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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36527255

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To assess the occurrence of pregnancy in a cohort of women who received a copper intrauterine device (IUD), hormonal IUDs or an etonogestrel (ENG) contraceptive implant at a single-visit practice. METHODS: Prospective study conducted at the University of Campinas, Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil. We obtained data from four ongoing studies including both the date of the device placement, the first day of the last menstrual period, and the occurrence of pregnancy up to 3 months after device placement. RESULTS: We included 2479 device placements (413 TCu380A IUDs, 1476 hormonal IUD and 590 ENG implants). Almost half of the device placements (1113/2479; 44.9%) were performed within the first 5 days of the menstrual cycle. We observed three pregnancies: one in an ENG implant user who received the implant within days 1-5 of the menstrual cycle; one in a woman who received a hormonal IUD during days 6-10 of the menstrual cycle; and one in a copper IUD user with placement during days 21-25 of menstrual cycle. CONCLUSIONS: Single-visit long-acting reversible contraception placements are a good strategy with overall very low pregnancy rates. This strategy has a potential to reduce unintended pregnancies and to reduce costs and barriers to both women and the healthcare system.

2.
BMJ Open ; 12(10): e063317, 2022 10 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36202583

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: WHO has generated standardised clinical and epidemiological research protocols to address key public health questions for SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) pandemic. We present a standardised protocol with the aim to fill a gap in understanding the needs, attitudes and practices related to sexual and reproductive health in the context of COVID-19 pandemic, focusing on pregnancy, pregnancy prevention and abortion. METHODS AND ANALYSIS PLAN: This protocol is a prospective qualitative research, using semi-structured interviews with at least 15 pregnant women at different gestational ages and after delivery, 6 months apart from the first interview. At least 10 partners, 10 non-pregnant women and 5 healthcare professionals will be interviewed once during the course of the research. Higher number of subjects may be needed if a saturation is not achieved with these numbers. Data collection will be performed in a standardised way by skilled trained interviewers using written notes or audio-record of the interview. The data will be explored using the thematic content analysis and the researchers will look for broad patterns, generalisations or theories from these categories. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The current protocol was first technically assessed and approved by the WHO scientific committee and then approved by its ethics review committee as a guidance document. It is expected that each country/setting implementing such a generic protocol adapted to their conditions also obtain local ethical approval. Comments for the user's consideration are provided the document, as the user may need to modify methods slightly because of the local context in which this study will be carried out.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Pesquisa Qualitativa , SARS-CoV-2 , Organização Mundial da Saúde
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36287505

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Our study aimed to evaluate the acceptability, adverse effects and continuation rates among adolescents who accepted the etonogestrel (ENG) subdermal implant and compared to adolescents who chose other methods during the immediate postpartum period before hospital discharge, with one year follow-up up. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a cohort non-randomised study at the Women's Hospital, University of Campinas. All women up to 19 years of age, who gave birth at the hospital between July 2019 and April 2020, were invited to participate and were offered the ENG-implant or the routine contraceptive methods. They were followed for one year postpartum. RESULTS: We included 100 teenagers and 72 accepted the ENG-implant. Students are more likely to accept the ENG-implant than non-students (PR: 1.25 [95%CI 0.99-1.59]). Up to one year of follow-up, survival analysis showed that the time of adherence to the method was longer for the ENG-implant users (p = 0.0049). More than 90% of the adolescents were satisfied with the implant; however, five requested early removal due to menstrual irregularity and local discomfort. CONCLUSION: Provision ENG-implant for adolescents in the immediate postpartum demonstrated high acceptance and ensured effective contraception. After one year, most of them were satisfied, with a high continuation rate and without unplanned pregnancies.

5.
Contracept X ; 4: 100080, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35965654

RESUMO

Objective: To characterize return to ovulation after injecting Sayana Press (104 mg/0.65 mL medroxyprogesterone acetate [MPA] in the Uniject device) every 4 months for 1 year of treatment. Study design: We followed a subset of women for return to ovulation in a trial that demonstrated Sayana Press remains highly effective when the subcutaneous reinjection interval is extended from 3 to 4 months. We measured serum progesterone in weeks 38 to 42 and 46 to 50 after a final (third) injection and used a concentration ≥4.7 ng/mL as a surrogate for ovulation. We also performed pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic modeling to predict differences in MPA accumulation and return to ovulation had - contrary to fact - injections been given every 3 months. Results: Ten of 19 women (53%; 95% confidence interval: 29-76) ovulated within 50 weeks of their last injection. We predicted that typical 12-month trough MPA concentrations are 34% lower (0.46 vs 0.69 ng/mL) and the median time from last dose to ovulation is 1.1 months shorter (13.1 vs 14.2 months) when injections are given every four months for 1 year. Conclusion: Extending the Sayana Press reinjection interval from 3 to 4 months leads to less drug accumulation, without a noticeable loss in efficacy. Although the Sayana Press patient leaflet specifies that over 80% of women desiring pregnancy will conceive within a year of stopping the method (independent of treatment duration), our empirical and modeling results indicate women should anticipate waiting a year or more for fertility to return after repeat dosing, with a somewhat shorter delay were the reinjection interval extended to four months. Implications: Providers should counsel women regarding the distinct possibility that return to fertility will take a year or longer following repeat use of Sayana Press. Extending the dosing interval from 3 to 4 months would result in approximately a 1-month shorter delay, without any appreciable reduction in contraceptive efficacy.

6.
Eur J Contracept Reprod Health Care ; 27(6): 454-460, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35867527

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of the study was to assess the experiences of male partners of women with endometriosis-associated pain after medical treatment in their everyday lives. METHODS: We conducted a phenomenological study based on semi-structured interviews with 11 male partners of women with endometriosis-associated pelvic pain at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Campinas Medical School, Brazil. A thematic analysis of manifest content was performed, a coding frame was drafted, and the main analysis categories were elaborated. RESULTS: The interviewed men had been in stable relationships for a median length of 14 years. They reported that they did not have information about endometriosis before their partners' diagnosis and that the endometriosis-associated pelvic pain suffered by their partners affected their personal everyday life, marital relationship, sexual relationship, and intimacy. CONCLUSION: Male partners of women with endometriosis-associated pain reported that the disease has both a profound impact on their lives and on their relationship. Our study contributed to an increased understanding of the life experience of men living with women with endometriosis-associated pelvic pain and may contribute to encourage healthcare professionals to incorporate strategies for guidance of the couple during treatment.


Assuntos
Endometriose , Masculino , Feminino , Humanos , Endometriose/diagnóstico , Qualidade de Vida , Dor Pélvica/etiologia , Parceiros Sexuais , Comportamento Sexual
7.
Reprod Health ; 19(1): 149, 2022 Jun 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35739595

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess some characteristics and outcomes associated with pregnancy among Indigenous adolescents and compare them with other women who gave birth in a public hospital in Guatemala. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 8048 cases. Sociocultural variables, gynecological and obstetric history, childbirth, and perinatal outcomes were compared among women who gave birth at San Juan De Dios Hospital between January 2018 and June 2019. They were classified into four groups according to age and ethnicity. Indigenous adolescents (819/10.2%) were compared with Nonindigenous adolescents (813/10.1%), Indigenous adult women (3324/41.3%), and Nonindigenous adult women (3092/38.4%). Bivariate analysis and multiple logistic regression were applied. RESULTS: We found that Indigenous adolescents who gave birth in the public hospital had fewer years of schooling than Nonindigenous adolescents (p < 0.001), Indigenous adults (p < 0.001), and Nonindigenous adults (p < 0.001). Indigenous adolescents were more likely to have an unplanned pregnancy than Nonindigenous adolescents (p = 0.038) and Nonindigenous adults (p < 0.001) and were more likely to be single (p < 0.001) and use less previous contraception than Indigenous and Nonindigenous adult women (p = 0.007 and p = 0.013, respectively). More than one-third of Indigenous adolescents and adults did not attend antenatal care; Indigenous adolescents had fewer antenatal care visits than Nonindigenous adults (p < 0.001), and the results were borderline in comparison to Nonindigenous adolescents (p = 0.051). Indigenous and Nonindigenous adult women underwent episiotomy less often than Indigenous adolescents (OR: 0.60 [95% CI 0.49-0.74] and OR: 0.56 [95% CI 0.45-0.70], respectively) and received less local anesthesia than Indigenous adolescents (OR: 0.59 [95% CI 0.46-0.76] and OR: 0.77 [95% CI 0.60-0.99], respectively). Nonindigenous adults received more analgesia than Indigenous adolescents (OR: 1.36 [95% CI 1.07-1.73]). Nonindigenous adolescents had more newborns with low birth weight than Indigenous adolescents (OR: 1.44 [95% CI 1.10-1.87]). CONCLUSION: Indigenous adolescents who gave birth in a public hospital in Guatemala were more likely to be single during pregnancy and attend fewer years of school than Nonindigenous adolescents. Unplanned pregnancies were more common among Indigenous adolescents, and some of them underwent not recommended obstetric practices during childbirth, such as episiotomy. Police should be enforced ensuring equal opportunities for different ethnic and age groups regarding pregnancy.


Assuntos
Parto , Cuidado Pré-Natal , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Guatemala/epidemiologia , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos
8.
BMJ Open ; 12(6): e057810, 2022 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35649598

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: COVID-19 has led to an unprecedented increase in demand on health systems to care for people infected, necessitating the allocation of significant resources, especially medical resources, towards the response. This, compounded by the restrictions on movement instituted may have led to disruptions in the provision of essential services, including sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services. This study aims to assess the availability of contraception, comprehensive abortion care, sexually transmitted infection prevention and treatment and sexual and gender-based violence care and support services in local health facilities during COVID-19 pandemic. This is a standardised generic protocol designed for use across different global settings. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This study adopts both quantitative and qualitative methods to assess health facilities' SRH service availability and readiness, and clients' and providers' perceptions of the availability and readiness of these services in COVID-19-affected areas. The study has two levels: (1) perceptions of clients (and the partners) and healthcare providers, using qualitative methods, and (2) assessment of infrastructure availability and readiness to provide SRH services through reviews, facility service statistics for clients and a qualitative survey for healthcare provider perspectives. The health system assessment will use a cross-sectional panel survey design with two data collection points to capture changes in SRH services availability as a result of the COVID-19 epidemic. Data will be collected using focus group discussions, in-depth interviews and a health facility assessment survey. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval for this study was obtained from the WHO Scientific and Ethics Review Committee (protocol ID CERC.0103). Each study site is required to obtain the necessary ethical and regulatory approvals that are required in each specific country.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Serviços de Saúde Reprodutiva , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Pandemias , Gravidez , Análise de Sistemas , Organização Mundial da Saúde
9.
Rev Panam Salud Publica ; 46: e41, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35677216

RESUMO

Objectives: To estimate inequalities in demand for family planning satisfied with modern methods among women in Latin America and the Caribbean, with an emphasis on Brazil and Mexico, and to calculate the scenario for recovery of modern contraceptive coverage by expanding access to long-acting contraceptives (LARC) after the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: National health surveys from 2006 to 2018 were used to estimate the demand for family planning satisfied with modern methods and how it was affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. The scenario included three variables: coverage, health outcomes, and costs. Considering coverage, United Nations Population Fund data were used to estimate the impact of COVID-19 on access to contraception in Latin America and the Caribbean. Health outcomes were assessed with the Impact 2 tool. Direct investment was used to evaluate cost-effectiveness. Results: Substantial inequalities were found in the use of modern contraceptive methods before the pandemic. We showed the potential cost-effectiveness of avoiding maternal deaths by introducing LARCs. Conclusions: In the scenario predicted for Brazil and Mexico, the costs of modern family planning and averted disability-adjusted life years are modest. Governments in Latin America and the Caribbean should consider promoting LARCs as a highly efficient and cost-effective intervention.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-56017

RESUMO

[ABSTRACT]. Objectives. To estimate inequalities in demand for family planning satisfied with modern methods among women in Latin America and the Caribbean, with an emphasis on Brazil and Mexico, and to calculate the scenario for recovery of modern contraceptive coverage by expanding access to long-acting contraceptives (LARC) after the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods. National health surveys from 2006 to 2018 were used to estimate the demand for family planning satisfied with modern methods and how it was affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. The scenario included three variables: coverage, health outcomes, and costs. Considering coverage, United Nations Population Fund data were used to estimate the impact of COVID-19 on access to contraception in Latin America and the Caribbean. Health outcomes were assessed with the Impact 2 tool. Direct investment was used to evaluate cost-effectiveness. Results. Substantial inequalities were found in the use of modern contraceptive methods before the pandemic. We showed the potential cost-effectiveness of avoiding maternal deaths by introducing LARCs. Conclusions. In the scenario predicted for Brazil and Mexico, the costs of modern family planning and averted disability-adjusted life years are modest. Governments in Latin America and the Caribbean should consider promoting LARCs as a highly efficient and cost-effective intervention.


[RESUMEN]. Objetivos. Estimar las desigualdades en la demanda de planificación familiar satisfecha con métodos anticonceptivos modernos entre las mujeres de América Latina y el Caribe, especialmente en Brasil y México, y analizar el escenario de recuperación de la cobertura de los anticonceptivos modernos mediante la ampliación del acceso a los anticonceptivos de acción prolongada tras la pandemia de COVID-19. Métodos. Se emplearon encuestas nacionales de salud desde el año 2006 hasta el año 2018 para estimar la demanda de planificación familiar satisfecha con métodos modernos y el impacto de la pandemia de COVID-19. El escenario comprendía tres variables: cobertura, resultados en materia de salud y costos. En lo respectivo a la cobertura, se emplearon datos del Fondo de Población de las Naciones Unidas para evaluar la repercusión de la COVID-19 en el acceso a los anticonceptivos en América Latina y el Caribe. Los resultados en materia de salud se examinaron con la herramienta Impact 2. Se empleó la inversión directa para evaluar la costo-efectividad. Resultados. Se encontraron desigualdades sustanciales en el uso de métodos anticonceptivos modernos antes de la pandemia. Se demostró la posible costo-efectividad de evitar muertes maternas mediante la introducción de anticonceptivos de acción prolongada. Conclusiones. De acuerdo con el escenario previsto para Brasil y México, los costos de la planificación familiar moderna y los años de vida ajustados en función de la discapacidad evitados son moderados. Los gobiernos de América Latina y el Caribe deberían considerar la posibilidad de p


[RESUMO]. Objetivos. Estimar as desigualdades na demanda por planejamento familiar atendida por métodos contraceptivos modernos em mulheres da América Latina e do Caribe, com ênfase no Brasil e no México, e calcular o cenário de recuperação da cobertura por métodos contraceptivos modernos por meio da ampliação do acesso a métodos contraceptivos reversíveis de longa duração (LARC) após a pandemia de COVID-19. Métodos. Foram usadas pesquisas nacionais de saúde de 2006 a 2018 para estimar a demanda por planejamento familiar atendida por métodos contraceptivos modernos e como ela foi afetada pela pandemia de COVID-19. O cenário incluiu três variáveis: cobertura, desfechos de saúde e custos. Para cobertura, os dados do Fundo de População das Nações Unidas foram usados para estimar o impacto da COVID-19 no acesso à contracepção na América Latina e no Caribe. Desfechos de saúde foram avaliados com a ferramenta Impact 2. O investimento direto foi usado para avaliar a relação custo-benefício. Resultados. Foram constatadas desigualdades importantes no uso de métodos contraceptivos modernos antes da pandemia. Demonstramos a potencial relação custo-benefício de evitar mortes maternas mediante a introdução de LARC. Conclusões. No cenário previsto para o Brasil e o México, os custos do planejamento familiar moderno e dos anos de vida ajustados por incapacidade por ele evitados são modestos. Os governos da América Latina e do Caribe devem considerar a promoção dos LARC como uma intervenção altamente eficiente e custo-efetiva.


Assuntos
Contracepção Reversível de Longo Prazo , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , COVID-19 , América Latina , Região do Caribe , Brasil , México , Contracepção Reversível de Longo Prazo , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , América Latina , Região do Caribe , Brasil , México , Contracepção Reversível de Longo Prazo , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Região do Caribe
11.
Rev Bras Ginecol Obstet ; 44(4): 391-397, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35623620

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine knowledge, attitude, and preventive (KAP) practices towards the SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) pandemic among women in reproductive age seeking to use copper or hormonal intrauterine devices (IUD/LNG-IUS). METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study in which we applied a questionnaire on 400 women about KAP practices on COVID-19 at the University of Campinas, Campinas, SP, Brazil, from May to August 2020. RESULTS: The mean (±SD) age of the women was 30.8 ± 7.9 years, and 72.8% of them reported being pregnant at least once. Most women (95%) had heard or read about COVID-19, and their main sources of information were television (91%) and government websites (53%). However, 53% of the women had doubts about the veracity of the information accessed. CONCLUSION: Women without a partner and with > 12 years of schooling had more information about COVID-19 and on its impact on new pregnancy, and those from high socioeconomic status had a higher chance of maintaining physical distance. Safety, effectiveness, comfort, and absence of hormone in the contraceptive method (in the case of TCu380A IUD) were the main reasons for the participants to seek the service during the pandemic, and the possibility to stop menstrual bleeding was the main reason to choose the LNG-IUS.


OBJETIVO: Determinar o conhecimento, atitude e práticas preventivas (CAP) em relação à pandemia de SARS-CoV-2 (Covid-19) entre mulheres em idade reprodutiva que buscam usar dispositivo intrauterino com cobre (DIU TCu 380) ou sistema intrauterino liberador de levonorgestrel (SIU-LNG). MéTODOS: Foi realizado um estudo transversal e um questionário foi aplicado a 400 mulheres para conhecer o CAP sobre o COVID-19 na Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, SP, Brasil, no período de maio a agosto de 2020. RESULTADOS: A média (±DP) de idade das mulheres foi de 30,8 ± 7,9 anos, e 72,8% delas relataram ter engravidado pelo menos uma vez. A maioria das mulheres (95%) tinha ouvido ou lido sobre a a Covid-19, e suas principais fontes de informação foram a televisão (91%) e sites do governo (53%). Porém, 53% das mulheres tinham dúvidas a respeito da veracidade das informações acessadas. CONCLUSãO: Mulheres sem companheiro e com mais de 12 anos de escolaridade tiveram mais informações sobre a COVID-19 e sobre o seu impacto em uma nova gravidez, e aquelas de nível socioeconômico alto tiveram maior chance de manter distância física. Segurança, eficácia, conforto e ausência de hormônio no método anticoncepcional (no caso do DIU TCu380A) foram os principais motivos para as participantes procurarem o serviço durante a pandemia, e a possibilidade de controlar o sangramento menstrual abundante foi o principal motivo para a escolha do SIU-LNG.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adulto , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Anticoncepção , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Gravidez , Adulto Jovem
12.
Eur J Contracept Reprod Health Care ; 27(4): 289-293, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35583156

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Our objectives were to determine the knowledge and interest in apps for natural contraception among women and Obstetrics and Gynaecology (OBGYN) residents. STUDY DESIGN: An online survey was sent to Brazilian women to gather sociodemographic data, knowledge and interest towards fertility-awareness contraceptive methods and smartphone apps for this purpose. Also, we sent an online survey to OBGYN residents to evaluate the reproductive physiology knowledge of natural contraception and interest in improving it and knowledge and smartphone apps for this purpose. RESULTS: A total of 730 women answered the survey, and 638 were included in the study and 94 OBGYN residents answered the survey. Among the respondent women 386 (60.5%) were interested in more information about natural contraception, 226 (35.5%) showed interest in use natural contraception, 85 (13.3%) indicated that they were users of natural contraception, 15 (16.8%) of this group currently uses an app for this purpose and 485 (76%) considers a practical option to have an app for natural contraception. Regarding the respondent residents all answers were included in the study; 62 (65.9%) knew the right definition of 'Natural Contraception', 52 (55.3%) showed interest in information about this topic and 78 (82.9%) considers a practical option to have an app for natural contraception. CONCLUSIONS: Less than 15% of the respondent women use natural contraception although about 60% expressed some interest in learning more, and that among OBGYN residents, half showed interest.


Assuntos
Ginecologia , Internato e Residência , Obstetrícia , Brasil , Anticoncepção , Feminino , Ginecologia/educação , Humanos , Obstetrícia/educação , Gravidez
13.
Int J Gynaecol Obstet ; 159(2): 577-582, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35396862

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To assess the reasons to use, reasons they liked, satisfaction with, and possibilities of recommendation to other women of the levonorgestrel 52-mg intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) by users. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted at the University of Campinas, Campinas, Brazil from January to July 2021. We enrolled users who came to the clinic, and we applied a pre-tested structured questionnaire with open-ended questions. We performed descriptive analyses of the variables, assessing the level of satisfaction with, and the reasons regarding the possibility of continuing to use, the IUS. RESULTS: Of the 517 enrolled women, 251 (48%) were aged 35 years or older (mean age 33.9 ± 9.0 years), 276 (53%) were white, 14 (3%) were adolescents, 155 (30%) were nulligravidas, and 307 (59.4%) reported experiencing amenorrhea in the last 90 days. Common reasons why women liked to use the LNG-IUS included both the reduction of menstrual bleeding (419 women; 81%) and dysmenorrhea (290 women; 56.1%). Nine out of 10 users (517 women; 91%) were satisfied with the method, and the majority would recommend it to other women. CONCLUSION: We found a high satisfaction rate among LNG-IUS users mainly due to the reduction of both menstrual bleeding and dysmenorrhea.


Assuntos
Anticoncepcionais Femininos , Dispositivos Intrauterinos Medicados , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Dismenorreia , Feminino , Hemorragia , Humanos , Dispositivos Intrauterinos Medicados/efeitos adversos , Levanogestrel , Satisfação Pessoal , Adulto Jovem
14.
Eur J Contracept Reprod Health Care ; 27(4): 294-299, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35377262

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We assess the awareness of Brazilian women about non-contraceptive benefits of contraceptives and compare non-health with health care providers. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We conducted a survey in Brazil using a questionnaire administered via Google Forms asking women to respond about the awareness of non-contraceptive benefits of combined oral contraceptives (COCs), depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA), 52 mg levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS), etonogestrel (ENG)-implant, copper intrauterine device (Cu-IUD), and male condom. RESULTS: We received 2,068 completed questionnaires, 720 women (34.8%) aged ≤ 29 years and 236 (11.4%) were physicians or nurses. Only one third of the respondents were aware that COC use is associated with decreased risks of ovarian and endometrial cancers; 296 (16.1%) about that the use of DMPA is associated with a decreased risk of endometrial cancer, and 253 (13.8%) were aware about that the users of the Cu-IUD present lower risk of cervical cancer. We identified significant differences between non-health care providers when compared to physicians or nurses. CONCLUSIONS: We found low awareness regarding the associated lower risk of ovarian, endometrial and cervical cancer associated with the use of some contraceptives, evidencing the need to provide more information about the non-contraceptive benefits during training for health care providers.


Assuntos
Anticoncepcionais Femininos , Dispositivos Intrauterinos Medicados , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero , Brasil , Anticoncepção/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Levanogestrel , Masculino
15.
Contraception ; 113: 95-100, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35483431

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We assessed the acceptability of subcutaneous depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate 104 mg (Sayana® Press) when injected every 4 months for 12 months. STUDY DESIGN: We assessed acceptability using questionnaires within a clinical trial to evaluate contraceptive effectiveness of Sayana® Press when the reinjection interval was extended from 3 to 4 months. We enrolled 750 women aged 18 to 35 years and at risk of pregnancy at 3 centers in Brazil, Chile, and the Dominican Republic who agreed to use Sayana® Press every 4 months for 12 months. Acceptability outcomes included responses to questions about perception of bleeding patterns and side effects, likes, and dislikes about the regimen. We descriptively compared outcomes across study centers and between those who completed the study and those who discontinued early. RESULTS: Across the 3 centers, participants differed in age, marital status, years of schooling, and race. At the final visit, 90% reported being satisfied with Sayana® Press and 75% reported preferring to use this contraceptive every 4 months. The most common reasons women liked using Sayana® Press were for its duration of effectiveness, followed by amenorrhea. The most common dislike, when a reason was identified, was its effect on uterine bleeding, including amenorrhea reported by some participants. We also observed center-level differences in the proportion of women who liked amenorrhea. CONCLUSIONS: Satisfaction with Sayana® Press injected every 4 months was high across the 3 demographically diverse Latin-American centers. However, participants had varied feelings towards contraceptive-induced amenorrhea. IMPLICATIONS: We found that Sayana® Press when injected every 4 months was highly acceptable among women in 3 Latin American settings despite differences in their feelings toward contraceptive-induced amenorrhea. Our results suggest that there will be interest in using this method every 4 months if introduced into these settings.


Assuntos
Anticoncepcionais Femininos , Acetato de Medroxiprogesterona , Adolescente , Adulto , Amenorreia/induzido quimicamente , Brasil , Chile , Anticoncepcionais Femininos/efeitos adversos , República Dominicana , Feminino , Humanos , Injeções Subcutâneas , Acetato de Medroxiprogesterona/efeitos adversos , Adulto Jovem
16.
J Migr Health ; 5: 100097, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35434679

RESUMO

Objective: To describe the sociodemographic characteristics, access to sexual and reproductive health (SRH) care, including contraceptives and to assess menstrual poverty of migrant Venezuelan adult women of childbearing age at the northwestern border between Venezuela and Brazil. Methods: Cross-sectional study coordinated by the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Campinas, Campinas, SP, Brazil, conducted in Boa Vista, Roraima between January 18 and 24, 2021. We invited women aged 18 to 49 years to participate. A semi-structured self-response questionnaire was applied. The survey covered issues relating to SRH services, knowledge, access, and use of SRH services for women. We also applied a questionnaire regarding access to and quality of hygiene kits and toilets, and an open-ended question on "what does menstruation mean to you"? We excluded illiterate women and those with amenorrhea, those who had undergone hysterectomy or tubal ligation, and those with partners who had undergone vasectomy. Findings: The age (mean ± SD) of the 177 respondent women was 28 ± 6.8 years, 32.2% reported that they had more than three children, 38.4% referred at least one unplanned pregnancy, and 52.5% of the women indicated an intention to become pregnant in the near future. Furthermore, 40 (29.8%) women sought a healthcare service because they wanted a contraceptive method; among them, 16 did not receive the contraceptive that they chose, and 15 women wanted to use a contraceptive implant. Regarding menstrual poverty, 64 women stated that the menstrual hygiene products provided by humanitarian organizations were not enough for their needs, and 44 women claimed being unable to wash their hands anytime they wanted to. Conclusions: The vulnerabilities of this cohort of Venezuelan migrant women in Brazil who lived mainly out of the official shelters further increase when they struggle with no knowledge of how to access SRH services, lack of provision of LARC methods, risk of unplanned pregnancy, and inappropriate access to menstrual hygiene products and sanitary services. There are several challenges to be overcome to ensure SRH care for migrant women in Brazil.

17.
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 44(4): 391-397, Apr. 2022. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1387903

RESUMO

Abstract Objective To determine knowledge, attitude, and preventive (KAP) practices towards the SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) pandemic among women in reproductive age seeking to use copper or hormonal intrauterine devices (IUD/LNG-IUS). Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study in which we applied a questionnaire on 400 women about KAP practices on COVID-19 at the University of Campinas, Campinas, SP, Brazil, from May to August 2020. Results The mean (±SD) age of the women was 30.8±7.9 years, and 72.8% of them reported being pregnant at least once. Most women (95%) had heard or read about COVID-19, and their main sources of information were television (91%) and government websites (53%). However, 53% of the women had doubts about the veracity of the information accessed. Conclusion Women without a partner and with>12 years of schooling had more information about COVID-19 and on its impact on new pregnancy, and those from high socioeconomic status had a higher chance of maintaining physical distance. Safety, effectiveness, comfort, and absence of hormone in the contraceptive method (in the case of TCu380A IUD) were the main reasons for the participants to seek the service during the pandemic, and the possibility to stop menstrual bleeding was the main reason to choose the LNG-IUS.


Resumo Objetivo Determinar o conhecimento, atitude e práticas preventivas (CAP) em relação à pandemia de SARS-CoV-2 (Covid-19) entre mulheres em idade reprodutiva que buscam usar dispositivo intrauterino com cobre (DIU TCu 380) ou sistema intrauterino liberador de levonorgestrel (SIU-LNG). Métodos Foi realizado um estudo transversal e um questionário foi aplicado a 400 mulheres para conhecer o CAP sobre o COVID-19 na Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, SP, Brasil, no período de maio a agosto de 2020. Resultados A média (±DP) de idade das mulheres foi de 30,8±7,9 anos, e 72,8% delas relataram ter engravidado pelo menos uma vez. A maioria das mulheres (95%) tinha ouvido ou lido sobre a a Covid-19, e suas principais fontes de informação foram a televisão (91%) e sites do governo (53%). Porém, 53% das mulheres tinham dúvidas a respeito da veracidade das informações acessadas. Conclusão Mulheres sem companheiro e com mais de 12 anos de escolaridade tiveram mais informações sobre a COVID-19 e sobre o seu impacto em uma nova gravidez, e aquelas de nível socioeconômico alto tiveram maior chance de manter distância física. Segurança, eficácia, conforto e ausência de hormônio no método anticoncepcional (no caso do DIU TCu380A) foram os principais motivos para as participantes procurarem o serviço durante a pandemia, e a possibilidade de controlar o sangramento menstrual abundante foi o principal motivo para a escolha do SIU-LNG.

18.
J Migr Health ; 5: 100092, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35313677

RESUMO

Background: The public healthcare system of Roraima state, at the north-western border Brazil-Venezuela, experienced an impact due to the incoming of Venezuelan migrants and to the SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) pandemic. After the beginning of the pandemic, the Brazilian government closed the border; however, migration continued through informal paths. There is scarce information regarding the availability of sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services at settings impacted both by migration and the COVID-19 pandemic. Consequently, we aimed to assess the availability and access to SRH services for Venezuelan migrant at Roraima state during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study with data collected during the pandemic using an electronic questionnaire. We interviewed three policy makers responsible for the directorate of primary care both at the municipal and state level; the directors of the two public hospitals and the two referral centres for women's health in Boa Vista, and in Pacaraima the director of the hospital and of the basic health post. We also interviewed 20 out of the 34 (58.8%) managers of the basic health posts in Boa Vista and 10 healthcare providers (physicians and nurses). Data collected covered issues pertaining to access to SRH services, and explored the impacts of the COVID-19 on continuation, access, and use of SRH services. Results: It was reported that 60% of the beds in the public sector were reallocated for COVID-19 cases and 26 out of the 34 (76%) health posts assessed interrupted the provision of SRH services, including contraceptive provision and gynaecological consultation, since these were considered not essential services. Most of the participants, (25/36; 69.4%) reported that both the state and the municipal health authorities implemented community outreach using telephone, social media, radio, and television, with guidance for the population on how to seek care using the healthcare network. Conclusions: The healthcare system in Roraima was impacted firstly by the need to provide SRH to a large number of Venezuelan migrant women, and after an effort to adapt to the reality that this migrant crisis posed; this system was affected by the needs to adapt to the COVID-19 pandemic.

19.
Contracept X ; 4: 100073, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35281554

RESUMO

Objectives: To characterize the relationship between serum medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) concentrations and ovulation suppression, and to estimate the risk of ovulation for investigational subcutaneous regimens of Depo-Provera CI (Depo-Provera) and Depo-subQ Provera 104 (Depo-subQ). Study Design: We performed a secondary analysis of 2 studies that assessed the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of MPA when Depo-Provera is administered subcutaneously rather than by the labeled intramuscular route. Each woman received a single 45 mg to 300 mg subcutaneous injection of Depo-Provera, a single 104 mg subcutaneous injection of Depo-subQ, or 2 injections of Depo-subQ at 3-month intervals. We used an elevation of serum progesterone ≥4.7 ng/mL as a surrogate for ovulation and non-parametric statistical methods to assess pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic relationships. Results: This analysis included 101 women with body mass index (BMI) 18 to 34 kg/m2. Return of ovulation occurred at a median MPA concentration of 0.07 ng/mL (95% CI: 0.06-0.08) and the 90th percentile was 0.10 ng/mL (95% CI: 0.09-0.14). Neither age, race, nor BMI significantly influenced this relationship. The estimated probabilities of ovulation within 4 months of a 104 mg subcutaneous injection and within 7 months of a 150 mg subcutaneous injection (6 plus a 1-month grace) were each below 2.2%. Conclusions: The typical MPA concentration associated with loss of ovulation suppression is substantially less than the commonly cited threshold of 0.2 ng/mL. Based on our results, MPA levels would rarely be low enough to permit ovulation if the Depo-subQ reinjection interval were extended to four months or if 150 mg Depo-Provera were injected subcutaneously every 6 months. Implications: Extending the three-month Depo-subQ reinjection interval by one month would result in a 25% reduction in yearly MPA exposure, with little risk of pregnancy. Off-label subcutaneous administration of 150 mg Depo-Provera every 6 months would be a highly effective repurposing of an excellent product, with a similar reduction in cumulative exposure.

20.
Eur J Contracept Reprod Health Care ; 27(2): 115-120, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35156489

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to assess the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on sales of modern contraceptive methods in Brazil. METHODS: Monthly sales data were analysed of short-acting reversible contraceptive methods and long-acting reversible contraceptive (LARC) methods (implants and intrauterine contraception) and COVID-19 related deaths. Contraceptive methods were grouped as follows: emergency contraception (EC); oral contraception, vaginal rings and transdermal patches; injectable contraception; LARC methods including the copper intrauterine device (Cu-IUD); and LARC methods excluding the Cu-IUD. RESULTS: Contraceptive sales showed a non-significant increase in 2020 compared with the previous year; average sales ranged from 12.8 to 13.0 million units per month. Sales of injectable contraceptives increased between March and June 2020 and EC pills between June and July 2020; the variation in sales of pills, patches and rings was not significant. Sales of the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) and the etonogestrel (ENG) implant showed three patterns: a decrease in sales between February and May 2020 (coinciding with the closure of family planning services), an increase in sales after May 2020 (coinciding with the first COVID-19-related deaths), and a further increase in sales after July 2020 (corresponding to the increasing number of deaths from COVID-19). CONCLUSION: The COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted the Brazilian health care system. Since many family planning clinics were closed, sales of most modern contraceptives fell during 2020; however, the increase in sales of the LNG-IUS and ENG implant in the private sector indicates inequitable access to modern contraceptive methods.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Anticoncepcionais Femininos , Dispositivos Anticoncepcionais Femininos , Dispositivos Intrauterinos Medicados , Brasil/epidemiologia , Anticoncepção/métodos , Anticoncepcionais Femininos/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Levanogestrel , Pandemias
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