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1.
Clin Cancer Res ; 2021 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34862246

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Accurate response assessment during neoadjuvant systemic treatment (NST) poses a clinical challenge. Therefore, a minimally-invasive assessment of tumor response based on cell-free circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) may be beneficial to guide treatment decisions. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We profiled 93 genes in tissue from 193 early breast cancer patients. Patient-specific assays were designed for 145 patients to track ctDNA during NST in plasma. ctDNA presence and levels were correlated with complete pathological response (pCR), residual cancer burden (RCB) as well as clinicopathologic characteristics of the tumor to identify potential proxies for ctDNA release. RESULTS: At baseline, ctDNA could be detected in 63/145 (43.4%) patients and persisted in 25/63 (39.7%) patients at mid-therapy (MT) and 15/63 (23.8%) patients at the end of treatment. ctDNA detection at MT was significantly associated with higher RCB (OR 0.062, 95% CI 0.01-0.48, P=0.0077).Out of 31 patients with detectable ctDNA at MT, 30 patients (96.8%) were non-responders (RCB II, n=8; RCB III, n=22) and only one patient responded to the treatment (RCB I). Considering all 145 patients with baseline (BL) plasma, none of the patients with RCB 0 and only 6.7% of patients with RCB I had ctDNA detectable at MT, while 30.6% and 29.6% of patients with RCB II/III, respectively, had a positive ctDNA result. CONCLUSION: Overall, our results demonstrate that the detection and persistence of ctDNA at MT may have the potential to negatively predict response to neoadjuvant treatment and identify patients who will not achieve pCR or be classified with RCB II/III.

2.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(17)2021 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34503219

RESUMO

Stromal tumour infiltrating lymphocytes (sTILs) are a strong prognostic marker in triple negative breast cancer (TNBC). Consistency scoring sTILs is good and was excellent when an internet-based scoring aid developed by the TIL-WG was used to score cases in a reproducibility study. This study aimed to evaluate the reproducibility of sTILs assessment using this scoring aid in cases from routine practice and to explore the potential of the tool to overcome variability in scoring. Twenty-three breast pathologists scored sTILs in digitized slides of 49 TNBC biopsies using the scoring aid. Subsequently, fields of view (FOV) from each case were selected by one pathologist and scored by the group using the tool. Inter-observer agreement was good for absolute sTILs (ICC 0.634, 95% CI 0.539-0.735, p < 0.001) but was poor to fair using binary cutpoints. sTILs heterogeneity was the main contributor to disagreement. When pathologists scored the same FOV from each case, inter-observer agreement was excellent for absolute sTILs (ICC 0.798, 95% CI 0.727-0.864, p < 0.001) and good for the 20% (ICC 0.657, 95% CI 0.561-0.756, p < 0.001) and 40% (ICC 0.644, 95% CI 0.546-0.745, p < 0.001) cutpoints. However, there was a wide range of scores for many cases. Reproducibility scoring sTILs is good when the scoring aid is used. Heterogeneity is the main contributor to variance and will need to be overcome for analytic validity to be achieved.

3.
Clin Cancer Res ; 27(21): 5931-5938, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34380638

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To validate the clinical performance of the OncoMasTR Risk Score in the biomarker cohort of Austrian Breast and Colorectal Cancer Study Group (ABCSG) Trial 8. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We evaluated the OncoMasTR test in 1,200 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) surgical specimens from postmenopausal women with estrogen receptor (ER)-positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-negative primary breast cancer with 0 to 3 involved lymph nodes in the prospective, randomized ABCSG Trial 8. Time to distant recurrence (DR) was analyzed by Cox models. RESULTS: The OncoMasTR Risk Score categorized 850 of 1,087 (78.2%) evaluable patients as "low risk". At 10 years, the DR rate for patients in the low-risk group was 5.8% versus 21.1% for patients in the high-risk group (P < 0.0001, absolute risk reduction 15.3%). The OncoMasTR Risk Score was highly prognostic for prediction of DR in years 0 to 10 in all patients [HR 1.91, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.62-2.26, P < 0.0001; C-index 0.73], in patients that were node negative (HR 1.79, 95% CI, 1.43-2.24, P < 0.0001; C-index 0.72), and in patients with 1 to 3 involved lymph nodes (HR 1.93, 95% CI, 1.44-2.58, P < 0.0001; C-index 0.71). The OncoMasTR Risk Score provided significant additional prognostic information beyond clinical parameters, Ki67, Nottingham Prognostic Index, and Clinical Treatment Score. CONCLUSIONS: OncoMasTR Risk Score is highly prognostic for DR in postmenopausal women with ER-positive, HER2-negative primary breast cancer with 0 to 3 involved lymph nodes. In combination with prior validation studies, this fully independent validation in ABCSG Trial 8 provides level 1B evidence for the prognostic capability of the OncoMasTR Risk Score.

4.
Clin Breast Cancer ; 2021 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34229944

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) in combination with anti-HER2 treatment is standard of care in patients with early HER2 positive breast cancer. Preoperative radiological evaluation is mandatory for defining the extent of surgery. In this study, we evaluated the correlation between preoperative radiological and postoperative pathological tumor size in early HER2 positive patients after neoadjuvant chemotherapy in combination with trastuzumab and pertuzumab. In a patient population with HER2 positive breast cancer, who received neoadjuvant chemotherapy and anti-HER2 treatment, the correlation between preoperative radiological and postoperative pathological tumor size was performed. Concordance of radiological and pathological tumor size was found in 55.7%, leading to more extensive breast surgery as required in 7 cases and to the underestimation of 6 neoplastic lesions before surgery, respectively. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Seventy early HER2 positive breast cancer patients were included and retrospectively analysed. All preoperative radiological assessments as well as the tumor board decision on surgical extent and pathological evaluation were completed at the Medical University of Vienna. Preoperative radiological assessment of tumor size and lymph node status were compared with final histopathological findings. The correlation between different radiological modalities regarding tumor size was investigated. RESULTS: Concordance of radiological and pathological tumor size was found in 55.7 % (50% by sonography and 66.7% by MRI, respectively) of patients with a nonsignificant correlation of r = 0.31 (P = .08). Of the 39 patients with pathologic complete remission (pCR), 16 were also classified as radiological complete response (rCR) while 23 of those showed a radiological stable disease or partial response. In 6 patients, radiological assessment showed a CR but invasive cancer with a tumor size range from 7 to 36 mm was found in histopathological examination. Neither menopausal status (P= .69) nor BMI (P = .60) and age (P = .50) had an impact on the correlation between radiological and histopathological tumor size. Regarding lymph node status, a statistically significant association and clinically relevant correlation between radiological and histopathological evaluation was found (r = 0.66, P < .001). CONCLUSION: Concordance between radiology and histopathology was low regarding tumor size after NAC in combination with trastuzumab and pertuzumab, but significant regarding lymph node status.

5.
Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol ; 29(10): 728-733, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34121071

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Androgen receptor (AR) expression is a potential therapeutic target in breast cancer (BC) as it is frequently expressed in the luminal A and B subtypes and in approximately one third of basal-like cancers. As AR-positive BC displays a distinct biological behavior, we aimed to analyze AR expression in the particular context of BC brain metastases (BM). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with newly diagnosed BC BM treated with neurosurgical resection were identified from the Vienna Brain Metastasis Registry and clinical data including patient characteristics, biological tumor subtypes and overall survival were obtained by retrospective chart review. Formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded specimen containing BM tissue were retrieved from the Neuro-Biobank. Immunohistochemical staining of AR was performed and AR expression in the tumor-cell nucleus was evaluated. RESULTS: Fifty-seven BM samples from 57 individual patients with BC were available for this analysis. AR expression of ≥1% tumor cells was evident in 20/57 (35.1%) BM specimens; the median AR-expression rate was 10% (range: 1% to 60%). AR expression was observed in 11/21 (52.4%) BM of the luminal/human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-negative subtype, 3/13 (23.1%) of the luminal/HER2-positive subtype, 2/7 (28.6%) of the HER2-positive subtype and 4/16 (25.0%) of the triple-negative subtype (P=0.247). Median survival from diagnosis of BM was 10 months (range: 0 to 104 mo) in the entire cohort. No significant association of overall survival and AR expression ≥1% was observed (15 vs. 13 mo; P>0.05). CONCLUSION: AR is expressed in more than one third of BC BM with the highest rates among the luminal/HER2-negative BC subtype and may therefore be a potential prognostic and predictive biomarker in this particular BC population.

6.
Ther Adv Med Oncol ; 13: 17588359211009002, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33995593

RESUMO

Background: Dual human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) blockade with trastuzumab and pertuzumab (TP) is a standard therapy of metastatic and localized HER2-positive breast cancer (BC), but its activity in breast cancer brain metastases (BCBM) is unknown. Methods: Patients with HER2-positive BCBM were identified from the Vienna Brain Metastasis Registry and clinical data including patient characteristics, therapies and overall survival (OS) were obtained. Patients were grouped into 'TP', 'other-HER2-targeted therapy' and 'no-HER2-targeted therapy' according to received first-line systemic therapy after diagnosis of BCBM. Radiological re-assessment of intracranial lesions was performed in patients treated with TP as systemic first-line therapy according to RANO response criteria for brain metastases (BM). Results: A total of 252 HER2-positive BC patients with BM were available for this analysis. Patients treated with TP as systemic first-line therapy after diagnosis of BM had a significantly longer OS compared with treatment with other-HER2-targeted therapy and no-HER2-targeted therapy (44 versus 17 versus 3 months, p < 0.001; log-rank test). Among radiologically re-assessed patients treated with TP as systemic first-line therapy after diagnosis of BM, 5/14 patients (35.7%) had complete intracranial remission (CR), 8/14 patients (57.1%) partial intracranial remission (PR), 1/14 patients (7.1%) stable intracranial disease (SD) and 0/14 patients (0.0%) progressive intracranial disease (PD) as best response resulting in an intracranial objective response rate (iORR) of 92.9% and an intracranial clinical benefit rate (iCBR) of 100.0%. Conclusion: First-line therapy with dual HER2-inhibition of TP after BM diagnosis was associated with the longest median OS times in patients with BCBM.

7.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(6)2021 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33809057

RESUMO

Background: This study investigated the performance of ensemble learning holomic models for the detection of breast cancer, receptor status, proliferation rate, and molecular subtypes from [18F]FDG-PET/CT images with and without incorporating data pre-processing algorithms. Additionally, machine learning (ML) models were compared with conventional data analysis using standard uptake value lesion classification. Methods: A cohort of 170 patients with 173 breast cancer tumors (132 malignant, 38 benign) was examined with [18F]FDG-PET/CT. Breast tumors were segmented and radiomic features were extracted following the imaging biomarker standardization initiative (IBSI) guidelines combined with optimized feature extraction. Ensemble learning including five supervised ML algorithms was utilized in a 100-fold Monte Carlo (MC) cross-validation scheme. Data pre-processing methods were incorporated prior to machine learning, including outlier and borderline noisy sample detection, feature selection, and class imbalance correction. Feature importance in each model was assessed by calculating feature occurrence by the R-squared method across MC folds. Results: Cross validation demonstrated high performance of the cancer detection model (80% sensitivity, 78% specificity, 80% accuracy, 0.81 area under the curve (AUC)), and of the triple negative tumor identification model (85% sensitivity, 78% specificity, 82% accuracy, 0.82 AUC). The individual receptor status and luminal A/B subtype models yielded low performance (0.46-0.68 AUC). SUVmax model yielded 0.76 AUC in cancer detection and 0.70 AUC in predicting triple negative subtype. Conclusions: Predictive models based on [18F]FDG-PET/CT images in combination with advanced data pre-processing steps aid in breast cancer diagnosis and in ML-based prediction of the aggressive triple negative breast cancer subtype.

8.
Br J Cancer ; 124(11): 1795-1802, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33762716

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Preoperative chemotherapy containing anthracyclines and taxanes is well established in early-stage breast cancer. Previous studies have suggested that the chemotherapy sequence may matter but definitive evidence is missing. ABCSG trial 34 evaluated the activity of the MUC1 vaccine tecemotide when added to neoadjuvant treatment; the study provided the opportunity for the second randomisation to compare two different anthracycline/taxane sequences. METHODS: HER2-negative early-stage breast cancer patients were recruited to this randomised multicentre Phase 2 study. Patients in the chemotherapy cohort (n = 311) were additionally randomised to a conventional or reversed sequence of epirubicin/cyclophosphamide and docetaxel. Residual cancer burden (RCB) with/without tecemotide was defined as primary study endpoint; RCB in the two chemotherapy groups was a key secondary endpoint. RESULTS: No significant differences in terms of RCB 0/I (40.1% vs. 37.2%; P = 0.61) or pathologic complete response (pCR) rates (24.3% vs. 25%, P = 0.89) were observed between conventional or reverse chemotherapy sequence. No new safety signals were reported, and upfront docetaxel did not result in decreased rates of treatment delay or discontinuation. CONCLUSION: Upfront docetaxel did not improve chemotherapy activity or tolerability; these results suggest that upfront neoadjuvant treatment with anthracyclines remains a valid option.

9.
Cancers (Basel) ; 12(8)2020 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32721996

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for a non-invasive synergistic assessment of tumor microenvironment (TME) hypoxia and induced neovascularization for the identification of aggressive breast cancer. Fifty-three female patients with breast cancer underwent multiparametric breast MRI including quantitative blood-oxygen-level-dependent (qBOLD) imaging for hypoxia and vascular architecture mapping for neovascularization. Quantitative MRI biomarker maps of oxygen extraction fraction (OEF), metabolic rate of oxygen (MRO2), mitochondrial oxygen tension (mitoPO2), microvessel radius (VSI), microvessel density (MVD), and microvessel type indicator (MTI) were calculated. Histopathology was the standard of reference. Histopathological markers (vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1 (FLT1), podoplanin, hypoxia-inducible factor 1-alpha (HIF-1alpha), carbonic anhydrase 9 (CA IX), vascular endothelial growth factor C (VEGF-C)) were used to confirm imaging biomarker findings. Univariate and multivariate regression analyses were performed to differentiate less aggressive luminal from aggressive non-luminal (HER2-positive, triple negative) malignancies and assess the interplay between hypoxia and neoangiogenesis markers. Aggressive non-luminal cancers (n = 40) presented with significantly higher MRO2 (i.e., oxygen consumption), lower mitoPO2 values (i.e., hypoxia), lower MTI, and higher MVD than less aggressive cancers (n = 13). Data suggest that a model derived from OEF, mitoPO2, and MVD can predict tumor proliferation rate. This novel MRI approach, which can be easily implemented in routine breast MRI exams, aids in the non-invasive identification of aggressive breast cancer.

10.
Eur J Cancer ; 134: 99-106, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32502940

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NaCT) and neoadjuvant endocrine therapy (NET) can reduce pre-operative tumour burden in patients with estrogen receptor (ER)-positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-negative early-stage breast cancer. This prospective translational study assessed the ability of a 12-gene molecular score (MS; EndoPredict®) to predict response to NaCT or NET within the ABCSG-34 trial. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Hormone receptor (HR)-positive, HER2-negative samples from patients in the ABCSG-34 randomized phase II trial were selected and EndoPredict testing was performed to generate a 12-gene MS. ABCSG-34 patients were assigned to receive either NaCT or NET based on menopausal status, HR expression, grade and Ki67. Response was measured by residual cancer burden (RCB). RESULTS: Patients selected for NaCT generally had high-risk disease by 12-gene MS (125/134), while slightly more patients treated with NET had low-risk disease (44/83). Low-risk NaCT-treated and high-risk NET-treated tumours responded poorly (NPV 100% [95% CI 66.4%-100%] and NPV 92.3% [95% CI 79.1%-98.4%], respectively]. The 12-gene MS significantly predicted treatment response for NaCT (AUC 0.736 [95% CI 0.63-0.84]) and NET (AUC 0.726 [95% CI 0.60-0.85]). CONCLUSIONS: The 12-gene MS predicted RCB after treatment with neoadjuvant therapies for patients with HR-positive, HER2-negative early-stage breast cancer. Tumours with low MS were unlikely to benefit from NaCT, whereas a high MS predicted resistance to NET. This additional biologic information can aid personalized treatment selection in daily practice and builds a strong rationale to use EndoPredict in biomarker-driven studies in the neoadjuvant setting.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Terapia Neoadjuvante , Receptor ErbB-2/metabolismo , Receptores de Estrogênio/metabolismo , Receptores de Progesterona/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Quimioterapia Adjuvante , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos
11.
Clin Cancer Res ; 26(21): 5682-5688, 2020 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32546648

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To assess the predictive value of molecular breast cancer subtypes in premenopausal patients with hormone receptor-positive early breast cancer who received adjuvant endocrine treatment or chemotherapy. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Molecular breast cancer subtypes were centrally assessed on whole tumor sections by IHC in patients of the Austrian Breast and Colorectal Cancer Study Group Trial 5 who had received either 5 years of tamoxifen/3 years of goserelin or six cycles of cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and fluorouracil (CMF). Luminal A disease was defined as Ki67 <20% and luminal B as Ki67 ≥20%. The luminal B/HER2-positive subtype displayed 3+ HER2-IHC or amplification by ISH. Recurrence-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS) were analyzed using Cox models adjusted for clinical and pathologic factors. RESULTS: 185 (38%), 244 (50%), and 59 (12%) of 488 tumors were classified as luminal A, luminal B/HER2-negative and luminal B/HER2-positive, respectively. Luminal B subtypes were associated with poor outcome. Patients with luminal B tumors had a significantly shorter RFS [adjusted HR for recurrence: 2.22; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.41-3.49; P = 0.001] and OS (adjusted HR for death: 3.51; 95% CI, 1.80-6.87; P < 0.001). No interaction between molecular subtypes and treatment was observed (test for interaction: P = 0.84 for RFS; P = 0.69 for OS). CONCLUSIONS: Determination of molecular subtypes by IHC is an independent prognostic factor for recurrence and death in premenopausal women with early-stage, hormone receptor-positive breast cancer but is not predictive for outcome of adjuvant treatment with tamoxifen/goserelin or CMF.See related commentary by Hunter et al., p. 5543.

12.
Virchows Arch ; 477(4): 545-555, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32383007

RESUMO

Reliable determination of Ki67 labeling index (Ki67-LI) on core needle biopsy (CNB) is essential for determining breast cancer molecular subtype for therapy planning. However, studies on agreement between molecular subtype and Ki67-LI between CNB and surgical resection (SR) specimens are conflicting. The present study analyzed the influence of clinicopathological and sampling-associated factors on agreement. Molecular subtype was determined visually by Ki67-LI in 484 pairs of CNB and SR specimens of invasive estrogen receptor (ER)-positive, human epidermal growth factor (HER2)-negative breast cancer. Luminal B disease was defined by Ki67-LI > 20% in SR. Correlation of molecular subtype agreement with age, menopausal status, CNB method, Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System imaging category, time between biopsies, type of surgery, and pathological tumor parameters was analyzed. Recurrence-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS) were analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method. CNB had a sensitivity of 77.95% and a specificity of 80.97% for identifying luminal B tumors in CNB, compared with the final molecular subtype determination after surgery. The correlation of Ki67-LI between CNB and SR was moderate (ROC-AUC 0.8333). Specificity and sensitivity for CNB to correctly define molecular subtype of tumors according to SR were significantly associated with tumor grade, immunohistochemical progesterone receptor (PR) and p53 expression (p < 0.05). Agreement of molecular subtype did not significantly impact RFS and OS (p = 0.22 for both). The identified factors likely mirror intratumoral heterogeneity that might compromise obtaining a representative CNB. Our results challenge the robustness of a single CNB-driven measurement of Ki67-LI to identify luminal B breast cancer of low (G1) or intermediate (G2) grade.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/química , Antígeno Ki-67/análise , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biópsia com Agulha de Grande Calibre , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Neoplasias da Mama/cirurgia , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Receptor ErbB-2/análise , Receptores de Estrogênio/análise , Receptores de Progesterona/análise , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/análise
13.
Eur J Cancer ; 132: 43-52, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32325419

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Immune-based strategies represent a promising approach in breast cancer (BC) treatment. The glycoprotein mucin-1 (MUC-1) is overexpressed in more than 90% of BC patients, and is targeted by the cancer vaccine tecemotide. We have investigated the efficacy and safety of tecemotide when added to neoadjuvant standard-of-care (SoC) treatment in early BC patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 400 patients with HER2-early BC were recruited into this prospective, multicentre, randomised 2-arm academic phase II trial. Patients received preoperative SoC treatment (chemotherapy or endocrine therapy) with or without tecemotide. Postmenopausal women with oestrogen receptor (ER)+++, or ER++ and Ki67 < 14%, and G1,2 tumours ('luminal A' tumours) received 6 months of letrozole. Postmenopausal patients with triple-negative, ER-/+/++ and Ki67 ≥ 14%, and with G3 tumours, as well as premenopausal patients, received four cycles of epirubicin/cyclophosphamide plus four cycles of docetaxel. Primary end-point was residual cancer burden (RCB; 0/I versus II/III) at surgery. Secondary end-points included pathological complete response (pCR), safety, and quality of life. FINDINGS: We observed no significant difference in RCB 0/I rates between patients with (36.4%) and without (31.9%) tecemotide in the overall study population (p = 0.40) nor in endocrine and chemotherapy-treated subgroups (25.0% versus 13.3%, p = 0.17; 39.6% versus 37.8%, p = 0.75, respectively). The addition of tecemotide did not affect overall pCR rates (22.5% versus 17.4%, p = 0.23), MUC-1 expression, or tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes content. Tecemotide did not increase toxicity when compared to SoC therapy alone. INTERPRETATION: Neoadjuvant tecemotide is safe, but does not improve RCB or pCR rates in patients receiving standard neoadjuvant therapy.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Vacinas Anticâncer/uso terapêutico , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Segurança do Paciente , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Receptor ErbB-2/metabolismo , Receptores de Estrogênio/metabolismo , Receptores de Progesterona/metabolismo
14.
Int J Oncol ; 56(4): 1034-1044, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32319559

RESUMO

Metastatic cancer cells cross endothelial barriers and travel through the blood or lymphatic fluid to pre­metastatic niches, leading to their colonisation. 'S' stereoisomer 12S­hydroxy­5Z,8Z,10E,14Z­eicosatetraenoic acid [12(S)­HETE] is secreted by a variety of cancer cell types and has been indicated to open up these barriers. In the present study, another aspect of the endothelial unlocking mechanism was elucidated. This was achieved by investigating 12(S)­HETE­treated lymph endothelial cells (LECs) with regard to their expression and mutual interaction with v­rel avian reticuloendotheliosis viral oncogene homolog A (RELA), intercellular adhesion molecule 1, SRY­box transcription factor 18 (SOX18), prospero homeobox 1 (PROX1) and focal adhesion kinase (FAK). These key players of LEC retraction, which is a prerequisite for cancer cell transit into vasculature, were analysed using western blot analysis, reverse transcription­quantitative PCR and transfection with small interfering (si)RNA. The silencing of a combination of these signalling and executing molecules using siRNA, or pharmacological inhibition with defactinib and Bay11­7082, extended the mono­culture experiments to co­culture settings using HCT116 colon cancer cell spheroids that were placed on top of LEC monolayers to measure their retraction using the validated 'circular chemorepellent­induced defect' assay. 12(S)­HETE was indicated to induce the upregulation of the RELA/SOX18 feedback loop causing the subsequent phosphorylation of FAK, which fed back to RELA/SOX18. Therefore, 12(S)­HETE was demonstrated to be associated with circuits involving RELA, SOX18 and FAK, which transduced signals causing the retraction of LECs. The FAK­inhibitor defactinib and the NF­κB inhibitor Bay11­7082 attenuated LEC retraction additively, which was similar to the suppression of FAK and PROX1 (the target of SOX18) by the transfection of respective siRNAs. FAK is an effector molecule at the distal end of a pro­metastatic signalling cascade. Therefore, targeting the endothelial­specific activity of FAK through the pathway demonstrated herein may provide a potential therapeutic method to combat cancer dissemination via vascular routes.


Assuntos
Movimento Celular , Endotélio Linfático/metabolismo , Quinase 1 de Adesão Focal/metabolismo , Ácidos Hidroxieicosatetraenoicos/farmacologia , Neoplasias/patologia , Fatores de Transcrição SOXF/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição RelA/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Endotélio Linfático/efeitos dos fármacos , Endotélio Linfático/patologia , Retroalimentação Fisiológica , Quinase 1 de Adesão Focal/genética , Humanos , Molécula 1 de Adesão Intercelular/genética , Molécula 1 de Adesão Intercelular/metabolismo , Metástase Neoplásica , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição SOXF/genética , Transdução de Sinais , Fator de Transcrição RelA/genética
15.
Clin Cancer Res ; 25(13): 3865-3872, 2019 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31064782

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Prognostic molecular assays may aid in treatment decisions for women with estrogen receptor (ER)-positive, HER2-negative breast cancer. The prognostic value of a 12-gene expression assay (EndoPredict) was reevaluated in the combined ABCSG-6/8 cohorts with longer clinical follow-up. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: EndoPredict (EP; molecular score, EPclin score) was evaluated in women with ER-positive, HER2-negative node-positive and node-negative breast cancer who received 5 years of endocrine therapy only (median follow-up, 9.6 years; N = 1,702). Distant recurrence-free rate (DRFR; 95% confidence interval) was assessed 10 and 15 years after diagnosis. RESULTS: Overall, 62.6% of patients had low-risk EPclin scores with significantly improved DRFR relative to high-risk patients (HR, 4.77; 95% CI, 3.37-6.67; P < 0.0001). Ten-year DRFR (0-10 years) was improved among patients with low-risk versus high-risk EPclin scores in the full cohort [95.5% (94.1%-97.0%) vs. 80.3% (76.9%-83.9%)] as well as for patients with node-negative disease [95.5% (94.0%-97.1%) vs. 87.0% (82.6%-91.7%)] or with 1 to 3 positive nodes [95.6% (92.2%-99.1%) vs. 80.9% (75.9%-86.1%)]. The molecular and EPclin scores were significant predictors of DRFR after adjusting for clinical variables, regardless of nodal status. Similar results were observed for late recurrence (5-15 years; HR, 4.52; 95% CI, 2.65-7.72; P < 0.0001). The EPclin score significantly added prognostic information to a late metastasis nomogram (CTS5 score; P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that EPclin can identify patients at low risk for early or late recurrence who may safely forgo adjuvant chemotherapy or extended endocrine therapy, respectively, regardless of nodal status.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Receptor ErbB-2/genética , Receptores de Estrogênio/genética , Antineoplásicos Hormonais/uso terapêutico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Mama/mortalidade , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Linfonodos/patologia , Metástase Neoplásica , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Recidiva , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
Eur Radiol Exp ; 3(1): 18, 2019 04 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31030291

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Multiparametric positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance imaging (mpPET/MRI) shows clinical potential for detection and classification of breast lesions. Yet, the contribution of features for computer-aided segmentation and diagnosis (CAD) need to be better understood. We proposed a data-driven machine learning approach for a CAD system combining dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE)-MRI, diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG)-PET. METHODS: The CAD incorporated a random forest (RF) classifier combined with mpPET/MRI intensity-based features for lesion segmentation and shape features, kinetic and spatio-temporal texture features, for lesion classification. The CAD pipeline detected and segmented suspicious regions and classified lesions as benign or malignant. The inherent feature selection method of RF and alternatively the minimum-redundancy-maximum-relevance feature ranking method were used. RESULTS: In 34 patients, we report a detection rate of 10/12 (83.3%) and 22/22 (100%) for benign and malignant lesions, respectively, a Dice similarity coefficient of 0.665 for segmentation, and a classification performance with an area under the curve at receiver operating characteristics analysis of 0.978, a sensitivity of 0.946, and a specificity of 0.936. Segmentation but not classification performance of DCE-MRI improved with information from DWI and FDG-PET. Feature ranking revealed that kinetic and spatio-temporal texture features had the highest contribution for lesion classification. 18F-FDG-PET and morphologic features were less predictive. CONCLUSION: Our CAD enables the assessment of the relevance of mpPET/MRI features on segmentation and classification accuracy. It may aid as a novel computational tool for exploring different modalities/features and their contributions for the detection and classification of breast lesions.


Assuntos
Doenças Mamárias/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico por imagem , Meios de Contraste , Imagem de Difusão por Ressonância Magnética , Fluordesoxiglucose F18 , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética Multiparamétrica , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos , Adulto , Idoso , Doenças Mamárias/classificação , Doenças Mamárias/patologia , Neoplasias da Mama/classificação , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Interpretação de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Aprendizado de Máquina , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Imagem Multimodal , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
17.
J Magn Reson Imaging ; 50(3): 836-846, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30811717

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) with apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) mapping is one of the most useful additional MRI parameters to improve diagnostic accuracy and is now often used in a multiparameric imaging setting for breast tumor detection and characterization. PURPOSE: To evaluate whether different ADC metrics can also be used for prediction of receptor status, proliferation rate, and molecular subtype in invasive breast cancer. STUDY TYPE: Retrospective. SUBJECTS: In all, 107 patients with invasive breast cancer met the inclusion criteria (mean age 57 years, range 32-87) and underwent multiparametric breast MRI. FIELD STRENGTH/SEQUENCE: 3 T, readout-segmented echo planar imaging (rsEPI) with IR fat suppression, dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) T1 -weighted imaging, T2 -weighted turbo-spin echo (TSE) with fatsat. ASSESSMENT: Two readers independently drew a region of interest on ADC maps on the whole tumor (WTu), and on its darkest part (DpTu). Minimum, mean, and maximum ADC values of both WTu and DpTu were compared for receptor status, proliferation rate, and molecular subtypes. STATISTICAL TESTS: Wilcoxon rank sum, Mann-Whitney U-tests for associations between radiologic features and histopathology; histogram and q-q plots, Shapiro-Wilk's test to assess normality, concordance correlation coefficient for precision and accuracy; receiver operating characteristics curve analysis. RESULTS: Estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) status had significantly different ADC values for both readers. Maximum WTu (P = 0.0004 and 0.0005) and mean WTu (P = 0.0101 and 0.0136) were significantly lower for ER-positive tumors, while PR-positive tumors had significantly lower maximum WTu values (P = 0.0089 and 0.0047). Maximum WTu ADC was the only metric that was significantly different for molecular subtypes for both readers (P = 0.0100 and 0.0132) and enabled differentiation of luminal tumors from nonluminal (P = 0.0068 and 0.0069) with an area under the curve of 0.685 for both readers. DATA CONCLUSION: Maximum WTu ADC values may be used to differentiate luminal from other molecular subtypes of breast cancer. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 3 Technical Efficacy: Stage 2 J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2019;50:836-846.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Imagem de Difusão por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Interpretação de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores , Mama/diagnóstico por imagem , Mama/metabolismo , Mama/patologia , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Proliferação de Células , Meios de Contraste , Imagem Ecoplanar , Feminino , Humanos , Aumento da Imagem/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Receptores de Estrogênio , Receptores de Progesterona , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos
18.
Cell Rep ; 26(9): 2394-2406.e5, 2019 02 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30811989

RESUMO

Cytomegalovirus (CMV) has a high prevalence worldwide, is often fatal for immunocompromised patients, and causes bone marrow suppression. Deficiency of signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) results in severely impaired antiviral immunity. We have used cell-type restricted deletion of Stat1 to determine the importance of myeloid cell activity for the defense against murine CMV (MCMV). We show that myeloid STAT1 limits MCMV burden and infection-associated pathology in the spleen but does not affect ultimate clearance of infection. Unexpectedly, we found an essential role of myeloid STAT1 in the induction of extramedullary hematopoiesis (EMH). The EMH-promoting function of STAT1 was not restricted to MCMV infection but was also observed during CpG oligodeoxynucleotide-induced sterile inflammation. Collectively, we provide genetic evidence that signaling through STAT1 in myeloid cells is required to restrict MCMV at early time points post-infection and to induce compensatory hematopoiesis in the spleen.


Assuntos
Hematopoese Extramedular , Infecções por Herpesviridae/fisiopatologia , Muromegalovirus , Células Mieloides/fisiologia , Fator de Transcrição STAT1/fisiologia , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Feminino , Deleção de Genes , Infecções por Herpesviridae/imunologia , Infecções por Herpesviridae/metabolismo , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Muromegalovirus/fisiologia , Receptor de Interferon alfa e beta/genética , Receptores de Interferon/genética , Receptores de Interleucina/genética , Fator de Transcrição STAT1/genética , Fator de Transcrição STAT1/metabolismo , Baço/patologia , Baço/virologia , Estresse Fisiológico , Replicação Viral
19.
Clin Cancer Res ; 25(9): 2737-2744, 2019 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30647078

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Brain metastases (BMs) are a rare but devastating condition in estrogen receptor (ER)-positive metastatic breast cancer (MBC). Although endocrine therapy (ET) is the mainstay of treatment in this disease subtype, only case reports have been published concerning the activity of ET in BMs henceforth. Therefore, we aimed to systematically investigate the impact of ET after diagnosis of BM on outcome and clinical course of disease in patients with ER-positive MBC. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Patient characteristics, detailed information about BMs including diagnosis-specific graded prognostic assessment class (DS-GPA), and clinical outcome were obtained by retrospective chart review for all patients treated for ER-positive breast cancer BMs between 1990 and 2017 at an academic care center. Overall survival (OS) was measured as the interval from diagnosis of BM until death or last date of follow-up. RESULTS: Overall, 198 patients [female: 195/198 (98.5%); male: 3/198 (1.5%)] with ER-positive breast cancer BMs were available for this analysis. Eighty-eight of 198 patients (44.4%) received ET after diagnosis of BM including aromatase inhibitors (AIs; letrozole, anastrozole, exemestane), tamoxifen, and fulvestrant. Median OS was significantly longer in patients receiving ET after diagnosis of BM compared with patients who did not (15 vs. 4 months, P < 0.001; log-rank test). No significant difference in terms of OS was observed between patients receiving AIs, tamoxifen, or fulvestrant. In patients with concomitant leptomeningeal carcinomatosis (LC), ET prolonged median OS significantly as well (7 vs. 3 months, P = 0.012; log-rank test). In a multivariate analysis including DS-GPA and ET, only treatment with ET after diagnosis of BM (HR, 0.69; 95% confidence interval, 0.48-0.99; P = 0.046) was associated with prognosis (Cox regression model). CONCLUSIONS: Continuing ET after BM diagnosis was associated with a significantly prolonged OS in this large single-center cohort. No substantial differences between substances were observed. These findings should be validated in a prospective cohort.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Aromatase/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Encefálicas/mortalidade , Neoplasias da Mama/mortalidade , Carcinoma Ductal de Mama/mortalidade , Carcinoma Lobular/mortalidade , Continuidade da Assistência ao Paciente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias Encefálicas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Encefálicas/secundário , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Carcinoma Ductal de Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Ductal de Mama/patologia , Carcinoma Lobular/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Lobular/patologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida , Adulto Jovem
20.
Invest Radiol ; 54(2): 110-117, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30358693

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to assess the potential of machine learning with multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) for the early prediction of pathological complete response (pCR) to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) and of survival outcomes in breast cancer patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This institutional review board-approved prospective study included 38 women (median age, 46.5 years; range, 25-70 years) with breast cancer who were scheduled for NAC and underwent mpMRI of the breast at 3 T with dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE), diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), and T2-weighted imaging before and after 2 cycles of NAC. For each lesion, 23 features were extracted: qualitative T2-weighted and DCE-MRI features according to BI-RADS (Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System), quantitative pharmacokinetic DCE features (mean plasma flow, volume distribution, mean transit time), and DWI apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values. To apply machine learning to mpMRI, 8 classifiers including linear support vector machine, linear discriminant analysis, logistic regression, random forests, stochastic gradient descent, decision tree, adaptive boosting, and extreme gradient boosting (XGBoost) were used to rank the features. Histopathologic residual cancer burden (RCB) class (with RCB 0 being a pCR), recurrence-free survival (RFS), and disease-specific survival (DSS) were used as the standards of reference. Classification accuracy with area under the receiving operating characteristic curve (AUC) was assessed using all the extracted qualitative and quantitative features for pCR as defined by RCB class, RFS, and DSS using recursive feature elimination. To overcome overfitting, 4-fold cross-validation was used. RESULTS: Machine learning with mpMRI achieved stable performance as shown by mean classification accuracies for the prediction of RCB class (AUC, 0.86) and DSS (AUC, 0.92) based on XGBoost and the prediction of RFS (AUC, 0.83) with logistic regression. The XGBoost classifier achieved the most stable performance with high accuracies compared with other classifiers. The most relevant features for the prediction of RCB class were as follows: changes in lesion size, complete pattern of shrinkage, and mean transit time on DCE-MRI; minimum ADC on DWI; and peritumoral edema on T2-weighted imaging. The most relevant features for prediction of RFS were as follows: volume distribution, mean plasma flow, and mean transit time; DCE-MRI lesion size; minimum, maximum, and mean ADC with DWI. The most relevant features for prediction of DSS were as follows: lesion size, volume distribution, and mean plasma flow on DCE-MRI, and maximum ADC with DWI. CONCLUSIONS: Machine learning with mpMRI of the breast enables early prediction of pCR to NAC as well as survival outcomes in breast cancer patients with high accuracy and thus may provide valuable predictive information to guide treatment decisions.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Aprendizado de Máquina , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Terapia Neoadjuvante/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Mama/diagnóstico por imagem , Quimioterapia Adjuvante , Imagem de Difusão por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Prospectivos , Curva ROC , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
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