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1.
J Exp Bot ; 71(3): 1053-1066, 2020 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31624838

RESUMO

We analysed the cellular and molecular changes in the leaf growth zone of tolerant and sensitive rice varieties in response to suboptimal temperatures. Cold reduced the final leaf length by 35% and 51% in tolerant and sensitive varieties, respectively. Tolerant lines exhibited a smaller reduction of the leaf elongation rate and greater compensation by an increased duration of leaf growth. Kinematic analysis showed that cold reduced cell production in the meristem and the expansion rate in the elongation zone, but the latter was compensated for by a doubling of the duration of cell expansion. We performed iTRAQ proteome analysis on proliferating and expanding parts of the leaf growth zone. We identified 559 and 542 proteins, of which 163 and 210 were differentially expressed between zones, and 96 and 68 between treatments, in the tolerant and sensitive lines, respectively. The categories protein biosynthesis and redox homeostasis were significantly overrepresented in the up-regulated proteins. We therefore measured redox metabolites and enzyme activities in the leaf growth zone, demonstrating that tolerance of rice lines to suboptimal temperatures correlates with the ability to up-regulate enzymatic antioxidants in the meristem and non-enzymatic antioxidants in the elongation zone.

2.
J Clin Pathol ; 73(1): 1-6, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31308255

RESUMO

Traditionally, immunohistochemistry (IHC) is used by pathologists to localise specific proteins or peptides in tissue slides. In the era of personalised medicine, however, molecular tissue analysis becomes indispensable for correct diagnosis, prognosis and therapeutic decision, not only on the DNA or mRNA level but also on the protein level. Combining molecular information with imaging presents many advantages. Therefore, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation imaging mass spectrometry (MALDI IMS) is a promising technique to be added to the armamentarium of the pathologist. Here, we focus on the workflow, advantages and drawbacks of both MALDI IMS and IHC. We also briefly discuss a few other protein imaging modalities and give examples of applications.


Assuntos
Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala , Imuno-Histoquímica , Serviço Hospitalar de Patologia , Patologia Clínica/métodos , Proteômica/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz , Difusão de Inovações , Humanos , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fluxo de Trabalho
3.
PLoS Biol ; 17(11): e3000499, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31675356

RESUMO

The onset of sexual maturity involves dramatic changes in physiology and gene expression in many animals. These include abundant yolk protein production in egg-laying species, an energetically costly process under extensive transcriptional control. Here, we used the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans to provide evidence for the spatiotemporally defined interaction of two evolutionarily conserved transcription factors, CEH-60/PBX and UNC-62/MEIS, acting as a gateway to yolk protein production. Via proteomics, bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC), and biochemical and functional readouts, we show that this interaction occurs in the intestine of animals at the onset of sexual maturity and suffices to support the reproductive program. Our electron micrographs and functional assays provide evidence that intestinal PBX/MEIS cooperation drives another process that depends on lipid mobilization: the formation of an impermeable epicuticle. Without this lipid-rich protective layer, mutant animals are hypersensitive to exogenous oxidative stress and are poor partners for mating. Dedicated communication between the hypodermis and intestine in C. elegans likely supports these physiological outcomes, and we propose a fundamental role for the conserved PBX/MEIS interaction in multicellular signaling networks that rely on lipid homeostasis.

4.
PLoS One ; 14(9): e0215185, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31545805

RESUMO

Neuropeptides are a class of bioactive peptides shown to be involved in various physiological processes, including metabolism, development, and reproduction. Although neuropeptide candidates have been predicted from genomic and transcriptomic data, comprehensive characterization of neuropeptide repertoires remains a challenge owing to their small size and variable sequences. De novo prediction of neuropeptides from genome or transcriptome data is difficult and usually only efficient for those peptides that have identified orthologs in other animal species. Recent peptidomics technology has enabled systematic structural identification of neuropeptides by using the combination of liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry. However, reliable identification of naturally occurring peptides using a conventional tandem mass spectrometry approach, scanning spectra against a protein database, remains difficult because a large search space must be scanned due to the absence of a cleavage enzyme specification. We developed a pipeline consisting of in silico prediction of candidate neuropeptides followed by peptide-spectrum matching. This approach enables highly sensitive and reliable neuropeptide identification, as the search space for peptide-spectrum matching is highly reduced. Nematostella vectensis is a basal eumetazoan with one of the most ancient nervous systems. We scanned the Nematostella protein database for sequences displaying structural hallmarks typical of eumetazoan neuropeptide precursors, including amino- and carboxyterminal motifs and associated modifications. Peptide-spectrum matching was performed against a dataset of peptides that are cleaved in silico from these putative peptide precursors. The dozens of newly identified neuropeptides display structural similarities to bilaterian neuropeptides including tachykinin, myoinhibitory peptide, and neuromedin-U/pyrokinin, suggesting these neuropeptides occurred in the eumetazoan ancestor of all animal species.

5.
Genes (Basel) ; 10(9)2019 09 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31492022

RESUMO

The increasing availability of high throughput proteomics data provides us with opportunities as well as posing new ethical challenges regarding data privacy and re-identifiability of participants. Moreover, the fact that proteomics represents a level between the genotype and the phenotype further exacerbates the situation, introducing dilemmas related to publicly available data, anonymization, ownership of information and incidental findings. In this paper, we try to differentiate proteomics from genomics data and cover the ethical challenges related to proteomics data sharing. Finally, we give an overview of the proposed solutions and the outlook for future studies.


Assuntos
Privacidade Genética/normas , Medicina de Precisão/ética , Proteômica/ética , Humanos , Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido/normas , Medicina de Precisão/métodos , Proteômica/métodos
6.
Cells ; 8(8)2019 08 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31405213

RESUMO

Neuroglobin is a heme protein of which increased levels provide neuroprotection against amyloid proteinopathy and hemorrhagic damage. These cellular stressors involve the promotion of ferroptosis-an iron-dependent, lipid peroxide-accreting form of cell death. Hence, we questioned whether neuroglobin could oppose ferroptosis initiation. We detected human neuroglobin (hNgb)-EGFP-expressing SH-SY5Y cells to be significantly more resistant to ferroptosis induction, identifying 0.68-fold less cell death. To elucidate the underlying pathways, this study investigated hNgb-protein interactions with a Co-IP-MS/MS approach both under a physiological and a ferroptotic condition. hNgb binds to proteins of the cellular iron metabolism (e.g., RPL15 and PCBP3) in an unstressed condition and shows an elevated binding ratio towards cell death-linked proteins, such as HNRNPA3, FAM120A, and ABRAXAS2, under ferroptotic stress. Our data also reveal a constitutive interaction between hNgb and the longevity-associated heterodimer XRCC5/XRCC6. Disentangling the involvement of hNgb and its binding partners in cellular processes, using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis, resulted in the integration of hNgb in the ubiquitination pathway, mTOR signaling, 14-3-3-mediated signaling, and the glycolysis cascade. We also detected a previously unknown strong link with motor neuropathies. Hence, this study contributes to the elucidation of neuroglobin's involvement in cellular mechanisms that provide neuroprotection and the upkeep of homeostasis.

7.
Anal Chem ; 91(15): 10310-10319, 2019 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31283196

RESUMO

Top-down proteomics approaches are becoming ever more popular, due to the advantages offered by knowledge of the intact protein mass in correctly identifying the various proteoforms that potentially arise due to point mutation, alternative splicing, post-translational modifications, etc. Usually, the average mass is used in this context; however, it is known that this can fluctuate significantly due to both natural and technical causes. Ideally, one would prefer to use the monoisotopic precursor mass, but this falls below the detection limit for all but the smallest proteins. Methods that predict the monoisotopic mass based on the average mass are potentially affected by imprecisions associated with the average mass. To address this issue, we have developed a framework based on simple, linear models that allows prediction of the monoisotopic mass based on the exact mass of the most-abundant (aggregated) isotope peak, which is a robust measure of mass, insensitive to the aforementioned natural and technical causes. This linear model was tested experimentally, as well as in silico, and typically predicts monoisotopic masses with an accuracy of only a few parts per million. A confidence measure is associated with the predicted monoisotopic mass to handle the off-by-one-Da prediction error. Furthermore, we introduce a correction function to extract the "true" (i.e., theoretically) most-abundant isotope peak from a spectrum, even if the observed isotope distribution is distorted by noise or poor ion statistics. The method is available online as an R shiny app: https://valkenborg-lab.shinyapps.io/mind/.

8.
Methods Protoc ; 2(2)2019 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31164623

RESUMO

Advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is generally linked with a poor prognosis and is one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Since only a minority of the patients respond well to chemotherapy and/or targeted therapies, immunotherapy might be a valid alternative in the lung cancer treatment field, as immunotherapy attempts to strengthen the body's own immune response to recognize and eliminate malignant tumor cells. However, positive response patterns to immunotherapy remain unclear. In this study, we demonstrate how immune-related factors could be visualized from single NSCLC tissue sections (Biobank@UZA) while retaining their spatial information by using matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry imaging (MSI), in order to unravel the molecular profile of NSCLC patients. In this way, different regions in lung cancerous tissues could be discriminated based on the molecular composition. In addition, we linked visualization (MALDI MSI) and identification (based on liquid chromatography higher resolution mass spectrometry) of the molecules of interest for the correct biological interpretation of the observed molecular differences within the area in which these molecules are detected. This is of major importance to fully understand the underlying molecular profile of the NSCLC tumor microenvironment.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31238262

RESUMO

On average a human cell type expresses around 10,000 different protein coding genes synthesizing all the different molecular forms of the protein product (proteoforms) found in a cell. In a typical shotgun bottom up proteomic approach, the proteins are enzymatically cleaved, producing several 100,000 s of different peptides that are analyzed with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MSMS). One of the major consequences of this high sample complexity is that coelution of peptides cannot be avoided. Moreover, low abundant peptides are difficult to identify as they have a lower chance of being selected for fragmentation due to ion-suppression effects and the semi-stochastic nature of the precursor selection in data-dependent shotgun proteomic analysis where peptides are selected for fragmentation analysis one-by-one as they elute from the column. In the current study we explore a simple novel approach that has the potential to counter some of the effect of coelution of peptides and improves the number of peptide identifications in a bottom-up proteomic analysis. In this method, peptides from a HeLa cell digest were eluted from the reverse phase column using three different elution solvents (acetonitrile, methanol and acetone) in three replicate reversed phase LC-MS/MS shotgun proteomic analysis. Results were compared with three technical replicates using the same solvent, which is common practice in proteomic analysis. In total, we see an increase of up to 10% in unique protein and up to 30% in unique peptide identifications from the combined analysis using different elution solvents when compared to the combined identifications from the three replicates of the same solvent. In addition, the overlap of unique peptide identifications common in all three LC-MS analyses in our approach is only 23% compared to 50% in the replicates using the same solvent. The method presented here thus provides an easy to implement method to significantly reduce the effects of coelution and ion suppression of peptides and improve protein coverage in shotgun proteomics. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD011908.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Proteoma/química , Proteômica/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Células HeLa , Humanos , Peptídeos/química
10.
J Proteome Res ; 18(5): 2221-2227, 2019 05 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30942071

RESUMO

In the context of omics disciplines and especially proteomics and biomarker discovery, the analysis of a clinical sample using label-based tandem mass spectrometry (MS) can be affected by sample preparation effects or by the measurement process itself, resulting in an incorrect outcome. Detection and correction of these mistakes using state-of-the-art methods based on mixed models can use large amounts of (computing) time. MS-based proteomics laboratories are high-throughput and need to avoid a bottleneck in their quantitative pipeline by quickly discriminating between high- and low-quality data. To this end we developed an easy-to-use web-tool called QCQuan (available at qcquan.net ) which is built around the CONSTANd normalization algorithm. It automatically provides the user with exploratory and quality control information as well as a differential expression analysis based on conservative, simple statistics. In this document we describe in detail the scientifically relevant steps that constitute the workflow and assess its qualitative and quantitative performance on three reference data sets. We find that QCQuan provides clear and accurate indications about the scientific value of both a high- and a low-quality data set. Moreover, it performed quantitatively better on a third data set than a comparable workflow assembled using established, reliable software.

11.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 3673, 2019 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30842615

RESUMO

Maternal lipolytic metabolic disorders result in a lipotoxic microenvironment in the ovarian follicular fluid (FF) which deteriorates oocyte quality. Although cellular stress response mechanisms are well defined in somatic cells, they remain largely unexplored in oocytes, which have distinct organelle structure and nuclear transcription patterns. Here we used shotgun proteomic analyses to study cellular responses of bovine oocytes and cumulus cells (CCs) after in vitro maturation under lipotoxic conditions; in the presence of pathophysiological palmitic acid (PA) concentration as a model. Differentially regulated proteins (DRPs) were mainly localized in the endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria and nuclei of CCs and oocytes, however the DRPs and their direction of change were cell-type specific. Proteomic changes in PA-exposed CCs were predominantly pro-apoptotic unfolded protein responses (UPRs), mitochondrial and metabolic dysfunctions, and apoptotic pathways. This was also functionally confirmed. Interestingly, although the oocytes were enclosed by CCs during PA exposure, elevated cellular stress levels were also evident. However, pro-survival UPRs, redox regulatory and compensatory metabolic mechanisms were prominent despite evidence of mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, and reduced subsequent embryo development. The data provides a unique insight that enriches the understanding of the cellular stress responses in metabolically-compromised oocytes and forms a fundamental base to identify new targets for fertility treatments as discussed within.

12.
Mass Spectrom Rev ; 38(3): 253-264, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30372792

RESUMO

Naturally occurring peptides, including growth factors, hormones, and neurotransmitters, represent an important class of biomolecules and have crucial roles in human physiology. The study of these peptides in clinical samples is therefore as relevant as ever. Compared to more routine proteomics applications in clinical research, peptidomics research questions are more challenging and have special requirements with regard to sample handling, experimental design, and bioinformatics. In this review, we describe the issues that confront peptidomics in a clinical context. After these hurdles are (partially) overcome, peptidomics will be ready for a successful translation into medical practice.

13.
Front Plant Sci ; 9: 1626, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30467512

RESUMO

Ethylene, the plant ripening hormone of climacteric fruit, is perceived by ethylene receptors which is the first step in the complex ethylene signal transduction pathway. Much progress has been made in elucidating the mechanism of this pathway, but there is still a lot to be done in the proteomic quantification of the main proteins involved, particularly during fruit ripening. This work focuses on the mass spectrometry based identification and quantification of the ethylene receptors (ETRs) and the downstream components of the pathway, CTR-like proteins (CTRs) and ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE 2 (EIN2). We used tomato as a model fruit to study changes in protein abundance involved in the ethylene signal transduction during fruit ripening. In order to detect and quantify these low abundant proteins located in the membrane of the endoplasmic reticulum, we developed a workflow comprising sample fractionation and MS analysis using parallel reaction monitoring. This work shows the feasibility of the identification and absolute quantification of all seven ethylene receptors, three out of four CTRs and EIN2 in four ripening stages of tomato. In parallel, gene expression was analyzed through real-time qPCR. Correlation between transcriptomic and proteomic profiles during ripening was only observed for three of the studied proteins, suggesting that the other signaling proteins are likely post-transcriptionally regulated. Based on our quantification results we were able to show that the protein levels of SlETR3 and SlETR4 increased during ripening, probably to control ethylene sensitivity. The other receptors and CTRs showed either stable levels that could sustain, or decreasing levels that could promote fruit ripening.

14.
Acta Ophthalmol ; 96(8): e963-e969, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30280517

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To obtain insights on the protein composition of posterior capsular plaques (PCP) in congenital unilateral cataract with anterior vitreolenticular interface dysgenesis (AVLID). METHODS: Posterior capsular plaque's were collected during surgery in children presenting with congenital unilateral cataract. Surgeries were analysed focusing on the type of cataract, the integrity of the posterior capsule after peeling the PCP and the presence of vitreolenticular adherences when performing primary posterior capsulorhexis. Proteome analysis was performed on the collected PCPs. RESULTS: Posterior capsular plaques collection and proteome analysis were feasible from four children presenting with unilateral idiopathic congenital cataract and AVLID. A large portion of the proteins found in the PCPs was similar to the proteins known to be present in lens epithelial cells and fibres. Proteins like vimentin, fibronectin, collagen type I, collagen type VI and lumican were also found, which typically are present in mesenchymal tissue but not in lens tissue or capsule. CONCLUSION: Posterior capsular plaques in cases of unilateral idiopathic congenital cataract of the AVLID type present a protein composition of mainly proteins found in lens epithelial cells and fibres. Some proteins however are a specific for lens tissue and are typically seen in mesenchymal tissue.


Assuntos
Catarata/congênito , Colágeno Tipo I/metabolismo , Fibronectinas/metabolismo , Cápsula do Cristalino/metabolismo , Capsulorrexe , Catarata/metabolismo , Catarata/patologia , Pré-Escolar , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Seguimentos , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Humanos , Lactente , Cápsula do Cristalino/patologia , Cápsula do Cristalino/cirurgia , Estudos Prospectivos , Proteômica
15.
J Extracell Vesicles ; 7(1): 1490143, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29988836

RESUMO

Extracellular vesicles (EVs) have a great potential in clinical applications. However, their isolation from different bodily fluids and their characterisation are currently not optimal or standardised. Here, we report the results of examining the performance of ultrafiltration combined with size exclusion chromatography (UF-SEC) to isolate EVs from urine. The results reveal that UF-SEC is an efficient method and provides high purity. Furthermore, we introduce asymmetrical-flow field-flow fractionation coupled with a UV detector and multi-angle light-scattering detector (AF4/UV-MALS) as a characterisation method and compare it with current methods. We demonstrate that AF4/UV-MALS is a straightforward and reproducible method for determining size, amount and purity of isolated urinary EVs.

16.
Proteomics ; 18(10): e1700218, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29710410

RESUMO

Bio-active peptides are involved in the regulation of most physiological processes in the body. Classical bio-active peptides (CBAPs) are cleaved from a larger precursor protein and stored in secretion vesicles from which they are released in the extracellular space. Recently, another non-classical type of bio-active peptides (NCBAPs) has gained interest. These typically are not secreted but instead appear to be translated from short open reading frames (sORF) and released directly into the cytoplasm. In contrast to CBAPs, these peptides are involved in the regulation of intra-cellular processes such as transcriptional control, calcium handling and DNA repair. However, bio-chemical evidence for the translation of sORFs remains elusive. Comprehensive analysis of sORF-encoded polypeptides (SEPs) is hampered by a number of methodological and biological challenges: the low molecular mass (many 4-10 kDa), the low abundance, transient expression and complications in data analysis. We developed a strategy to address a number of these issues. Our strategy is to exclude false positive identifications. In total sample, we identified 926 peptides originated from 37 known (neuro)peptide precursors in mouse striatum. In addition, four SEPs were identified including NoBody, a SEP that was previously discovered in humans and three novel SEPS from 5' untranslated transcript regions (UTRs).

17.
J Am Soc Mass Spectrom ; 29(5): 923-934, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29667164

RESUMO

Neuropeptides are essential cell-to-cell signaling messengers and serve important regulatory roles in animals. Although remarkable progress has been made in peptide identification across the Metazoa, for some phyla such as Echinodermata, limited neuropeptides are known and even fewer have been verified on the protein level. We employed peptidomic approaches using bioinformatics and mass spectrometry (MS) to experimentally confirm 23 prohormones and to characterize a new prohormone in nervous system tissue from Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, the purple sea urchin. Ninety-three distinct peptides from known and novel prohormones were detected with MS from extracts of the radial nerves, many of which are reported or experimentally confirmed here for the first time, representing a large-scale study of neuropeptides from the phylum Echinodermata. Many of the identified peptides and their precursor proteins have low homology to known prohormones from other species/phyla and are unique to the sea urchin. By pairing bioinformatics with MS, the capacity to characterize novel peptides and annotate prohormone genes is enhanced. Graphical Abstract.


Assuntos
Hormônios/análise , Neuropeptídeos/análise , Ouriços-do-Mar/química , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Proteômica , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
18.
Methods Mol Biol ; 1719: 141-159, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29476509

RESUMO

In differential peptidomics, peptide profiles are compared between biological samples and the resulting expression levels are correlated to a phenotype of interest. This, in turn, allows us insight into how peptides may affect the phenotype of interest. In quantitative differential peptidomics, both label-based and label-free techniques are often employed. Label-based techniques have several advantages over label-free methods, primarily that labels allow for various samples to be pooled prior to liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analysis, reducing between-run variation. Here, we detail a method for performing quantitative peptidomics using stable amine-binding isotopic and isobaric tags.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Marcação por Isótopo/métodos , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/análise , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/metabolismo , Proteômica/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Humanos
19.
Methods Mol Biol ; 1719: 241-246, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29476516

RESUMO

A wide variety of bioactive peptides are present in all metazoan species where they govern diverse functions as small messenger molecules. In the last 15 years, mass spectrometry-based methods have identified endogenous peptides in diverse species. Mass spectrometry enables the precise peptide sequences to be determined, including the potential existence of truncated versions or the presence of post-translational modifications. Because small modifications can have a large effect on biological activity, knowledge of the actual peptide sequences paves the way for further functional studies such as analysis of neuropeptidergic signaling cascades. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) is an important animal model that is commonly used in a wide range of studies. Here we provide a detailed description of the peptide extraction procedure and peptidomics workflow for zebrafish.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Neuropeptídeos/análise , Proteômica/métodos , Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo , Animais , Neuropeptídeos/isolamento & purificação , Neuropeptídeos/metabolismo
20.
Mol Plant Microbe Interact ; 31(1): 112-124, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29094648

RESUMO

The salivary protein repertoire released by the herbivorous pest Tetranychus urticae is assumed to hold keys to its success on diverse crops. We report on a spider mite-specific protein family that is expanded in T. urticae. The encoding genes have an expression pattern restricted to the anterior podocephalic glands, while peptide fragments were found in the T. urticae secretome, supporting the salivary nature of these proteins. As peptide fragments were identified in a host-dependent manner, we designated this family as the SHOT (secreted host-responsive protein of Tetranychidae) family. The proteins were divided in three groups based on sequence similarity. Unlike TuSHOT3 genes, TuSHOT1 and TuSHOT2 genes were highly expressed when feeding on a subset of family Fabaceae, while expression was depleted on other hosts. TuSHOT1 and TuSHOT2 expression was induced within 24 h after certain host transfers, pointing toward transcriptional plasticity rather than selection as the cause. Transfer from an 'inducer' to a 'noninducer' plant was associated with slow yet strong downregulation of TuSHOT1 and TuSHOT2, occurring over generations rather than hours. This asymmetric on and off regulation points toward host-specific effects of SHOT proteins, which is further supported by the diversity of SHOT genes identified in Tetranychidae with a distinct host repertoire.


Assuntos
Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita/genética , Família Multigênica , Proteínas e Peptídeos Salivares/genética , Tetranychidae/genética , Transcrição Genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Peptídeos/química , Peptídeos/metabolismo , Filogenia , Plantas/genética , Plantas/parasitologia , Proteômica , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Saliva/metabolismo , Fatores de Tempo
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