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1.
JAMA Netw Open ; 2(12): e1917134, 2019 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31825501

RESUMO

Importance: Despite a global increase in sexually transmitted infections (STIs), there is limited focus and investment in STI management within HIV programs, in which risks for STIs are likely to be elevated. Objective: To estimate the prevalence of STIs at initiation of HIV preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP; emtricitabine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate) and the incidence of STIs during PrEP use. Data Sources: Nine databases were searched up to November 20, 2018, without language restrictions. The implementers of PrEP were also approached for additional unpublished data. Study Selection: Studies reporting STI prevalence and/or incidence among PrEP users were included. Data Extraction and Synthesis: Data were extracted independently by at least 2 reviewers. The methodological quality of studies was assessed using the Joanna Briggs Institute critical assessment tool for prevalence and incidence studies. Random-effects meta-analysis was performed. Main Outcomes and Measures: Pooled STI prevalence (ie, within 3 months of PrEP initiation) and STI incidence (ie, during PrEP use, after 3 months). Results: Of the 3325 articles identified, 88 were included (71 published and 17 unpublished). Data came from 26 countries; 62 studies (70%) were from high-income countries, and 58 studies (66%) were from programs only for men who have sex with men. In studies reporting a composite outcome of chlamydia, gonorrhea, and early syphilis, the pooled prevalence was 23.9% (95% CI, 18.6%-29.6%) before starting PrEP. The prevalence of the STI pathogen by anatomical site showed that prevalence was highest in the anorectum (chlamydia, 8.5% [95% CI, 6.3%-11.0%]; gonorrhea, 9.3% [95% CI, 4.7%-15.2%]) compared with genital sites (chlamydia, 4.0% [95% CI, 2.0%-6.6%]; gonorrhea, 2.1% [95% CI, 0.9%-3.7%]) and oropharyngeal sites (chlamydia, 2.4% [95% CI, 0.9%-4.5%]; gonorrhea, 4.9% [95% CI, 1.9%-9.1%]). The pooled incidence of studies reporting the composite outcome of chlamydia, gonorrhea, and early syphilis was 72.2 per 100 person-years (95% CI, 60.5-86.2 per 100 person-years). Conclusions and Relevance: Given the high burden of STIs among individuals initiating PrEP as well as persistent users of PrEP, this study highlights the need for active integration of HIV and STI services for an at-risk and underserved population.

2.
Bull World Health Organ ; 97(11): 764-776, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31673192

RESUMO

Objective: To present findings from implementation and scale-up of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) self-testing programmes for female sex workers in Malawi and Zimbabwe, 2013-2018. Methods: In Zimbabwe, we carried out formative research to assess the acceptability and accuracy of HIV self-testing. During implementation we evaluated sex workers' preferences for, and feasibility of, distribution of test kits before the programme was scaled-up. In Malawi, we conducted a rapid ethnographic assessment to explore the context and needs of female sex workers and resources available, leading to a workshop to define the distribution approach for test kits. Once distribution was implemented, we conducted a process evaluation and established a system for monitoring social harm. Findings: In Zimbabwe, female sex workers were able to accurately self-test. The preference study helped to refine systems for national scale-up through existing services for female sex workers. The qualitative data helped to identify additional distribution strategies and mediate potential social harm to women. In Malawi, peer distribution of test kits was the preferred strategy. We identified some incidents of social harm among peer distributors and female sex workers, as well as supply-side barriers to implementation which hindered uptake of testing. Conclusion: Involving female sex workers in planning and ongoing implementation of HIV self-testing is essential, along with strategies to mitigate potential harm. Optimal strategies for distribution and post-test support are context-specific and need to consider existing support for female sex workers and levels of trust and cohesion within their communities.

4.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 814, 2019 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31533646

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prevention of new HIV infections is a critical public health issue. The highest HIV testing gaps are in men, adolescents 15-19 years old, and adults 40 years and older. Community-based HIV testing services (HTS) can contribute to increased testing coverage and early HIV diagnosis, with HIV self-testing (HIVST) strategies showing promise. Community-based strategies, however, are resource intensive, costly and not widely implemented. A community-led approach to health interventions involves supporting communities to plan and implement solutions to improve their health. This trial aims to determine if community-led delivery of HIVST can improve HIV testing uptake, ART initiation, and broader social outcomes in rural Malawi. METHODS: The trial uses a parallel arm, cluster-randomised design with group village heads (GVH) and their defined catchment areas randomised (1:1) to community-led HIVST or continue with the standard of the care (SOC). As part of the intervention, informal community health cadres are supported to plan and implement a seven-day HIVST campaign linked to HIV treatment and prevention. Approximately 12 months after the initial campaign, intervention GVHs are randomised to lead a repeat HIVST campaign. The primary outcome includes the proportion of adolescents 15-19 years old who have tested for HIV in their lifetime. Secondary outcomes include recent testing in adults 40 years and older and men; ART initiation; knowledge of HIV prevention; and HIV testing stigma. Outcomes will be measured through cross-sectional surveys and clinic registers. Economic evaluation will determine the cost per person tested, cost per person diagnosed, and incremental cost effectiveness ratio. DISCUSSION: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first trial to assess the effectiveness of community-led HTS, which has only recently been enabled by the introduction of HIVST. Community-led delivery of HIVST is a promising new strategy for providing periodic HIV testing to support HIV prevention in rural communities. Further, introduction of HIVST through a community-led framework seems particularly apt, with control over healthcare concurrently devolved to individuals and communities. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov registry ( NCT03541382 ) registered 30 May 2018.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Testes Sorológicos/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Redes Comunitárias , Análise Custo-Benefício , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Promoção da Saúde , Humanos , Malaui , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento/economia , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Sistema de Registros , Testes Sorológicos/economia , Adulto Jovem
5.
J Int AIDS Soc ; 22 Suppl 3: e25301, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31321903

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The HIV epidemic in Vietnam is concentrated in key populations and their partners - people who inject drugs, men who have sex with men, sex workers and partners of people living with HIV. These groups have poor access to and uptake of conventional HIV testing services (HTS). To address this gap, lay provider- and self-testing and assisted partner notification (aPN) were introduced and delivered by the community. We explored the feasibility and effectiveness of implementing aPN as part of community testing services for key populations. METHODS: Lay provider testing and self-testing was started in January 2017, and targeted key populations and their partners. Since July 2017, aPN was introduced. HTS was offered at drop-in houses or coffee shops in Thai Nguyen and Can Tho provinces. All self-testing was assisted and observed by peer educators. Both in-person and social network methods were used to mobilize key populations to test for HIV and offer HTS to partners of people living with HIV. Client-level data, including demographic information and self-reported risk behaviour, were collected on site by peer educators. RESULTS: Between January 2017 and May 2018, 3978 persons from key populations were tested through community-led HTS; 66.7% were first-time testers. Of the 3978 clients, 3086 received HTS from a lay provider and 892 self-tested in the presence of a lay provider. Overall, 245 (6.2% of tested clients) had reactive results, 231 (94.3%) were confirmed to be HIV positive; 215/231 (93.1%) initiated antiretroviral therapy (ART). Of 231 adult HIV-positive clients, 186 (80.5%) were provided voluntary aPN, and 105 of their partners were contacted and received HTS. The ratio of partners who tested for HIV per index client was 0.56. Forty-four (41.9%) partners of index clients receiving HTS were diagnosed with HIV, 97.7% initiated ART during the study period. No social harm was identified or reported. CONCLUSIONS: Including aPN as part of community-led HTS for key populations and their partners is feasible and effective, particularly for reaching first-time testers and undiagnosed HIV clients. Scale-up of aPN within community-led HTS for key populations is essential for achieving the United Nations 90-90-90 targets in Vietnam.

7.
J Int AIDS Soc ; 22 Suppl 1: e25243, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30907498

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The prevalence of undiagnosed HIV is declining in Africa, and various HIV testing approaches are finding lower positivity rates. In this context, the epidemiological impact and cost-effectiveness of community-based HIV self-testing (CB-HIVST) is unclear. We aimed to assess this in different sub-populations and across scenarios characterized by different adult HIV prevalence and antiretroviral treatment programmes in sub-Saharan Africa. METHODS: The synthesis model was used to address this aim. Three sub-populations were considered for CB-HIVST: (i) women having transactional sex (WTS); (ii) young people (15 to 24 years); and (iii) adult men (25 to 49 years). We assumed uptake of CB-HIVST similar to that reported in epidemiological studies (base case), or assumed people use CB-HIVST only if exposed to risk (condomless sex) since last HIV test. We also considered a five-year time-limited CB-HIVST programme. Cost-effectiveness was defined by an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER; cost-per-disability-adjusted life-year (DALY) averted) below US$500 over a time horizon of 50 years. The efficiency of targeted CB-HIVST was evaluated using the number of additional tests per infection or death averted. RESULTS: In the base case, targeting adult men with CB-HIVST offered the greatest impact, averting 1500 HIV infections and 520 deaths per year in the context of a simulated country with nine million adults, and impact could be enhanced by linkage to voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC). However, the approach was only cost-effective if the programme was limited to five years or the undiagnosed prevalence was above 3%. CB-HIVST to WTS was the most cost-effective. The main drivers of cost-effectiveness were the cost of CB-HIVST and the prevalence of undiagnosed HIV. All other CB-HIVST scenarios had an ICER above US$500 per DALY averted. CONCLUSIONS: CB-HIVST showed an important epidemiological impact. To maximize population health within a fixed budget, CB-HIVST needs to be targeted on the basis of the prevalence of undiagnosed HIV, sub-population and the overall costs of delivering this testing modality. Linkage to VMMC enhances its cost-effectiveness.

8.
J Int AIDS Soc ; 22 Suppl 1: e25237, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30907507

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Strategies employing a single rapid diagnostic test (RDT) such as HIV self-testing (HIVST) or "test for triage" (T4T) are proposed to increase HIV testing programme impact. Current guidelines recommend serial testing with two or three RDTs for HIV diagnosis, followed by retesting with the same algorithm to verify HIV-positive status before anti-retroviral therapy (ART) initiation. We investigated whether clients presenting to HIV testing services (HTS) following a single reactive RDT must undergo the diagnostic algorithm twice to diagnose and verify HIV-positive status, or whether a diagnosis with the setting-specific algorithm is adequate for ART initiation. METHODS: We calculated (1) expected number of false-positive (FP) misclassifications per 10,000 HIV negative persons tested, (2) positive predictive value (PPV) of the overall HIV testing strategy compared to the WHO recommended PPV ≥99%, and (3) expected cost per FP misclassified person identified by additional verification testing in a typical low-/middle-income setting, compared to the expected lifetime ART cost of $3000. Scenarios considered were as follows: 10% prevalence using two serial RDTs for diagnosis, 1% prevalence using three serial RDTs, and calibration using programmatic data from Malawi in 2017 where the proportion of people testing HIV positive in facilities was 4%. RESULTS: In the 10% HIV prevalence setting with a triage test, the expected number of FP misclassifications was 0.86 per 10,000 tested without verification testing and the PPV was 99.9%. In the 1% prevalence setting, expected FP misclassifications were 0.19 with 99.8% PPV, and in the Malawi 2017 calibrated setting the expected misclassifications were 0.08 with 99.98% PPV. The cost per FP identified by verification testing was $5879, $3770, and $24,259 respectively. Results were sensitive to assumptions about accuracy of self-reported reactive results and whether reactive triage test results influenced biased interpretation of subsequent RDT results by the HTS provider. CONCLUSIONS: Diagnosis with the full algorithm following presentation with a reactive triage test is expected to achieve PPV above the 99% threshold. Continuing verification testing prior to ART initiation remains recommended, but HIV testing strategies involving HIVST and T4T may provide opportunities to maintain quality while increasing efficiency as part of broader restructuring of HIV testing service delivery.

9.
J Int AIDS Soc ; 22 Suppl 1: e25249, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30907517

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: HIV self-testing (HIVST) was first proposed as an additional option to standard HIV testing services in the 1980s. By 2015, two years after the first HIVST kit was approved for the American market and the year in which Unitaid invested in the "HIV Self-Testing AfRica (STAR) Initiative," HIVST remained unexplored with negligible access in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). However, rapid progress had been made. This commentary outlines the interlinked market, regulatory and policy barriers that had inhibited product development and kept HIVST out of LMIC policy. We detail the components of STAR that enabled rapid HIVST scale-up, including critical investments in implementation, research, market forecasting, and engagement with manufacturers and regulators. DISCUSSION: The STAR Initiative has generated crucial information about how to distribute HIVST products effectively, ethically and efficiently. Service delivery models range from clinic-based distribution to workplace and partner-delivered approaches to reach first-time male testers, to community outreach to sex workers and general population "hotspots." These data directly informed supportive policy, notably the 2016 WHO guidelines strongly recommending HIVST as an additional testing approach, and regulatory change through support for WHO prequalification of the first HIVST kit in 2017. In July 2015, only two countries had national HIVST policies and were implementing HIVST. Three years later, 59 countries have policies, actively implemented in 28, with an additional 53 countries reporting policies under development. By end-November 2018 several quality-assured HIVST products had been registered, including two WHO prequalified tests. STAR Initiative countries have drafted regulations governing in vitro diagnostics, including HIVST products. With enabling policies, pre-qualification and regulations in place, donor procurement of kits has increased rapidly, to a forecasted estimate of 16 million HIVST kits procured by 2020. CONCLUSIONS: The STAR Initiative provided a strong foundation to introduce HIVST in LMICs and allow for rapid scale-up based on the wealth of multi-country evidence gathered. Together with sustained coordination and acceleration of market development work, HIVST can help address the testing gap and provide a focused and cost-effective means to expand access to treatment and prevention services.

10.
AIDS ; 31(2): 213-232, 2017 01 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27831952

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Pregnant/lactating women in some sub-Saharan Africa settings are at substantial risk of HIV acquisition and could benefit from preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF), but safety data in pregnancy/lactation are limited. DESIGN: Systematic data review through August 2016. METHODS: We reviewed research reports/conference abstracts with maternal/child adverse outcome data in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected pregnant/lactating women receiving TDF alone or in combination with other drugs compared with non-TDF regimens. RESULTS: In total, 26 articles in HIV-infected and seven in HIV-uninfected women were identified. No statistically significant differences were observed between TDF and comparison non-TDF regimens in pregnancy incidence, stillbirth/pregnancy loss, preterm delivery less than 37 weeks, low birth weight <2500/<1500 g, small for gestational age, birth defects, or infant (>14 days) or maternal mortality. One study reported significantly higher very preterm delivery (<34 weeks) and neonatal mortality with TDF versus non-TDF antiretroviral therapy (ART), but no significant difference between TDF ART and zidovudine/single-dose nevirapine. Most studies report normal infant linear growth; one study showed slightly lower, and one higher 1-year length-for-age z-score in TDF ART-exposed infants. No significant differences were reported in abnormal laboratory values or bone markers between TDF and non-TDF-exposed infants in four studies. Lower maternal bone mineral density was observed at 74 weeks postpartum in breastfeeding women on TDF ART compared with no ART in one study. CONCLUSION: Given available safety data, there does not appear to be a safety-related rationale for prohibiting PrEP during pregnancy/lactation or for discontinuing PrEP in HIV-uninfected women receiving PrEP who become pregnant and are at continuing risk of HIV acquisition.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/efeitos adversos , Aleitamento Materno , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Profilaxia Pré-Exposição/métodos , Tenofovir/efeitos adversos , África ao Sul do Saara , Fármacos Anti-HIV/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/transmissão , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Tenofovir/administração & dosagem
11.
Lancet HIV ; 3(7): e323-32, 2016 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27365207

RESUMO

Although effective programmes are available and several countries have seen substantial declines in new HIV infections, progress in the reduction of adult HIV incidence has been slower than expected worldwide and many countries have not had large decreases in new infections in adults despite large reductions in paediatric infections. Reasons for slow progress include inadequate commitment, investment, focus, scale, and quality of implementation of prevention and treatment interventions. The UNAIDS-Lancet Commission on Defeating AIDS-Advancing Global Health reported that the provision of large-scale, effective HIV prevention programmes has failed and called on stakeholders to "get serious about HIV prevention". An ambitious worldwide target has been set by UNAIDS to reduce new infections below 500 000 by 2020-a 75% reduction from 2010. Models show that such a reduction requires a combination of primary prevention interventions and preventative effects of treatment. Achievement of the target will require more effective delivery of HIV prevention for sufficient coverage in populations at greatest risk of infection ensuring that interventions that have proved effective are made available, barriers to their uptake are overcome, demand is created, and use is consistent and occurs at the right scale with high coverage. This paper discusses how programmatic targets for prevention in a worldwide plan could be used to re-energise the HIV prevention approach. A management framework is proposed outlining global, regional, national, and subnational actions and is summarised in a call for action on HIV prevention for 2020.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/prevenção & controle , Assistência à Saúde , Gerenciamento Clínico , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/virologia , Adulto , Países em Desenvolvimento/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Saúde Global , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Humanos , Incidência
12.
PLoS Med ; 10(8): e1001496, 2013 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23966838

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Effective national and global HIV responses require a significant expansion of HIV testing and counselling (HTC) to expand access to prevention and care. Facility-based HTC, while essential, is unlikely to meet national and global targets on its own. This article systematically reviews the evidence for community-based HTC. METHODS AND FINDINGS: PubMed was searched on 4 March 2013, clinical trial registries were searched on 3 September 2012, and Embase and the World Health Organization Global Index Medicus were searched on 10 April 2012 for studies including community-based HTC (i.e., HTC outside of health facilities). Randomised controlled trials, and observational studies were eligible if they included a community-based testing approach and reported one or more of the following outcomes: uptake, proportion receiving their first HIV test, CD4 value at diagnosis, linkage to care, HIV positivity rate, HTC coverage, HIV incidence, or cost per person tested (outcomes are defined fully in the text). The following community-based HTC approaches were reviewed: (1) door-to-door testing (systematically offering HTC to homes in a catchment area), (2) mobile testing for the general population (offering HTC via a mobile HTC service), (3) index testing (offering HTC to household members of people with HIV and persons who may have been exposed to HIV), (4) mobile testing for men who have sex with men, (5) mobile testing for people who inject drugs, (6) mobile testing for female sex workers, (7) mobile testing for adolescents, (8) self-testing, (9) workplace HTC, (10) church-based HTC, and (11) school-based HTC. The Newcastle-Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale and the Cochrane Collaboration's "risk of bias" tool were used to assess the risk of bias in studies with a comparator arm included in pooled estimates. 117 studies, including 864,651 participants completing HTC, met the inclusion criteria. The percentage of people offered community-based HTC who accepted HTC was as follows: index testing, 88% of 12,052 participants; self-testing, 87% of 1,839 participants; mobile testing, 87% of 79,475 participants; door-to-door testing, 80% of 555,267 participants; workplace testing, 67% of 62,406 participants; and school-based testing, 62% of 2,593 participants. Mobile HTC uptake among key populations (men who have sex with men, people who inject drugs, female sex workers, and adolescents) ranged from 9% to 100% (among 41,110 participants across studies), with heterogeneity related to how testing was offered. Community-based approaches increased HTC uptake (relative risk [RR] 10.65, 95% confidence interval [CI] 6.27-18.08), the proportion of first-time testers (RR 1.23, 95% CI 1.06-1.42), and the proportion of participants with CD4 counts above 350 cells/µl (RR 1.42, 95% CI 1.16-1.74), and obtained a lower positivity rate (RR 0.59, 95% CI 0.37-0.96), relative to facility-based approaches. 80% (95% CI 75%-85%) of 5,832 community-based HTC participants obtained a CD4 measurement following HIV diagnosis, and 73% (95% CI 61%-85%) of 527 community-based HTC participants initiated antiretroviral therapy following a CD4 measurement indicating eligibility. The data on linking participants without HIV to prevention services were limited. In low- and middle-income countries, the cost per person tested ranged from US$2-US$126. At the population level, community-based HTC increased HTC coverage (RR 7.07, 95% CI 3.52-14.22) and reduced HIV incidence (RR 0.86, 95% CI 0.73-1.02), although the incidence reduction lacked statistical significance. No studies reported any harm arising as a result of having been tested. CONCLUSIONS: Community-based HTC achieved high rates of HTC uptake, reached people with high CD4 counts, and linked people to care. It also obtained a lower HIV positivity rate relative to facility-based approaches. Further research is needed to further improve acceptability of community-based HTC for key populations. HIV programmes should offer community-based HTC linked to prevention and care, in addition to facility-based HTC, to support increased access to HIV prevention, care, and treatment. REVIEW REGISTRATION: International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews CRD42012002554 Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
13.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; (4): CD009153, 2013 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23633367

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Antiretroviral drugs have been shown to reduce risk of mother-to-child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and are also widely used for post-exposure prophylaxis for parenteral and sexual exposures. Sexual transmission may be lower in couples in which one partner is infected with HIV and the other is not and the infected partner is on antiretroviral therapy (ART). OBJECTIVES: To determine if ART use in an HIV-infected member of an HIV-discordant couple is associated with lower risk of HIV transmission to the uninfected partner compared to untreated discordant couples. SEARCH METHODS: We used standard Cochrane methods to search electronic databases and conference proceedings with relevant search terms without limits to language. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials (RCT), cohort studies and case-control studies of HIV-discordant couples in which the HIV-infected member of the couple was being treated or not treated with ART DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Abstracts of all trials identified by electronic or bibliographic scanning were examined independently by two authors. We initially identified 3,833 references and examined 87 in detail for study eligibility. Data were abstracted independently using a standardised abstraction form. MAIN RESULTS: One RCT and nine observational studies were included in the review. These ten studies identified 2,112 episodes of HIV transmission, 1,016 among treated couples and 1,096 among untreated couples. The rate ratio for the single randomised controlled trial was 0.04 [95% CI 0.00, 0.27]. All index partners in this study had CD4 cell counts at baseline of 350-550 cells/µL. Similarly, the summary rate ratio for the nine observational studies was 0.58 [95% CI 0.35, 0.96], with substantial heterogeneity (I(2)=64%). After excluding two studies with inadequate person-time data, we estimated a summary rate ratio of 0.36 [95% CI 0.17, 0.75] with substantial heterogeneity (I(2)=62%). We also performed subgroup analyses among the observational studies to see if the effect of ART on prevention of HIV differed by the index partner's CD4 cell count. Among couples in which the infected partner had ≥350 CD4 cells/µL, we estimated a rate ratio of 0.12 [95% CI 0.01, 1.99]. In this subgroup, there were 247 transmissions in untreated couples and 30 in treated couples. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: ART is a potent intervention for prevention of HIV in discordant couples in which the index partner has ≤550 CD4 cells/µL. A recent multicentre RCT confirms the suspected benefit seen in earlier observational studies and reported in more recent ones. Questions remain about durability of protection, the balance of benefits and adverse events associated with earlier therapy, long-term adherence and transmission of ART-resistant strains to partners. Resource limitations and implementation challenges must also be addressed.Counselling, support, and follow up, as well as mutual disclosure, may have a role in supporting adherence, so programmes should be designed with these components. In addition to ART provision, the operational aspects of delivering such programmes must be considered.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Infecções por HIV/transmissão , Parceiros Sexuais , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Soronegatividade para HIV , Soropositividade para HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Soropositividade para HIV/transmissão , Seleção por Sorologia para HIV , Humanos , Masculino
14.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; (8): CD009153, 2011 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21833973

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Antiretroviral drugs have been shown to reduce risk of mother-to-child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and are also widely used for post-exposure prophylaxis for parenteral and sexual exposures. Observational data, ecological studies and models suggest that sexual transmission may be lower in couples in which one partner is infected with HIV and the other is not and the infected partner is on antiretroviral therapy (ART). OBJECTIVES: To determine if ART use in an HIV-infected member of an HIV-discordant couple is associated with lower risk of HIV transmission to the uninfected partner compared to untreated discordant couples. SEARCH STRATEGY: We used standard Cochrane methods to search electronic databases and conference proceedings with relevant search terms without limits to language. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials, cohort studies and case-control studies of HIV-discordant couples in which the HIV-infected member of the couple was being treated or not treated with ART DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Abstracts of all trials identified by electronic or bibliographic scanning were examined independently by two authors. We initially identified 1814 references and examined 24 in detail for study eligibility. Data were abstracted independently using a standardised abstraction form. MAIN RESULTS: One randomised controlled trial and seven observational studies were included in the review. These eight studies identified 464 episodes of HIV transmission, 72 among treated couples and 392 among untreated couples. The rate ratio for the single randomised controlled trial was 0.04 [95% CI 0.00, 0.27]. All index partners in this study had CD4 cell counts at baseline of 350-550 cells/µL. Similarly, the summary rate ratio for the seven observational studies was 0.34 [95% CI 0.13, 0.92], with substantial heterogeneity (I(2)=73%). After excluding two studies with inadequate person-time data, we estimated a summary rate ratio of 0.16 [95% CI 0.07, 0.35] with no noted heterogeneity (I(2)=0%). We also performed subgroup analyses among the observational studies to see if the effect of ART on prevention of HIV differed by the index partner's CD4 cell count. Among couples in which the infected partner had ≥350 CD4 cells/µL, we estimated a rate ratio of 0.02 [95% CI 0.00, 2.87]. In this subgroup, there were 61 transmissions in untreated couples and none in treated couples. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: ART is a potent intervention for prevention of HIV in discordant couples in which the index partner has ≤550 CD4 cells/µL. A new multicentre randomised controlled trial confirms the suspected benefit seen in earlier observational studies. Questions remain about durability of protection, the balance of benefits and adverse events associated with earlier therapy, long-term adherence and transmission of ART-resistant strains to partners. Resource limitations and implementation challenges must also be addressed.Counselling, support, and follow up, as well as mutual disclosure, may have a role in supporting adherence, so programmes should be designed with these components. In addition to ART provision, the operational aspects of delivering such programmes must be considered.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Infecções por HIV/transmissão , Parceiros Sexuais , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Soronegatividade para HIV , Soropositividade para HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Soropositividade para HIV/transmissão , Humanos , Masculino
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