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1.
West J Emerg Med ; 22(2): 196-203, 2021 Feb 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33856300

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Most experts recommend norepinephrine as the first-line agent in septic shock. Our objective was to determine the effectiveness and safety of norepinephrine in patients with septic shock. METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and Epistemonikos, as well as MEDLINE from 1966 till August 2019. Screening of full texts, evaluation for eligibility, and data extraction were done by four independent reviewers. We estimated risk ratios (RR) and mean differences (MD) using a random-effects model with 95% confidence intervals (CI). The primary outcomes included the number of participants who achieved the target mean arterial pressure (MAP), time to achieve the target MAP, and number of participants with all-cause 28-day mortality. The secondary outcomes included the length of stay in the intensive care unit, length of hospital stay, incidence of arrhythmia and myocardial infarction, vasopressor-free days, and number of participants with all-cause 90-day mortality. RESULTS: We identified 11 randomized controlled trials with a total of 4,803 participants. There was no difference in the number of participants who achieved the target MAP between those patients receiving norepinephrine and other vasopressors (RR 1.44; 95% CI, 0.32 to 6.54; P = 0.640; I2 = 94%; two trials, 116 participants). There was no significant difference in time to achieve the target MAP (MD -0.05; 95%, CI, -0.32 to 0.21; P = 0.690; I2 = 26%; two trials, 1763 participants) and all-cause 28-day mortality (RR 0.95; 95% CI, 0.89 to 1.02; P = 0.160; I2 = 0%; seven trials, 4,139 participants). Regarding the secondary outcome, norepinephrine may significantly reduce the incidence of arrhythmia as compared to other vasopressors (RR 0.64; 95% CI, 0.42 to 0.97; P = 0.030; I2 = 64%; six trials, 3974 participants). There was no difference in the incidence of myocardial infarction (RR 1.28; 95% CI, 0.79 to 2.09), vasopressor-free day (RR 0.46; 95% CI, -1.82 to 2.74) and all-cause 90-day mortality (RR 1.08; 95% CI, 0.96 to 1.21) between norepinephrine and vasopressors. CONCLUSION: In minimizing the occurrence of an arrhythmia, norepinephrine is superior to other vasopressors, making it safe to be used in septic shock. However, there was insufficient evidence concerning mortality and achievement of the target MAP outcomes.


Assuntos
Norepinefrina/uso terapêutico , Choque Séptico/tratamento farmacológico , Vasoconstritores/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Tempo de Internação , Choque Séptico/mortalidade
2.
Malays J Med Sci ; 26(2): 1-7, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31447603

RESUMO

The School of Medical Sciences of Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM) is the launching pad for this journal. From the school's humble beginning at the USM Main Campus in Pulau Pinang, Malaysia, it has grown in stature at its current location in the USM Health Campus, Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia. Commemorating its 40th anniversary, this editorial aims to recollect, although not exhaustively, the wealth of returns for the USM, as well as for the nation, which the school has managed to deliver in that period. Resolute to its vision and mission, this article highlights the outstanding accomplishments in various core aspects of the school's academic, research and professional growth as we continually strive to train globally competitive and compassionate medical graduates, medical specialists and scientists, skilled to serve nation's needs and broader markets worldwide. Currently guided by the Malaysian Higher Education Blueprint (2015-2025), the school shall remain ingenious in its duties in the many more years to come, as we head for a world-class trajectory.

3.
Malays J Med Sci ; 22(2): 1-7, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26023289

RESUMO

Floods are considered an annual natural disaster in Kelantan. However, the record-setting flood of 2014 was a 'tsunami-like disaster'. Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia was the only fully functioning hospital in the state and had to receive and manage cases from the hospitals and clinics throughout Kelantan. The experiences, challenges, and recommendations resulting from this disaster are highlighted from an emergency medicine perspective so that future disaster preparedness is truly a preparation. The history of how the health campus was constructed with the collaboration of Perunding Alam Bina and Perkins and Willis of Chicago is elaborated.

4.
Int J Emerg Med ; 7(1): 2, 2014 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24386899

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Parecoxib sodium is the first parenteral COX-2 inhibitor used for pain management licensed for postoperative pain. However, no study has assessed the usage of parecoxib for acute traumatic pain in the emergency department (ED). The objective of this study was to investigate a potential alternative analgesic agent in the ED by determining the mean reduction of pain score between acute traumatic pain patients who were administered with intravenous (IV) parecoxib sodium versus IV morphine sulfate. The onset of perceptible analgesic effect and side effects were also evaluated. METHODS: A randomized, double-blinded study comparing IV parecoxib 40 mg versus IV morphine at 0.10 mg/kg was conducted in adult patients presented with acute traumatic pain with numeric rating scale (NRS) of 6 or more within 6 hours of injury. Patients were randomized using a computer-generated randomization plan. Drug preparation and dispensing were performed by a pharmacist. Periodic assessment of blood pressure, pulse rate, oxygen saturation, and NRS were taken at 0, 5, 15, and 30 minute intervals after the administration of the study drug. The primary outcome was the reduction of NRS. Side effect and drug evaluation was conducted within 30 minutes of drug administration. RESULTS: There was no statistically significant difference in the reduction of mean NRS between patients in the IV parecoxib group or IV morphine group (P = 0.095). The mean NRS for patients treated with IV morphine were 7.1 at 0 minutes, 4.5 at 5 minutes, 3.1 at 15 minutes, and 2.0 at 30 minutes. Whereas mean NRS for patients who received IV parecoxib were 7.8 at 0 minutes, 5.7 at 5 minutes, 4.7 at 15 minutes, and 3.9 at 30 minutes. The onset of perceptible analgesic effects could be seen as early as 5 minutes. Dizziness was experienced in 42.9% of patients who received IV morphine compared to none in the parecoxib group. CONCLUSIONS: There was non-significant trend toward superiority of IV morphine over IV parecoxib. Looking at its effectiveness and the lack of opioid-related side-effects, the usage of IV parecoxib sodium may be extended further to a variety of cases in the ED.

5.
Malays J Med Sci ; 17(1): 17-22, 2010 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22135521

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pain management in the Emergency Department is challenging. Do we need to ask patients specifically about their pain scores, or does our observational scoring suffice? The objective of this study was to determine the inter-rater differences in pain scores between patients and emergency healthcare (EHC) providers. Pain scores upon discharge or prior to ward admission were also determined. METHODS: A prospective study was conducted in which patients independently rated their pain scores at primary triage; EHC providers (triagers and doctors) separately rated the patients' pain scores, based on their observations. RESULTS: The mean patient pain score on arrival was 6.8 ± 1.6, whereas those estimated by doctors and triagers were 5.6±1.8 and 4.3±1.9, respectively. There were significant differences among patients, triagers and doctors (P< 0.001). There were five conditions (soft tissue injury, headache, abdominal pain, fracture and abscess/cellulites) that were significantly different in pain scores between patients and EHC providers (P<0.005). The mean pain score of patients upon discharge or admission to the ward was 3.3 ± 1.9. CONCLUSIONS: There were significant differences in mean patient pain scores on arrival, compared to those of doctors and triagers. Thus, asking for pain scores is a very important step towards comprehensive pain management in emergency medicine.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20578469

RESUMO

Traditional Malay herbal medicine is still used in Malaysia especially in rural areas, instead of using modern medicine. Datura or "kecubung" has been used to treat allergic rhinitis in certain places. Inaccurate doses can potentially cause severe or fatal neurologic anti-cholinergic toxidromes. A good knowledge of toxidromes with optimization of supportive care can prevent fatal complications and lead to a more speedy recovery. We present a case of kecubung poisoning.


Assuntos
Datura/envenenamento , Medicina Herbária , Medicina Tradicional do Leste Asiático , Humanos , Malásia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
7.
Malays J Med Sci ; 16(2): 33-7, 2009 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22589656

RESUMO

Theophylline toxicity is a life-threatening toxidrome that can present to an emergency department. To ascertain an immediate provisional diagnosis in toxicology at the emergency department is very challenging, especially when the patient presents with altered mental status, because the clinical features of several toxidromes overlap. We report a case of survival of undiagnosed theophylline toxicity that required intubation for two days in the intensive care unit. This was the first case to have been reported from our department. Accurate diagnosis of a toxidrome by gaining adequate history and conducting a thorough physical examination and early serum toxicology screening, coupled with good knowledge of toxicology, will lead to better patient outcomes.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18564720

RESUMO

Bleeding as the result of a leech in the male urethra is very rare. We describe a 13-year-old boy who had a leech in his urethra. In the emergency department he persistently squeezed his penis in an attempt to prevent the leech from going deeper into his urethra. Manual removal by forcep failed and cystoscopic removal was recommended. Penile block with lidocaine 1% relieved the pain and enabled him to squeeze his penis harder until the leech was pushed out making forcep removal easier. Post-removal he had hematuria and penile pain for 2 days. A description of his presentation and management, along with a review of the literature is presented.


Assuntos
Sanguessugas , Doenças Uretrais/parasitologia , Adolescente , Animais , Hematúria/etiologia , Humanos , Masculino
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