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1.
Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther ; : 102041, 2020 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33022417

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This randomized clinical trial assessed antimicrobial Photodynamic Therapy (aPDT) mediated by Photodithazine (PDZ) to treat patients with denture stomatitis (DS). METHODOLOGIES: Patients with DS were randomly assigned to the groups: aPDT (n = 30) and nystatin (NYS, n = 35). aPDT patients received 6 aPDT sessions, three times a week for 15 days, which involved PDZ (200 mg/L) topical application (20 min) on the palate and upper denture, followed by LED illumination (660 nm, 50 J/cm²). NYS patients were instructed to rinse one dropper of this medication for one minute, four times a day, for 15 days. Microbiological collections of dentures and palates were performed and cultured on blood agar and CHROMAgar Candida. Microbial viability was determined, and photographs of the palates were taken for clinical evaluation. Data were analyzed by Repeated Measure Linear Model and Bonferroni (p ≤ 0.05). RESULTS: aPDT was more effective to reduce the total microbiota than NYS. At the end of the treatments, aPDT reduced 1.98 from the palate and 1.91 log10 from the denture, while NYS reduced 0.05 and 0.17 log10, respectively. Moreover, aPDT was as effective as NYS to reduce Candida. Reductions of 0.68 and 0.77 log10 were observed in the palate and denture of aPDT group, while reductions of 0.57 and 1.43 log10 were achieved in the NYS group, respectively. Regarding to oral lesion, 53.3 and 54.2% of the patients from aPDT and NYS groups had clinical improvement. However, the recurrence of DS was observed in both groups. CONCLUSION: PDZ-mediated aPDT is a promising treatment for DS.

2.
Lasers Med Sci ; 2020 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33064262

RESUMO

Healing wounds represent a major public health problem, mainly when it is infected. Besides that, the antibiotics misuse and overuse favor the development of bacterial resistance. This study evaluated the effects of antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) combined with artificial skin on disinfection of infected skin wound in rats. Twenty-four Wistar rats were randomly distributed into 4 groups (n = 6): (i) control-untreated; (ii) aPDT-treated with curcumin-mediated aPDT (blue light); (iii) artificial skin-treated with artificial skin alcohol-based; and (iv) aPDT plus artificial skin-treated with aPDT associated with artificial skin alcohol-based. For the in vivo model, a full-thickness biopsy with 0.80 cm was performed in order to inoculate the microorganism Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923). The aPDT was performed with a curcumin gel and a blue LED light (450 nm, 80 mW/cm2) at the dose of 60 J/cm2 and the treatment with alcohol-based artificial skin was done with the topical application of 250 µL. Additional animals were submitted to aPDT combined with the artificial skin. After treatments, the number of colony-forming units (CFU) and the damage area were determined. Data were analyzed by two-way repeated measures ANOVA and Tukey tests. The highest reduction of the bacterial viability was observed in the PDT plus artificial skin group (4.14 log10), followed by artificial skin (2.38 log10) and PDT (2.22 log10) groups. In addition, all treated groups showed higher relative area of wound contraction (36.21% for the PDT, 38.41% for artificial skin, and 35.02% for PDT plus artificial) in comparison with the control group. These findings provide evidence for the positive benefits of aPDT with blue light and curcumin associated with artificial skin to decontaminate and accelerate the wound contraction.

3.
J Biophotonics ; : e202000128, 2020 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32981235

RESUMO

One important limitation of topical photodynamic therapy (PDT) is the limited tissue penetration of precursors. Microneedles (MNs) are minimally invasive devices used to promote intradermal drug delivery. Dissolving MNs contain drug-associated to polymer blends, dissolving after insertion into skin, allowing drug release. This study comprises development and characterization of a pyramidal model of dissolving MNs (500 µm) prepared with 5% wt/wt aminolevulinic acid and 20% wt/wt Gantrez AN-139 in aqueous blend. Protoporphyrin IX formation and distribution were evaluated in tumor mice model by using fluorescence widefield imaging, spectroscopy, and confocal microscopy. MNs demonstrated excellent mechanical resistance penetrating about 250 µm with minor size alteration in vitro, and fluorescence intensity was 5-times higher at 0.5 mm on average compared to cream in vivo (being 10 ± 5 a.u. for MNs and 2.4 ± 0.8 a.u. for cream). Dissolving MNs have overcome topical cream application, being extremely promising especially for thicker skin lesions treatment using PDT.

4.
J Photochem Photobiol B ; 210: 111985, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32771915

RESUMO

It is estimated over 600 million pharyngotonsillitis (PT) cases worldwide per year and 30% of this total are caused by Streptococcus pyogenes with standard antibiotic treatment. Antimicrobial Photodynamic Therapy (aPDT) has been studied for the clinical research in infectious diseases. The study aim was to analyze the evolution of aPDT on inactivation of clinical strains of multiple cycles. S. pyogenes and clinical strains isolated from patients with PT were incubated with curcumin in formulation (2.25 mg/ml) and irradiated at 450 nm in Light fluence rates. A mortality was a measure of the counting colony forming units per milliliter (CFU/ml) surviving. Parameters of bacterial biofilm formation, uptake of photosensitizer (PS) and efficacy of antibiotics on survival of bacteria of each cycle were tested. The bacteria profile remains unchanged between 10 aPDT cycles was observed. The bacterial colony survival presented a reduction in capacity to form biofilm due adhesion of strains and PS uptake rate. The antibiotic remained efficient after aPDT cycles. Our in vitro results suggested a low-level of development of PDT resistance, however a decrease of photosensitizer uptake was observed. Furthermore, there is no cross effect on aPDT cycles and the first application of antibiotics.

5.
Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther ; 31: 101937, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32739622

RESUMO

High-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) is the precursor to cervical cancer. HPV (human papillomavirus) infection is strongly related with this disease. The CIN treatment is generally excision of the transformation zone (ETZ). Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has also shown to be a promising treatment. We are reporting a case of a 33-years-old patient with high-grade CIN 3 treated with topical MAL (methyl aminolevulinate) PDT. Was applied 2.5 g of 20 % (w/w) MAL cream overnight and the cervix was illuminated twice, with three weeks apart, using a probe with LEDs simultaneously with a cylindrical laser fiber emitting both at 630 nm, with a fluency of 150 J/cm2. CIN 3 and the presence of high-risk HPV virus was eliminated 120 days after the second procedure. There was no recurrence at 6 months follow-up. This case report using MAL-PDT and a different light arrangement with LEDs and laser fiber associated both cured the patient with CIN 3 and eliminated low and high-risk HPV in just two PDT sessions.

6.
Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther ; 31: 101840, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32485405

RESUMO

Combating the Aedes aegypti vector is still the key to control the transmission of many arboviruses, such as Dengue, Zika, and Chikungunya. As few products are efficient for Aedes aegypti control, the search for new strategies have become pivotal., t Substances with photodynamic activity, such as curcumin and their formulations, are strongly encouraged, due to their multi-target mechanism of action. In this study, we evaluated the photolarvicidal and ovicidal activity of curcumin in the presence of sucrose (named SC) and d-mannitol (named DMC). To support the understanding of the larvicidal action of these formulations, Raman micro-spectroscopy was employed. We also studied the morphological changes in Danio rerio (Zebrafish) gills, a non-target organism, and demonstrate that this is an environmentally friendly approach. Both SC and DMC presented a high photo-larvicidal potential. DMC showed the highest larval mortality, with LC50-24h values between 0.01 and 0.02 mg.L-1. DMC also significantly decreased egg hatchability, reaching a hatching rate of 10 % at 100 mg.L-1. The analysis of molecular mechanisms via Raman micro-spectroscopy showed that DMC is highly permeable to the peritrophic membrane of the larva, causing irreversible damage to the simple columnar epithelium of the digestive tube. Histological changes found in the D. rerio gills were of minimal or moderate pathological importance, indicating an adaptive trait rather than detrimental characteristics. These findings indicate that curcumin in sugar formulations is highly efficient, especially DMC, proving it to be a promising and safe alternative to control Aedes mosquitoes. Moreover, Raman micro-spectroscopy demonstrated high potential as an analytical technique to understand the mechanism of action of larvicides.

7.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(23): 29204-29217, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32430723

RESUMO

Aedes aegypti is the vector of important diseases like dengue, zika, chikungunya, and yellow fever. Vector control is pivotal in combating the spread of these mosquito-borne illnesses. Photoactivable larvicide curcumin obtained from Curcuma longa Linnaeus has shown high potential for Ae. aegypti larvae control. However, the toxicity of this photosensitizer (PS) might jeopardize non-target aquatic organisms. The aim of this study was to evaluate the toxicity of this PS to Daphnia magna and Danio rerio, besides assessing its mode of action through larvae biochemical and histological studies. Three PS formulations were tested: PS in ethanol+DMSO, PS in sucrose, and PS in D-mannitol. The LC50 of PS in ethanol+DMSO to D. rerio was 5.9 mg L-1, while in D. magna the solvents were extremely toxic, and LC50 was not estimated. The PS formulations in sugars were not toxic to neither of the organisms. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) were generated in D. magna exposed to 50 mg L-1 of PS in D-mannitol, and D. rerio did not elicit this kind of response. D. magna feeding rates were not affected by the PS in D-mannitol. Concerning Ae. aegypti larvae, there were changes in reduced glutathione and protein levels, while catalase activity remained stable after exposure to PS in D-mannitol and sunlight. Histological changes were observed in larvae exposed to PS in sucrose and D-mannitol, most of them irreversible and deleterious. Our results show the feasibility of this photolarvicide use in Ae. aegypti larvae control and its safety to non-target organisms. These data are crucial to this original vector control approach implementation in public health policies.


Assuntos
Aedes , Curcumina , Inseticidas , Infecção por Zika virus , Zika virus , Animais , Larva , Mosquitos Vetores
8.
Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther ; 31: 101812, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32389737

RESUMO

Condyloma or genital warts affect the tissues of the genital area due to infections induced by Human papillomavirus. There are some topical therapies indicated for condyloma lesions treatment but all of them present a high rate of recurrence. Photodynamic Therapy is proving to be an interesting strategy for treating these lesions, capable also to treat virus-infected cells on subclinical lesions. A patient with a significative condylomatosis region was treated with six MAL-PDT sessions. Due to its large thickness, other topical procedures probably would have low effectiveness. After the treatment, the tissue presented clinical absence of lesion and no apparent scar, with good aesthetic result and preserving the sensitivity of the region and a follow up of eleven months without recurrence.

9.
Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther ; 31: 101817, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32407890

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: An appropriate photosensitizer (PS) for photodynamic inactivation should have a pronounced antimicrobial efficacy but low dark toxicity. The aim of this study is to investigate the concentration-dependent antimicrobial efficacies of methylene blue (MB) and chlorin e6 (Ce6), against Streptococcus mutans biofilms and to compare the efficacies of these two PSs. METHODS: The 48-h S. mutans UA159 biofilms, grown on glass coverslips, were subjected to MB or Ce6 at 25, 50, 100 and 200 µM with or without irradiation by 660 nM LED light (L). Control groups (-PS-L and -PS + L) were also included. Viability of the biofilm was analyzed by CFU/biofilm and biofilm lactic acid production was quantified by an enzymatic assay. RESULTS: With irradiation, MB under 25 µM resulted in 2-log reduction in biofilm viability and 30-fold reduction in biofilm lactic acid production. However, this biofilm killing efficacy did not change with increasing MB concentration. The biofilm killing efficacy of Ce6 increased with increasing Ce6 concentrations and resulted in 5-log reduction in biofilm viability. The lactic acid inhibitory effect of Ce6 was significantly lower than MB at 25 µM (p<0.01) but higher than MB at 200 µM (p=0.05), although the difference at 200 µM did not reach statistical significance. No dark toxicity could be observed for MB whereas low dark toxicity could be seen for Ce6 when the concentration is above 50 µM. CONCLUSION: Ce6 under 200 µM showed to be a more powerful PS for photodynamic inactivation than MB. Both Ce6- and MB-based photodynamic inactivation are useful methods for biofilm control in caries prevention.

10.
Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther ; 30: 101786, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32334000

RESUMO

Decreasing incubation time, as well as enhanced PpIX production, are present challenges for topical photodynamic therapy (PDT). There are reports concerning the existence of a strong relationship between site temperature and porphyrin synthesis in biological tissue, that suggest temperature increase in the tissue can improve the formation of PpIX. The main objective of this study is to determine whether the temperature change of the tissue favors the production of PpIX. Creams containing aminolevulinic acid (ALA) and methyl aminolevulinate (MAL) were topically administered for 30 min on healthy skin of rats' back and the formation of PpIX was evaluated for 180 min. The animals were divided into 5 groups: cooling tissue to 20 °C or heating tissue to 40 °C (either before or after incubation of the cream) and control group (unchanged temperature). The tissue temperature was evaluated by thermography. The influence of temperature was evaluated both concerning cream penetration and the production of PpIX. It was found that both ALA and MAL led to an increase of about 20% PpIX production when the tissue was warmed before incubation of the cream, suggesting that the penetration improved. When the thermal change was promoted after incubation of the cream, the production of PpIX decreased both by heating and cooling, probably related to enzyme modification. The results found in this study suggest that the increase of tissue temperature before the cream incubation can improve the clinical protocols of topical PDT using ALA or MAL, improving the efficiency of the procedure by increasing the production of PpIX and allowing the decrease of the incubation period.

11.
Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther ; 18(7): 689-696, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32336177

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To test the effectiveness of an efficient therapeutic protocol for the total mouth antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) mediated by 450 nm blue LED associated with curcumin in individuals with AIDS. METHODS: Patients were selected by exclusion criteria and randomly distributed in groups to test the effectiveness of antimicrobial aPDT with curcumin 0.75 mg/mL associated with the blue LED (67 mW/cm2, 20.1 J/cm2). Before and after the treatments, samples were collected from the saliva being processed in duplicate in selective culture media. The colonies were counted and the results obtained in log10 CFU/mL were statistically tested (T-paired statistical test, 5%). RESULTS: The log10 CFU/mL of Streptococcus spp., Staphylococcus spp., and total count of microorganisms showed statistically significant (p = 0.023; p = 0.001 and p = 0.017, respectively) reduction after treatment in patients with aPDT. CONCLUSION: aPDT was effective in reducing Streptococcusspp. in addition to reducing Staphylococcusspp., enterobacteria and the total count of microorganisms when considering the numbers of TCD4 and TCD8 lymphocytes. The aPDT in the studied protocol was able to control clinically important intraoral microorganisms for AIDS patients, both those with TCD4 lymphocytes above or below 25% of normal and those with TCD8 lymphocytes above 25% of normal.

12.
Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther ; 30: 101700, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32126306

RESUMO

The combination of multiple sessions of Photodynamic therapy (PDT) and surgery have been used to treat an extensive superficial lesion of squamous cell carcinoma in situ. Methyl aminolevulinate (MAL) mediated PDT was applied to reduce the tumoral area and a small surgical removal was performed to complete elimination of the lesion. The reduction of the tumor area avoided the need for a skin graft application as well as possible postoperative complications, offering a more favorable cosmetic outcome. Two-years of follow-up showed no recurrence. The case is interesting and demonstrate potentialities for the combined use of PDT and surgery.

13.
Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther ; 30: 101678, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32004721

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: About one-third of the food produced in the world is lost or wasted every year. Contamination can cause significant food loss throughout the entire supply chain, including harvesting, processing, storage, and transport to consumers. This study evaluated ultraviolet-C (UV-C) light and curcumin-mediated photodynamic inactivation (PDI) for the decontamination of meat and fruit. METHODS: The cut pieces of food samples contaminated with E. coli or S. aureus were submitted to photonic treatments. For UV-C, samples were irradiated with UV-C lamps (254 nm) for 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 10 min. For PDI, samples were incubated using 40 and 80 µM curcumin and irradiated with 450 nm at 5, 10, and 15 J/cm2 of light doses. The microbiological analysis was performed by counting the colony-forming unit (CFU). RESULTS: UV-C irradiation reduced the number of E. coli in beef by (1.0 ± 0.2) log10 CFU/mL after 5 min of exposure. In chicken and pork, the numbers of E. coli were reduced by (1.6 ± 0.7) log10 CFU/mL and (1.6 ± 0.4) log10 CFU/mL after 4 and 10 min of irradiation, respectively. In apple the reductions were (3.2 ± 0.4) and (3.8 ± 0.2) log10 CFU/mL after 5 and 10 min of UV-C irradiation, respectively. PDI (40 µM, 15 J/cm2) reduced the number of S. aureus by (1.5 ± 0.2), (1.4 ± 0.2) and (0.6 ± 0.4) log10 CFU/mL in beef, chicken, and pork meat samples, respectively. In apple the greatest reduction was (2.0 ± 0.4) log10 CFU/mL using 80 µM and 10 J/cm2. CONCLUSION: UV-C irradiation and PDI had an anti-microbial effect in food and our findings indicated that the greatest effect was achieved in apples. Therefore, these techniques may be useful to reduce E. coli and S. aureus contamination levels on the surface of meats and fruits, being promising for applications in the field of microbiological food safety.

14.
Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther ; 30: 101680, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32006649

RESUMO

The limited adoption of photodynamic therapy (PDT) around the medical field may be tied to the unpredicted treatment response that an unmonitored therapy could deliver. Given the high variability in the lesions optical and physiological parameters, it is of fundamental importance to monitor PDT, since different lesions require different therapeutic parameters. We developed a system to treat and online monitor PDT of skin cancer, using protoporphyrin-IX (PpIX) near-infrared fluorescence imaging. The system can be operated up to 150 mW/cm2 at 633 nm, with real-time fluorescence monitoring around 700 nm, using the treatment light itself for fluorescence excitation. This technology allows system portability, simplicity, and low cost. This study describes the system development and its comparison with a 400-450 nm commercial system to detect the PpIX fluorescence during a PDT in murine skin cancer model. The developed device was able to acquire considerably more fluorescence signal from deeper regions when compared to the violet excitation device.

15.
Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther ; 29: 101652, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31923633

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: A mixture of curcuminoids: curcumin, desmethoxycurcumin (DMC), and bisdemethoxycurcumin (BDMC) are named natural curcumin. It is a lipophilic photosensitizer (PS) highly soluble in an organic solvent such as dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). Curcumin is a PS used for microbial inactivation using photodynamic action. However, this solvent has high cytotoxicity and is unavailable in formulations for clinical use. This study aimed to investigate the interactions of curcuminoids syrup with Streptococcus sp., a gram-positive coccus and one of the major pharyngeal pathogens, responsible for diseases such as pharyngitis. METHODS: Bacteria were incubated with curcuminoids (natural curcumin, synthetic, DMC, BDMC) at 37 °C in formulations: 1) syrup (water + sucrose) 2) solution alcohol + DMSO. Was centrifuged, and the supernatant collected for absorbance analysis. The results obtained correlating the absorbance with the supernatant to the absorbance of the default concentration. A study of microbial metabolism by growth curve was carried out to justify the result. RESULTS: The incorporation of curcumin in syrup is superior to alcohol/DMSO solution by microorganisms. Curcumin incorporation by S. mutans, S. pyogenes, isolated bacteria was 24, 26, 27 % in syrup and 10, 13, 5 % in alcohol/DMSO, respectively. Also, the presence of carbohydrate in a solution can activate the bacterial metabolism, getting better uptake results and photodynamic inactivation to natural curcumin and DMC. Such finds care optimizes the use of curcumin without complications generated by the solvent.

16.
Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther ; 29: 101599, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31731063

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) is a treatment for non-melanoma skin cancer. One of the main challenges of topical PDT is to increase the precursor penetration when applied on the lesion. Protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) is an endogenous photosensitizer (PS) widely used, obtained by the administration of precursors such as aminolevulinic acid and methyl aminolevulinate. Aiming for the technique improvement by providing greater PS penetration in skin lesions, we tested a new approach for drug delivery with a minimally invasive technique. A dermograph is a device currently used in aesthetic procedures to promote skin rejuvenation or to micropigmentation. The use of dermograph for drug delivery has not been particularly explored for PDT so far, and the present study explores that approach as its main goal. METHODS: This study evaluated the PpIX distribution and PDT damage in normal rat skin model; the response of dermograph application in a pilot clinical study was also investigated. RESULTS: The animal tests showed that more homogeneous PpIX distribution and greater penetration in the tissue was observed with dermograph when compared to the topical application. Six nodular basal cell carcinoma lesions were treated with PDT using intradermal delivery by dermograph, and no recurrence was observed after 28 months of follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: The precursor's penetration improvement and the consequent increase in PpIX distribution in-depth both favor PDT response, providing upgrades concerning problems that hinder the clinical practice acceptance.

17.
Lasers Med Sci ; 35(2): 329-336, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31203569

RESUMO

To evaluate the photobiomodulation (PBM) effect on the cardiovascular autonomic control, analyzed by baroreflex sensitivity (sequence method), during constant load exercise and recovery in diabetic men, we evaluated 11 men with type 2 diabetes (DM2) (40-64 years). The constant workload exercise protocol (TECC) was performed on two different days, 14 days apart from each other, to guarantee PBM washout period. After PBM by light-emitting diode (LED) irradiation (150 J or 300 J or placebo), 10 min of rest (REST) was performed. After this period, the volunteer was positioned on a cycloergometer to start the test (1-min rest, 3-min free-load heating, 6-min constant workload-EXERCISE, 6-min free-load cool-down, 1-min rest) followed by a sitting period of 10 min (RECOVERY). The constant workload corresponded to 80%VO2GET (gas exchange threshold) identified by a previous cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET). PBM was applied in continuous mode, contact technique, bilaterally, on both femoral quadriceps and gastrocnemius muscle groups. The electrocardiogram R-R intervals (BioAmp FE132) and the peripheral pulse pressure signals (Finometer PRO) were collected continuously throughout the protocol. Stable sequences of 256 points were chosen at REST, EXERCISE, and RECOVERY. The baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) was computed in time domain according to the sequence method (αseq). The comparison between therapies (150 J/300 J/placebo) and condition (REST, EXERCISE, and RECOVERY) was performed using the ANOVA two-way repeated measures test. There was no interaction between therapy and conditions during the TECC. There was only the condition effect (p < 0.001), showing that the behavior of αseq was similar regardless of the therapy. Photobiomodulation with 150 J or 300 J applied previously to a moderate-intensity TECC in DM2 was not able to promote cardiovascular autonomic control changes leading to an improvement in BRS.

18.
Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther ; 29: 101586, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31683031

RESUMO

The changes in tissue temperature of basal cell carcinoma lesions were investigated during photodynamic therapy in order to better understand the effects and mechanisms of PDT in tissue. In this study, the monitoring of 40 lesions of basal cell carcinoma was performed during photodynamic therapy. The lesion region becomes thermally evident throughout the procedure, and there is an improved contrast of the lesion edges after the end of the irradiation. The comparison between thermal and fluorescence images showed a correlation between the PpIX evidenced through widefield fluorescence and the temperature gradient of the thermal images after the procedure, indicating that thermography is a potential diagnostic tool to evaluate the selective response of PDT. A model was created to calculate the amount of light energy converted to heat, tissue damage, and other energy transfer processes involved in the PDT. Using this model, it was shown that most of the energy conversion was in photodynamic action (48.7% and 48.3%, in first and second session, respectively), followed by the energy ratio attributable to blood perfusion (37.2%). This is evidence that photodynamic therapy does not generate a significant thermal component, an important aspect of the study of its mechanisms.

19.
Photobiomodul Photomed Laser Surg ; 37(11): 694-699, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31589559

RESUMO

Background and objective: The object of this study was to analyze the oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) of patients with temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) who were treated simultaneously with ultrasound (US) and photobiomodulation therapy (PBMT). Materials and methods: This study included 13 patients of both genders, with diagnosis of TMD according to the Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders. The patients were treated with equipment consisting of US and PBMT in the same system. The treatment was applied to the left and right sides of the face in the masseter muscle, anterior temporalis muscle, and temporomandibular joint, two sessions per week for a total of eight sessions. The OHRQoL was assessed by the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14) at three moments: pretreatment (T0), after the eight treatment sessions (T1), and 30 days after termination of treatment (T2). The Wilcoxon, Mann-Whitney U, Kruskall-Wallis, and Spearman's correlation coefficient tests were applied, with a significance threshold of 5%. Results: Psychological discomfort, physical pain, and psychological limitation were the domains where the highest scores were obtained at T0. The total OHIP-14 scores at T1 and T2 were significantly lower than at T0. No statistical differences were observed between T1 and T2. Conclusions: We conclude that synergistic treatment was effective in improving the OHRQoL of patients with TMDs, and that its beneficial effects persisted at 1 month after termination of treatment.

20.
Int. j. morphol ; 37(3): 977-984, Sept. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1012384

RESUMO

Orthodontically induced inflammatory root resorption (OIIRR) is a complication of dental treatment which consists of the degradation of local tissue due to an inflammatory reaction provoked by inappropriate orthodontic stimulus. The aim of the present systematic review was to assess the effectiveness of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) in reducing orthodontically induced inflammatory root resorption (OIIRR) in animal models. A systematic review was carried out in the MEDLINE, EMBASE and LILACS databases. Studies of interventions in animals were selected which analysed the effect of LLLT on OIIRR repair. The risk of bias was analysed through the 10 domains of the SYRCLE RoB tool for animal studies. Seventy-one studies were found; 27 were eliminated as duplicates and 44 titles/abstracts were analysed. Of these, 38 were excluded, and five studies were included for qualitative analysis. In 66.6 % of the studies included, the authors state that LLLT was effective in the inhibition/repair of OIIRR. In histological analysis it was observed that root resorption was significantly less in animals treated with laser as compared to the control. Furthermore, LLLT accelerated cicatrization after OIIRR. Laser proved effective in reducing root resorption lacunae and shortening the inflammatory process induced by the application of orthodontic force.


La resorción radicular inflamatoria inducida por tratamiento ortodontico (RRIITO) es una complicación del tratamiento odontológico que consiste en la degradación del tejido local debido a una reacción inflamación provocada por un estímulo ortodóntico inadecuado. El objetivo fue analizar la efectividad de la terapia láser de baja intensidad (LBI) en la disminución de RRIITO en ratas. Se realizó una revisión sistemática en las bases MEDLINE, EMBASE y LILACS. Fueron utilizados los términos 'resorción radicular', 'láser de baja intensidad', 'fototerapia', 'tratamiento ortodóntico', 'movimiento dental'. Fueron seleccionados estudios de intervención en animales, que analizaron el efecto del LBI en la reparación de la RRIITO. Los riesgos de sesgos fueron analizados mediante los 10 domínios de la herramienta SYRCLE RoB para estudios en animales. 71 estudios fueron encontrados, siendo eliminados 27 duplicados, y analizados 44 títulos/abstracts; de estos, fueron incluídos 5 estudios para análisis cualitativa. El 66,6 % de los estudios incluidos afirman que el LBI fue efectivo em reparar la RRIITO. En el análisis histológico se observó que la RRIITO fue significativamente menor en animales tratados con láser en comparación con el control. Además de eso, el LBI aceleró el proceso de cicatrización de la RRIITO. El láser se mostró efectivo en reducir las lagunas de resorción radicular y acortar el proceso inflamatorio inducido por la aplicación de fuerzas ortodonticas.


Assuntos
Animais , Ratos , Reabsorção da Raiz/patologia , Reabsorção da Raiz/radioterapia , Terapia com Luz de Baixa Intensidade , Ortodontia , Reabsorção da Raiz/etiologia , Técnicas de Movimentação Dentária/efeitos adversos , Risco , Ratos Wistar , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Inflamação
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