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1.
J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem ; 36(1): 1874-1883, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34340614

RESUMO

A library of variously decorated N-phenyl secondary sulphonamides featuring the bicyclic tetrahydroquinazole scaffold was synthesised and biologically evaluated for their inhibitory activity against human carbonic anhydrase (hCA) I, II, IV, and IX. Of note, several compounds were identified showing submicromolar potency and excellent selectivity for the tumour-related hCA IX isoform. Structure-activity relationship data attained for various substitutions were rationalised by molecular modelling studies in terms of both inhibitory activity and selectivity.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Anidrase Carbônica/farmacologia , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Isoenzimas/antagonistas & inibidores , Quinazolinas/química , Sulfonamidas/farmacologia , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética Nuclear de Carbono-13 , Inibidores da Anidrase Carbônica/síntese química , Inibidores da Anidrase Carbônica/química , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Espectroscopia de Prótons por Ressonância Magnética , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Sulfonamidas/química
2.
J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem ; 36(1): 1783-1797, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34340630

RESUMO

Carbonic Anhydrase Activators (CAAs) could represent a novel approach for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease, ageing, and other conditions that require remedial achievement of spatial learning and memory therapy. Within a research project aimed at developing novel CAAs selective for certain isoforms, three series of indole-based derivatives were investigated. Enzyme activation assay on human CA I, II, VA, and VII isoforms revealed several effective micromolar activators, with promising selectivity profiles towards the brain-associated cytosolic isoform hCA VII. Molecular modelling studies suggested a theoretical model of the complex between hCA VII and the new activators and provide a possible explanation for their modulating as well as selectivity properties. Preliminary biological evaluations demonstrated that one of the most potent CAA 7 is not cytotoxic and is able to increase the release of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) from human microglial cells, highlighting its possible application in the treatment of CNS-related disorders.


Assuntos
Anidrases Carbônicas/efeitos dos fármacos , Ativadores de Enzimas/farmacologia , Indóis/farmacologia , Isoenzimas/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/metabolismo , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética Nuclear de Carbono-13 , Anidrases Carbônicas/metabolismo , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Ativação Enzimática , Ativadores de Enzimas/química , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/métodos , Humanos , Indóis/química , Isoenzimas/metabolismo , Microglia/citologia , Microglia/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Moleculares , Espectroscopia de Prótons por Ressonância Magnética , Especificidade por Substrato
3.
Eur J Med Chem ; 220: 113490, 2021 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33975138

RESUMO

Carbonic Anhydrases (CAs) are pharmaceutically relevant targets for the treatment of several disease conditions. The ubiquitous localization of these enzymes and the high homology shared by the different isoforms represent substantial impediments for the discovery of potential drugs devoid of off-target side effects. As a consequence, substantial efforts are still needed to allow for the full realization of the pharmacological potential of CA modulators. In this contribution, starting from our previous studies, we describe the synthesis of a set of new bicyclic tetrahydroindazoles featuring a secondary sulfonamide. Biological evaluation of the inhibitory activity against the hCA I, II, IV, and IX isoforms allowed drawing a structure-activity relationship profile that was rationalized through theoretical studies. This allowed dissecting the new molecules into the single portions influencing the zinc chelation properties and the selectivity profile thereby offering a new platform for the discovery of new isotype selective CA inhibitors.


Assuntos
Compostos Bicíclicos Heterocíclicos com Pontes/farmacologia , Inibidores da Anidrase Carbônica/farmacologia , Anidrases Carbônicas/metabolismo , Indazóis/farmacologia , Sulfonamidas/farmacologia , Compostos Bicíclicos Heterocíclicos com Pontes/química , Inibidores da Anidrase Carbônica/síntese química , Inibidores da Anidrase Carbônica/química , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Humanos , Indazóis/química , Isoenzimas/antagonistas & inibidores , Isoenzimas/metabolismo , Modelos Moleculares , Estrutura Molecular , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Sulfonamidas/síntese química , Sulfonamidas/química
4.
J Med Chem ; 64(7): 3508-3545, 2021 04 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33764065

RESUMO

Over the years, researchers in drug discovery have taken advantage of the use of privileged structures to design innovative hit/lead molecules. The α-ketoamide motif is found in many natural products, and it has been widely exploited by medicinal chemists to develop compounds tailored to a vast range of biological targets, thus presenting clinical potential for a plethora of pathological conditions. The purpose of this perspective is to provide insights into the versatility of this chemical moiety as a privileged structure in drug discovery. After a brief analysis of its physical-chemical features and synthetic procedures to obtain it, α-ketoamide-based classes of compounds are reported according to the application of this motif as either a nonreactive or reactive moiety. The goal is to highlight those aspects that may be useful to understanding the perspectives of employing the α-ketoamide moiety in the rational design of compounds able to interact with a specific target.


Assuntos
Amidas/farmacologia , Química Farmacêutica/métodos , Cetonas/farmacologia , Amidas/química , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Humanos , Cetonas/química
5.
Eur J Med Chem ; 209: 112924, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33081988

RESUMO

The Translocator Protein 18 kDa (TSPO) has been discovered in 1977 as an alternative binding site for the benzodiazepine diazepam. It is an evolutionary well-conserved and tryptophan-rich 169-amino acids protein with five alpha helical transmembrane domains stretching the outer mitochondrial membrane, with the carboxyl-terminus in the cytosol and a short amino-terminus in the intermembrane space of mitochondrion. At this level, together with the voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC) and the adenine nucleotide translocase (ANT), it forms the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP). TSPO expression is ubiquitary, with higher levels in steroid producing tissues; in the central nervous system, it is mainly expressed in glial cells and in neurons. TSPO is implicated in a variety of fundamental cellular processes including steroidogenesis, heme biosynthesis, mitochondrial respiration, mitochondrial membrane potential, cell proliferation and differentiation, cell life/death balance, oxidative stress. Altered TSPO expression has been found in some pathological conditions. In particular, high TSPO expression levels have been documented in cancer, neuroinflammation, and brain injury. Conversely, low TSPO expression levels have been evidenced in anxiety disorders. Therefore, TSPO is not only an interesting drug target for therapeutic purpose (anticonvulsant, anxiolytic, etc.), but also a valid diagnostic marker of related-diseases detectable by fluorescent or radiolabeled ligands. The aim of this report is to present an update of previous reviews dealing with the medicinal chemistry of TSPO and to highlight the most outstanding advances in the development of TSPO ligands as potential therapeutic or diagnostic tools, especially referring to the last five years.


Assuntos
Ansiolíticos/química , Anticonvulsivantes/química , Benzodiazepinas/química , Diazepam/química , Receptores de GABA/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Ansiolíticos/farmacologia , Anticonvulsivantes/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Benzimidazóis/química , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Imidazóis/química , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Translocases Mitocondriais de ADP e ATP/metabolismo , Membranas Mitocondriais/metabolismo , Poro de Transição de Permeabilidade Mitocondrial/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Ligação Proteica , Piridinas/química , Quinolinas/química , Receptores de GABA/genética , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Canais de Ânion Dependentes de Voltagem/metabolismo
6.
Eur J Pharm Sci ; 156: 105594, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33059042

RESUMO

DNA Topoisomerases (Topos) are ubiquitous nuclear enzymes involved in regulating the topological state of DNA and, in eukaryotic organisms, Topos can be classified into two structurally and functionally different main classes: TopoI and TopoII. Both these enzymes proved to be excellent targets of clinically significant classes of anticancer drugs. Actually, TopoI or II inhibitors show considerable wide spectrum antitumor activities, an important feature to be included in many chemotherapeutic protocols. Despite their clinical efficacy, the use of inhibitors targeting only one of the two enzymes can increase the levels of the other one, favouring the onset of unwanted phenomena such as drug resistance. Therefore, targeting both TopoI and TopoII can reduce the probability of developing resistance, as well as side effects thanks to the use of lower doses, given the synergistic effect of the dual activity. Moreover, since drug resistance is also due to DNA repair systems such as tyrosyl-DNA phosphodiesterases I and II, inhibiting Topoisomerases concomitantly to Tyrosyl-DNA phosphodiesterase enzymes could allow more efficient and safe drugs. This review represents an update of previous works reporting about dual TopoI and TopoII inhibitors, but also an overview of the new strategy regarding the development of derivatives able to simultaneously inhibit Topo and TDP enzymes, with particular attention to structure-affinity relationship studies. The newly collected derivatives are described focusing attention on their chemical structures and their biological profiles. The final aim is to highlight the structural requirements necessary for the development of potent multiple modulators of these targets, thus providing new potential antitumor agents for the clinical usage.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos , DNA Topoisomerases Tipo I , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , DNA Topoisomerases Tipo I/metabolismo , DNA Topoisomerases Tipo II/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA , Diester Fosfórico Hidrolases , Inibidores da Topoisomerase I/farmacologia , Inibidores da Topoisomerase II/farmacologia
7.
J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem ; 36(1): 286-294, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33334192

RESUMO

Small-molecules acting as positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) of the A2B adenosine receptor (A2B AR) could potentially represent a novel therapeutic strategy for pathological conditions characterised by altered bone homeostasis, including osteoporosis. We investigated a library of compounds (4-13) exhibiting different degrees of chemical similarity with three indole derivatives (1-3), which have been recently identified by us as PAMs of the A2B AR able to promote mesenchymal stem cell differentiation and bone formation. Evaluation of mineralisation activity of 4-13 in the presence and in the absence of the agonist BAY60-6583 allowed the identification of lead compounds with therapeutic potential as anti-osteoporosis agents. Further biological characterisation of one of the most performing compounds, the benzofurane derivative 9, confirmed that such a molecule behaves as PAM of the A2B AR.


Assuntos
Indóis/farmacologia , Receptor A2B de Adenosina/metabolismo , Regulação Alostérica/efeitos dos fármacos , Regeneração Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Humanos , Indóis/química , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/efeitos dos fármacos , Estrutura Molecular , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
8.
Dalton Trans ; 49(41): 14520-14527, 2020 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33048079

RESUMO

We herein report the synthesis and multi-technique characterization of [Ru2Cl((2-phenylindol-3-yl)glyoxyl-l-leucine-l-phenylalanine)4], a novel diruthenium(ii,iii) complex obtained by reacting [Ru2(µ-O2CCH3)4Cl] with a dual indolylglyoxylyl dipeptide anticancer agent. We soon realised that the compound is very stable under several different conditions including aqueous buffers or organic solvents. It is also completely unreactive toward proteins. The high stability is also suggested by cellular experiments in a glioblastoma cell line. Indeed, while the parent ligand exerts high cytotoxic effects in the low µM range, the complex is completely non-cytotoxic against the same line, most probably because of the lack of ligand release. To investigate the reasons for such high stability, we carried out DFT calculations that are fully consistent with the experimental findings. The results highlight that the stability of [Ru2Cl((2-phenylindol-3-yl)glyoxyl-l-leucine-l-phenylalanine)4] relies on the nature of the ligand, including its steric hindrance that prevents the reaction of any nucleophilic group with the Ru2 core. Ligand displacement is the key step to allow reactivity with the biological targets of metal-based prodrugs. Accordingly, we discuss the implications of some important aspects that should be considered when active molecules are chosen as ligands for the synthesis of paddle-wheel-like complexes with medicinal applications.

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