulty in recognizing anaphylaxis is due, in part, to the variability of diagnostic criteria, which in turn leads to a delay in administration of appropriate treatment, thus increasing the risk of death. The use of validated clinical criteria can facilitate the diagnosis of anaphylaxis. Intramuscular epinephrine (adrenaline) is the medication of choice for the emergency treatment of anaphylaxis. Administration of corticosteroids and H1-antihistamines should not delay the administration of epinephrine, and the management of a patient with anaphylaxis should not end with the acute episode. Long-term management of anaphylaxis should include avoidance of triggers, following confirmation by an allergology study. Etiologic factors suspected in the emergency department often differ from the real causes of anaphylaxis. Evaluation of patients with a history of anaphylaxis should also include an assessment of personal data, such as age and comorbidities, which may increase the risk of severe reactions. Special attention should also be paid to co-factors, as these may easily confound the cause of the anaphylaxis. Patients experiencing anaphylaxis should administer epinephrine as soon as possible. Education (including the use of Internet and social media), written personalized emergency action plans, and self-injectable epinephrine have proven useful for the treatment of further anaphylaxis episodes.

5.
J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract ; 5(5): 1256-1263, 2017 Sep - Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28389303

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Data on the incidence and characteristics of pediatric anaphylaxis are scarce. Reported causes of anaphylaxis are mostly those suspected by the physician in the emergency department (ED), which may not coincide with the real triggers. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the incidence, management, and etiology of pediatric anaphylaxis in the ED of a Spanish tertiary hospital and to determine the concordance between the suspected etiology in the ED and diagnosis after the allergy workup. METHODS: We performed an observational, descriptive study of all patients with anaphylaxis attended in the pediatric ED from 2012 to 2014. Cases were considered anaphylaxis based on National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases/Food Allergy and Anaphylaxis Network criteria. We recorded data on clinical characteristics, management, etiology suspected by the ED physician and patient (or relatives), and the workup performed in the allergy department. RESULTS: We recorded 133 cases of anaphylaxis (incidence, 0.12%), with 20 cases (15%) recorded in children younger than 12 months. Anaphylaxis was correctly diagnosed in the ED in 70 cases (53%). Food allergy was the cause of anaphylaxis in 106 out of 118 studied in the allergy department (AD) (90%). The final etiology differed from the etiology initially suspected in the ED in 42 cases (39%). After the study, the frequency of patients with unidentified triggers decreased by 75%. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of anaphylaxis is higher in children than previously reported in adults from the same center, and food is the trigger in most cases. To prevent erroneous diagnoses, the etiology of anaphylaxis should be established after an appropriate workup.


Assuntos
Anafilaxia/diagnóstico , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Anafilaxia/epidemiologia , Anafilaxia/prevenção & controle , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Erros de Diagnóstico/prevenção & controle , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Epinefrina/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Espanha/epidemiologia
6.
N Engl J Med ; 376(12): 1131-1140, 2017 03 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28328347

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hereditary angioedema is a disabling, potentially fatal condition caused by deficiency (type I) or dysfunction (type II) of the C1 inhibitor protein. In a phase 2 trial, the use of CSL830, a nanofiltered C1 inhibitor preparation that is suitable for subcutaneous injection, resulted in functional levels of C1 inhibitor activity that would be expected to provide effective prophylaxis of attacks. METHODS: We conducted an international, prospective, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-ranging, phase 3 trial to evaluate the efficacy and safety of self-administered subcutaneous CSL830 in patients with type I or type II hereditary angioedema who had had four or more attacks in a consecutive 2-month period within 3 months before screening. We randomly assigned the patients to one of four treatment sequences in a crossover design, each involving two 16-week treatment periods: either 40 IU or 60 IU of CSL830 per kilogram of body weight twice weekly followed by placebo, or vice versa. The primary efficacy end point was the number of attacks of angioedema. Secondary efficacy end points were the proportion of patients who had a response (≥50% reduction in the number of attacks with CSL830 as compared with placebo) and the number of times that rescue medication was used. RESULTS: Of the 90 patients who underwent randomization, 79 completed the trial. Both doses of CSL830, as compared with placebo, reduced the rate of attacks of hereditary angioedema (mean difference with 40 IU, -2.42 attacks per month; 95% confidence interval [CI], -3.38 to -1.46; and mean difference with 60 IU, -3.51 attacks per month; 95% CI, -4.21 to -2.81; P<0.001 for both comparisons). Response rates were 76% (95% CI, 62 to 87) in the 40-IU group and 90% (95% CI, 77 to 96) in the 60-IU group. The need for rescue medication was reduced from 5.55 uses per month in the placebo group to 1.13 uses per month in the 40-IU group and from 3.89 uses in the placebo group to 0.32 uses per month in the 60-IU group. Adverse events (most commonly mild and transient local site reactions) occurred in similar proportions of patients who received CSL830 and those who received placebo. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with hereditary angioedema, the prophylactic use of a subcutaneous C1 inhibitor twice weekly significantly reduced the frequency of acute attacks. (Funded by CSL Behring; COMPACT EudraCT number, 2013-000916-10 , and ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01912456 .).


Assuntos
Proteína Inibidora do Complemento C1/administração & dosagem , Angioedema Hereditário Tipos I e II/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Proteína Inibidora do Complemento C1/efeitos adversos , Proteína Inibidora do Complemento C1/metabolismo , Estudos Cross-Over , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Angioedema Hereditário Tipos I e II/classificação , Humanos , Injeções Subcutâneas , Masculino , Risco , Autoadministração , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
7.
Nutr Metab (Lond) ; 6: 44, 2009 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19852821

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vitamin A may have some influence on the immune system, but the role in allergy modulation is still unclear. OBJECTIVE: To clarify whether high levels of retinoic acid (RA) affects allergic response in vivo, we used a murine experimental model of airway allergic disease. METHODS: Ovalbumin (OVA)-immunization/OVA-challenge (OVA/OVA) and house dust mite (HDM)-immunization/HDM-challenge (HDM/HDM) experimental murine models of allergic airway disease, using C57Bl.10/Q groups of mice (n = 10) treated subcutaneously with different concentrations of all-trans RA (0, 50, 500 and 2,500 ug) every 2-days were used to assess the allergic immune response. RESULTS: Levels of total and specific-IgE in sera were increased in all groups of RA treated OVA/OVA and HDM/HDM mice. Percentage and total amount of recruited eosinophil in airways by bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were significantly enhanced in groups treated with 50, 500 and 2,500 ug of RA compared to non-treated mice. However, the group of mice treated with 2,500 ug had less eosinophil recruitment than the other two groups (50 and 500 ug). In parallel, levels of IL-5 and total IgE in BALF were also significantly diminished in the group treated with 2,500 ug compared to the other 2 groups (50 and 500 ug). Finally, total lung resistance was decreased in group treated with 2,500 ug compared to non-treated mice. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that retinoic acid directly enhances allergic response in vivo, but in higher doses may produce of immune suppression.

8.
Clin Mol Allergy ; 2(1): 2, 2004 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-14992696

RESUMO

Past few years cranberry/lingonberry products have been incorporated as healthy products to the US and European market as prophylaxis of recurrent urinary tract infections in young women as well as in chronic infections in elderly which because of there are many biological activities attributed to the that fruit is a very popular additive to the new diets. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of allergy to lingonberry. We speculate that previous exposure to lingonberry products could be sensitising. The symptoms, timing of the episode, positive skin test, IgE-ELISA and western-blot strongly support the role of lingonberry as the causative agent.

9.
Allergol Immunopathol (Madr) ; 30(5): 259-62, 2002 Sep-Oct.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12396959

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cold urticaria is caused after exposition to cold air, water and food. It is the third more frequent physical urticaria in pediatric population. METHODS AND RESULTS: We reviewed twelve patients, studied different characteristics and obtained following results: mean age is 12 years and 9 months and it is more frequent in female subjects, atopy is present in 67 % of patients, other physical urticaria are present in 25 % and there is not familial inheritance. 83 % of patients have localized and generalized symptoms. Cold stimulation test is positive in 92 %. Cryoglobulins and cold agglutinins are negative in 100 % of patients in which these tests were made. There is infectious disease in only two patients. Cetirizine was used in most of patients and it was successful in 70 %. Mean duration is 3 years and 6 months. Only patient with negative cold stimulation test remains without symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Cold urticaria must be initially diagnosed by cold stimulation test and clinical history. Cetirizine is effective and cause less adverse effects than other antihistamines traditionally used.


Assuntos
Temperatura Baixa/efeitos adversos , Urticária/etiologia , Cetirizina/uso terapêutico , Criança , Crioglobulinas/análise , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/complicações , Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr/complicações , Feminino , Antagonistas dos Receptores Histamínicos H1 não Sedativos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Hipersensibilidade Imediata/complicações , Masculino , Transtornos de Fotossensibilidade/complicações , Estimulação Física/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento , Urticária/classificação , Urticária/diagnóstico , Urticária/tratamento farmacológico , Urticária/imunologia
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