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1.
Cancer Med ; 10(20): 7233-7241, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34559451

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Preoperative autophagy inhibition with hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) in combination with gemcitabine in pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PDAC) has been shown to be safe and effective in inducing a serum biomarker response and increase resection rates in a previous phase I/II clinical trial. We aimed to analyze the long-term outcomes of preoperative HCQ with gemcitabine for this cohort. METHODS: A review of patients enrolled between July 2010 and February 2013 in the completed phase I/II single arm (two doses of fixed-dose gemcitabine (1500 mg/m2 ) in combination with oral hydroxychloroquine administered for 31 consecutive days until the day of surgery for high-risk pancreatic cancer) was undertaken. Progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival analysis (OS) using Kaplan-Meier estimates were performed. RESULTS: Of 35 patients initially enrolled, 29 patients underwent surgical resection (median age at diagnosis: 62 years, 45% females). Median duration of follow-up was 7.5 years. There was a median 15% decrease in the serum CA19-9 levels following completion of neoadjuvant therapy and 83% of the cohort underwent a pancreaticoduodenectomy, 7 (24%) patients had a concomitant venous resection. On histopathology, 14 (48%) patients had at least a partial treatment response. The median PFS and OS were 11 months (95% Confidence interval [CI]: 7-28) and 31 months (95% CI: 13-47), respectively, while 9 (31%) patients survived beyond 5 years from diagnosis; a rate that compares very favorably with contemporaneous series. CONCLUSION: Compared to historical data, neoadjuvant autophagy inhibition with HCQ plus gemcitabine is associated with encouraging long-term survival for patients with PDAC.

2.
J Gastrointest Surg ; 2021 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34291365

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Appendiceal adenocarcinoma (AA) represents a heterogenous group of neoplasms with distinct histologic features. The role and efficacy of adjuvant chemotherapy (AC) in non-metastatic disease remain controversial. The aim of this study was to ascertain the role of AC in non-metastatic AA in a national cohort of patients. METHODS: The National Cancer Database (NCDB) was queried to identify patients diagnosed with stage I-III mucinous and nonmucinous AA who underwent right hemicolectomy between 2006 and 2016. Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analyses were used to evaluate the impact of AC on overall survival (OS) stratified by each pathologic stage. RESULTS: A total of 1433 mucinous and 1954 nonmucinous AA were identified; 578 (40%) and 722 (40%) received AC respectively. In both AC groups, there was a higher proportion of T4 disease, lymph node metastasis, pathologic stage III, and poorly/undifferentiated grade (all P<0.05). On unadjusted analysis, there was no significant association between AC and OS for stage I-III mucinous AA. For nonmucinous AA, AC significantly improved OS only for stage II and III disease. On adjusted analysis, AC was independently associated with an improved OS for stage III nonmucinous AA (HR: 0.61, 95%CI 0.45-0.84, P=0.002), while for mucinous AA, AC was associated with worse outcomes for stage I/II disease (HR: 1.4, 95%CI 1.02-1.91, P=0.038) and had no significant association with OS for stage III disease. CONCLUSION: This current analysis of a national cohort of patients suggests a beneficial role for AC in stage III nonmucinous AA and demonstrates no identifiable benefit for stage I-III mucinous AA.

3.
J Surg Oncol ; 124(5): 801-809, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34231222

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Neoadjuvant therapy (NAT) is an emerging strategy for operable pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). While NAT increases multimodal therapy completion, it risks functional decline and treatment dropout. We used decision analysis to determine optimal management of localized PDAC and consider risks faced by elderly patients. METHODS: A Markov cohort decision analysis model evaluated treatment options for a 60-year-old patient with resectable PDAC: (1) upfront pancreaticoduodenectomy or (2) NAT. One-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were performed. A subanalysis considered the scenario of a 75-year-old patient. RESULTS: For the base case, NAT offered an incremental survival gain of 4.6 months compared with SF (overall survival: 26.3 vs. 21.7 months). In one-way sensitivity analyses, findings were sensitive to recurrence-free survival for NAT patients undergoing adjuvant, probability of completing NAT, and probability of being resectable at exploration after NAT. On probabilistic analysis, NAT was favored in a majority of trials (97%) with a median survival benefit of 5.1 months. In altering the base case for the 75-year-old scenario, NAT had a survival benefit of 3.8 months. CONCLUSIONS: This analysis demonstrates a significant benefit to NAT in patients with localized PDAC. This benefit persists even in the elderly cohort.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/terapia , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/terapia , Técnicas de Apoio para a Decisão , Cadeias de Markov , Terapia Neoadjuvante/mortalidade , Pancreatectomia/mortalidade , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/terapia , Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Idoso , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/patologia , Terapia Combinada , Seguimentos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida
4.
Clin Transl Sci ; 14(5): 1822-1829, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34002944

RESUMO

SMAD4, a tumor suppressor gene, is lost in up to 60%-90% of pancreatic adenocarcinomas (PDAs). Loss of SMAD4 allows tumor progression by upregulating autophagy, a cell survival mechanism that counteracts apoptosis and allows intracellular recycling of macromolecules. Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) is an autophagy inhibitor. We studied whether HCQ treatment in SMAD4 deficient PDA may prevent therapeutic resistance induced by autophagy upregulation. We retrospectively analyzed the SMAD4 status of patients with PDA enrolled in two prospective clinical trials evaluating pre-operative HCQ. The first dose escalation trial demonstrated the safety of preoperative gemcitabine with HCQ (NCT01128296). More recently, a randomized trial of gemcitabine/nab-paclitaxel +/- HCQ evaluated Evans Grade histopathologic response (NCT01978184). The effect of SMAD4 loss on response to HCQ and chemotherapy was studied for association with clinical outcome. Fisher's exact test and log-rank test were used to assess response and survival. Fifty-two patients receiving HCQ with neoadjuvant chemotherapy were studied. Twenty-five patients had SMAD4 loss (48%). 76% of HCQ-treated patients with SMAD4 loss obtained a histopathologic response greater than or equal to 2A, compared with only 37% with SMAD4 intact (p = 0.006). Although loss of SMAD4 has been associated with worse outcomes, in the current study, loss of SMAD4 was not associated with a detriment in median overall survival in HCQ-treated patients (34.43 months in SMAD4 loss vs. 27.27 months in SMAD4 intact, p = 0.18). The addition of HCQ to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in patients with PDA may improve treatment response in those with SMAD4 loss. Further study of the relationship among SMAD4, autophagy, and treatment outcomes in PDA is warranted.

5.
Ann Surg Oncol ; 28(12): 7759-7769, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34027585

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: A positive microscopic margin (R1) following resection of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) can occur in up to 80% of patients and is associated with reduced survival and increased recurrence. Our aim was to characterize the impact of neoadjuvant therapy (NAT) on survival and recurrence in patients with PDAC following an R1 resection. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of patients with PDAC who underwent pancreatectomy from 2008 to 2017 was performed. Patients were staged according to the American Joint Committee on Cancer 8th edition and stratified based on resection margin (R0 vs. R1) and treatment sequence (NAT vs. surgery first [SF]). Conditional survival analysis was performed using Cox regression and inverse probability weighted estimates. RESULTS: Among 580 patients, 59% received NAT and 41% underwent SF. On final pathology, the NAT cohort had smaller tumors and less lymph node (LN) positivity (p < 0.05). NAT was not associated with an R1 resection (50%, p = 0.653). Compared with the R1 cohort, the R0 cohort had a higher median overall survival (OS; 39.6 vs. 22.8 months; hazard ratio [HR] 1.6, p < 0.001) and disease-free survival (DFS; 19 vs. 13 months; HR 1.35, p = 0.004). After risk adjustment, NAT was not associated with OS, regardless of margin status (R0, 95% confidence interval [CI] (-)7.31-27.07, p = 0.26; or R1, 95% CI (-)36.99-15.25, p = 0.42). However, NAT was associated with improved DFS in the R1 cohort (95% CI 1.79-11.91, p = 0.008) but not in the R0 cohort (95% CI (-)11.22-10.54, p = 0.95). CONCLUSION: An R0 resection remains an important determinant of overall and disease-free survival, even when NAT is administered. For patients with an R1 resection, receipt of NAT may prolong DFS.

6.
J Surg Oncol ; 124(3): 308-316, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33893740

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAT) for pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is increasingly being utilized. However, a significant number of patients will experience early recurrence, possibly negating the benefit of surgery. We aimed to identify factors implicated in early disease recurrence. METHODS: A retrospective review of pancreaticoduodenectomies performed between 2005 and 2017 at our institution for PDAC following NAT was performed. A 6-month cut-off was used to stratify patients into early/late recurrence groups. Multivariate analysis was performed to identify predictors of recurrence. RESULTS: Of 273 patients, 64 (23%) developed early recurrence or died within 90 days of surgery. The median time to recurrence was 4 months (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.2-4.3) in the early group versus 16 months (95% CI: 13.7-19.9) in the late group. The former had higher baseline and post-NAT Ca19-9 levels than the latter (472 vs. 153 IU/ml, p = 0.001 and 71 vs. 39 IU/ml, p = 0.005, respectively). A higher positive lymph node ratio significantly increased the risk of early recurrence (hazard ratio [HR]: 15.9, p < 0.001) while adjuvant chemotherapy was protective (HR: 0.4, p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Our findings acknowledge the limitations of clinically measured factors used to ascertain response to NAT and underline the need for individualized molecular markers that take into consideration the specific tumor biology.


Assuntos
Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Idoso , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/mortalidade , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/patologia , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/cirurgia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Terapia Neoadjuvante , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/mortalidade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/cirurgia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida
7.
Gut ; 2021 Apr 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33849943

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Recent studies have found aristaless-related homeobox gene (ARX)/pancreatic and duodenal homeobox 1 (PDX1), alpha-thalassemia/mental retardation X-linked (ATRX)/death domain-associated protein (DAXX) and alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) to be promising prognostic biomarkers for non-functional pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours (NF-PanNETs). However, they have not been comprehensively evaluated, especially among small NF-PanNETs (≤2.0 cm). Moreover, their status in neuroendocrine tumours (NETs) from other sites remains unknown. DESIGN: An international cohort of 1322 NETs was evaluated by immunolabelling for ARX/PDX1 and ATRX/DAXX, and telomere-specific fluorescence in situ hybridisation for ALT. This cohort included 561 primary NF-PanNETs, 107 NF-PanNET metastases and 654 primary, non-pancreatic non-functional NETs and NET metastases. The results were correlated with numerous clinicopathological features including relapse-free survival (RFS). RESULTS: ATRX/DAXX loss and ALT were associated with several adverse prognostic findings and distant metastasis/recurrence (p<0.001). The 5-year RFS rates for patients with ATRX/DAXX-negative and ALT-positive NF-PanNETs were 40% and 42% as compared with 85% and 86% for wild-type NF-PanNETs (p<0.001 and p<0.001). Shorter 5-year RFS rates for ≤2.0 cm NF-PanNETs patients were also seen with ATRX/DAXX loss (65% vs 92%, p=0.003) and ALT (60% vs 93%, p<0.001). By multivariate analysis, ATRX/DAXX and ALT status were independent prognostic factors for RFS. Conversely, classifying NF-PanNETs by ARX/PDX1 expression did not independently correlate with RFS. Except for 4% of pulmonary carcinoids, ATRX/DAXX loss and ALT were only identified in primary (25% and 29%) and NF-PanNET metastases (62% and 71%). CONCLUSIONS: ATRX/DAXX and ALT should be considered in the prognostic evaluation of NF-PanNETs including ≤2.0 cm tumours, and are highly specific for pancreatic origin among NET metastases of unknown primary.

8.
Ann Surg Oncol ; 28(11): 6264-6272, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33748894

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Neoadjuvant therapy (NAT) is a growing strategy for patients with resectable pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Elderly patients are at increased risk of treatment withdrawal due to functional decline, and the benefit of NAT in this cohort remains to be studied. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to compare outcomes of elderly patients with resectable head PDAC who underwent NAT or a surgery-first (SF) approach. METHODS: All patients 75 years of age and older with radiographically resectable (National Comprehensive Cancer Network criteria) PDAC who underwent pancreaticoduodenectomy at a single institution from 2008 to 2017 were analyzed. Baseline characteristics and perioperative outcomes were compared between the SF and NAT cohorts. Recurrence-free survival and overall survival (OS) were analyzed by treatment strategy. RESULTS: Overall, 158 patients were identified: SF cohort = 90 (57%) and NAT cohort = 68 (43%). Patients in the SF cohort were older (80 vs. 78 years; p = 0.01) but there were no differences in preoperative comorbidities or frailty indices. SF patients had a trend toward higher rates of major complications (38% vs. 24%; p = 0.06) with higher Comprehensive Complication Index totals (20.9 vs. 20; p = 0.03). There were similar rates of adjuvant therapy. NAT was associated with significantly longer OS (24.6 vs. 17.6 months; p = 0.01) in both the intent-to-treat and resected cohorts. On multivariable analysis (MVA), NAT remained an independent predictor of OS (hazard ratio 0.60; p = 0.02). CONCLUSION: NAT is safe and effective for elderly patients with PDAC. This study suggests NAT is associated with fewer complications after surgery, equal rates of adjuvant therapy receipt, and increased OS over a surgery-first approach.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático , Neoplasias Pancreáticas , Adenocarcinoma/cirurgia , Idoso , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/cirurgia , Humanos , Terapia Neoadjuvante , Pancreatectomia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/cirurgia
9.
Am Soc Clin Oncol Educ Book ; 41: 1-15, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33770459

RESUMO

Appendiceal neoplasms include a heterogeneous group of epithelial and nonepithelial tumors that exhibit varying malignant potential. This review article summarizes current diagnostic criteria, classification systems, and optimal therapeutic strategies for the five main histopathologic subtypes of appendiceal neoplasms. In particular, the management of epithelial appendiceal neoplasms has evolved. Although their treatment has historically been extrapolated from colon cancer, improved understanding of their unique histopathologic and molecular characteristics and a growing body of published clinical data support a more nuanced approach to their management.

11.
Ann Surg Oncol ; 28(5): 2438-2446, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33523364

RESUMO

AIMS: National studies have demonstrated disparities in the treatment and survival of pancreatic cancer patients based on socioeconomic status (SES). This study aimed to identify specific differences in perioperative management and outcomes based on patient SES and to study the role of a multidisciplinary clinic (MDC) in mitigating any variations. METHODS: The study analyzed patients undergoing pancreaticoduodenectomy for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma in a large hospital system. The patients were categorized into groups of high and low SES and whether they were managed by the authors' pancreatic cancer MDC or not. The study compared differences in disease characteristics, receipt of multimodality therapy, perioperative outcomes, and recurrence-free and overall survival. RESULTS: Of the 162 low-SES patients and 119 high-SES patients, 54% were managed in the MDC. Outside the MDC, low-SES patients were less likely to receive neoadjuvant chemotherapy and had less minimally invasive surgery, a longer OR time, less enhanced recovery participation, and more major complications (p < 0.05). No SES disparities were observed among the MDC patients. Despite similar tumor characteristics, the low-SES patients had inferior median overall survival (21 vs 32 months; p = 0.005), but the MDC appeared to eliminate this disparity. Low SES correlated with inferior survival for the non-MDC patients (17 vs 32 months; p < 0.001), but not for the MDC patients (24 vs 25 months; p = 0.33). These findings persisted in the multivariable analysis. CONCLUSION: A pancreatic cancer MDC standardizes treatment decisions, eliminates disparities in surgical outcomes, and improves survival for low-SES patients.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático , Neoplasias Pancreáticas , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/cirurgia , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde , Humanos , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Pancreatectomia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/cirurgia , Classe Social
12.
Ann Surg Oncol ; 28(7): 3800-3807, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33386547

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite controversy regarding the role of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) in pancreatic adenocarcinoma, nearly half of resected patients do not receive chemotherapy postoperatively. This study aimed to examine whether use of NAC compensates for omission of adjuvant chemotherapy (AC) for resected pancreatic adenocarcinoma. METHODS: Adults with resected stages 1 to 3 pancreatic adenocarcinoma were enrolled from the National Cancer Database NCDB (2006-2016). Overall survival (OS) analyses were used to examine the impact of NAC on those who did not receive AC. RESULTS: The study analyzed a national cohort of 56,286 patients: 30% without chemotherapy, 11% with NAC, 54% with AC, and 5% with NAC plus AC. Use of NAC increased by more than 400% from 2006 to 2016, whereas the rates for omission of chemotherapy remained unchanged. The OS rates were similar between the patients who received NAC and those who received AC (hazard ratio, 0.97; p = 0.21). Among the patients who did not receive AC, NAC was associated with improved OS (26.7 vs. 18.4 months; p < 0.0001). The patients who did not receive AC but underwent NAC had a median OS comparable with the OS of those who received AC alone (26.9 vs. 24.7 months). In the adjusted analysis, the use of NAC for those without AC was significantly associated with improved OS (estimate, - 0.24; p < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: Although data are limited regarding the survival benefit derived from neoadjuvant versus adjuvant chemotherapy in pancreatic adenocarcinoma, nearly half of patients do not receive adjuvant chemotherapy. This study demonstrates that the use of NAC lessens the survival disadvantage caused by omission of AC. Despite controversy, NAC may be considered for pancreatic adenocarcinoma patients given the high likelihood that adjuvant chemotherapy will be omitted.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma , Neoplasias Pancreáticas , Adenocarcinoma/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Quimioterapia Adjuvante , Humanos , Terapia Neoadjuvante , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais
13.
Mod Pathol ; 34(1): 171-183, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32661298

RESUMO

Tumor budding and CD8-positive (+) T-cells are recognized as prognostic factors in colorectal adenocarcinoma. We assessed CD8+ T-cell density and intratumoral budding in pretreatment rectal cancer biopsies to determine if they are predictive biomarkers for response to neoadjuvant therapy and survival. Pretreatment biopsies of locally advanced rectal adenocarcinoma from 117 patients were evaluated for CD8+ T-cell density using automated quantitative digital image analysis and for intratumoral budding and correlated with clinicopathological variables on postneoadjuvant surgical resection specimens, response to neoadjuvant therapy, and survival. Patients with high CD8+ T-cell density (≥157 per mm2) on biopsy were significantly more likely to exhibit complete/near complete response to neoadjuvant therapy (66% vs. 33%, p = 0.001) and low tumor stage (0 or I) on resection (62% vs. 30%, p = 0.001) compared with patients with low CD8+ T-cell density. High CD8+ T-cell density was an independent predictor of response to neoadjuvant therapy with a 2.63 higher likelihood of complete response (95% CI 1.04-6.65, p = 0.04) and a 3.66 higher likelihood of complete/near complete response (95% CI 1.60-8.38, p = 0.002). The presence of intratumoral budding on biopsy was significantly associated with a reduced likelihood of achieving complete/near complete response to neoadjuvant therapy (odds ratio 0.36, 95% CI 0.13-0.97, p = 0.048). Patients with intratumoral budding on biopsy had a significantly reduced disease-free survival compared with patients without intratumoral budding (5-year survival 39% vs 87%, p < 0.001). In the multivariable model, the presence of intratumoral budding on biopsy was associated with a 3.35-fold increased risk of tumor recurrence (95% CI 1.25-8.99, p = 0.02). In conclusion, CD8+ T-cell density and intratumoral budding in pretreatment biopsies of rectal adenocarcinoma are independent predictive biomarkers of response to neoadjuvant therapy and intratumoral budding associates with patient survival. These biomarkers may be helpful in selecting patients who will respond to neoadjuvant therapy and identifying patients at risk for recurrence.

14.
J Surg Oncol ; 123(1): 245-251, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33103242

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There are limited data on the efficacy of neoadjuvant therapy (NAT) for early-stage distal pancreas adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Previous studies focused on adenocarcinoma of the head of the pancreas or dealt with borderline and locally advanced tumors of the body and tail. METHODS: This is a retrospective study of the National Cancer Database between 2006 and 2015. A propensity-matched analysis was performed to compare overall survival estimates between NAT and upfront resection (UR) groups. RESULTS: A total of 5003 distal pancreatectomies for PDAC were identified, of whom 408 (9%) received NAT. After 1:1 matching, 353 NAT patients were compared with 353 UR patients. NAT was associated with lower 90-day mortality. There were no differences in the number of lymph nodes retrieved, or length of stay. With matching, the NAT group had higher median overall survival compared with UR (33.0 vs. 27.0 months; p = 0.009) and adjusted overall survival (hazard ratio = 0.63, 95% confidence interval = 0.51-0.77; p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: The receipt of NAT followed by distal pancreatectomy for early-stage distal PDAC is associated with improved overall survival compared with UR. This study supports the use of NAT in the multimodal therapy paradigm of early-stage adenocarcinoma of the body and tail of the pancreas.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/mortalidade , Quimioterapia Adjuvante/mortalidade , Terapia Neoadjuvante/mortalidade , Pancreatectomia/mortalidade , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/mortalidade , Adenocarcinoma/tratamento farmacológico , Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Adenocarcinoma/cirurgia , Idoso , Terapia Combinada , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/cirurgia , Prognóstico , Pontuação de Propensão , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida
15.
Ann Surg Oncol ; 28(7): 3779-3788, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33231769

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neoadjuvant therapy is increasingly used for patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). It is unknown whether neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy is more effective than chemotherapy (NCRT vs. NAC). We aim to compare pathological and survival outcomes of NCRT and NAC in patients with PDAC. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Single-center analysis of PDAC patients treated with NCRT or NAC followed by resection between December 2008 and December 2018 was performed. Average treatment effect (ATE) was estimated after case-control matching using Mahalanobis distance nearest-neighbor matching. Inverse probability weighted estimates (IPWE)-based ATE was estimated for disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS). RESULTS: Among the 418 patients (mean age 66.8 years, 51% female) included in the study, 327 received NAC and 91 received NCRT. NCRT patients had higher rates of locally advanced disease, number of neoadjuvant chemotherapy cycles, more chemotherapy regimen crossover (gemcitabine and 5-FU based), and were more likely to undergo open surgical procedures and/or vascular resection (all p < 0.05). After matched analysis, NCRT was associated with a significant reduction in lymph node positive disease [ATE = (-)0.24, p = 0.007] and lymphovascular invasion [ATE = (-)0.20, p = 0.02]. While NCRT was associated with significantly improved DFS by 9.5 months (p = 0.006), it did not affect OS by IPWE-based ATE after adjusting for adjuvant therapy (ATE = 5.5 months; p = 0.32). CONCLUSION: Compared with NAC alone, NCRT is associated with improved pathologic surrogates and disease-free survival, but not overall survival in patients with PDAC.


Assuntos
Terapia Neoadjuvante , Neoplasias Pancreáticas , Idoso , Quimiorradioterapia , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/terapia , Estudos Retrospectivos
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33278573

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: The assessment of therapeutic response after neoadjuvant treatment and pancreatectomy for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) has been an ongoing challenge. Several limitations have been encountered when employing current grading systems for residual tumor. Considering endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) represents a sensitive imaging technique for PDAC, differences in tumor size between preoperative EUS and postoperative pathology after neoadjuvant therapy were hypothesized to represent an improved marker of treatment response. METHODS: For 340 treatment-naïve and 365 neoadjuvant-treated PDACs, EUS and pathologic findings were analyzed and correlated with patient overall survival (OS). A separate group of 200 neoadjuvant-treated PDACs served as a validation cohort for further analysis. RESULTS: Among treatment-naïve PDACs, there was a moderate concordance between EUS imaging and postoperative pathology for tumor size (r = 0.726, P < .001) and AJCC 8th edition T-stage (r = 0.586, P < .001). In the setting of neoadjuvant therapy, a decrease in T-stage correlated with improved 3-year OS rates (50% vs 31%, P < .001). Through recursive partitioning, a cutoff of ≥47% tumor size reduction was also found to be associated with improved OS (67% vs 32%, P < .001). Improved OS using a ≥47% threshold was validated using a separate cohort of neoadjuvant-treated PDACs (72% vs 36%, P < .001). By multivariate analysis, a reduction in tumor size by ≥47% was an independent prognostic factor for improved OS (P = .007). CONCLUSIONS: The difference in tumor size between preoperative EUS imaging and postoperative pathology among neoadjuvant-treated PDAC patients is an important prognostic indicator and may guide subsequent chemotherapeutic management.

17.
Adv Radiat Oncol ; 5(6): 1197-1205, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33305081

RESUMO

Purpose: There is no consensus on treatment volumes for adjuvant stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for pancreatic cancer. Herein, we report patterns of failure after pancreatic SBRT for close/positive margins, which may inform target volume design. Methods and Materials: An institutional review board-approved retrospective review of patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma treated with adjuvant SBRT for close/positive margins from 2009 to 2018 was conducted. Patterns of failure were defined as local (LF) within the tumor bed, regional (RF) within lymph nodes or anastomoses, or distant (DF). The cumulative incidence of locoregional failure was calculated using the cumulative incidence function accounting for the competing risk of death. LFs were mapped to the planning target volume (PTV) and classified as in-field (completely within the PTV), marginal (partially within the PTV), or out-of-field (completely outside the PTV). The location of LFs was compared with the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 0848 contouring atlas to determine whether standard postoperative radiation therapy volumes would have included the LF. Results: Seventy-six patients were treated with adjuvant SBRT for close (51.3%) or positive (48.7%) margins. Most (81.6%) received 36 Gy in 3 fractions, with a median PTV volume of 17.8 cc (interquartile range, 12.1-25.6). With a median follow-up of 17.0 months (interquartile range, 7.3-28.4), crude rates of first isolated LF, isolated RF, and DF +/- LF or RF were 9.2%, 6.6%, and 56.6%, respectively. Two-year cumulative incidences of LF, RF, locoregional failure, and DF were 34.9%, 30.8%, 49.2%, and 60.4%, respectively. Of 28 reviewable LFs, 21.4% were in-field while the remainder were completely outside (60.7%) or partially outside (17.9%) the PTV. Most LFs (92.9%) would have been encompassed by the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group consensus target volumes. Conclusions: After adjuvant pancreatic SBRT for close/positive margins, the majority of LFs were outside the PTV but within contemporary target volumes for conventional radiation therapy.

18.
J Clin Oncol ; 38(27): 3185-3194, 2020 09 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32706635

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of pegvorhyaluronidase alfa (PEGPH20) plus nab-paclitaxel/gemcitabine (AG) in patients with hyaluronan-high metastatic pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA). PATIENTS AND METHODS: HALO 109-301 was a phase III, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Patients ≥ 18 years of age with untreated, metastatic, hyaluronan-high PDA were randomly assigned 2:1 to PEGPH20 plus AG or placebo plus AG. Treatment was administered intravenously in 4-week cycles (3 weeks on, 1 week off) until progression or intolerable adverse events: PEGPH20 3.0 µg/kg twice per week for cycle 1 and once per week thereafter; nab-paclitaxel 125 mg/m2 once per week; and gemcitabine 1,000 mg/m2 once per week. The primary end point was overall survival (OS); secondary end points included progression-free survival (PFS), objective response rate (ORR), and safety. Response was independently assessed per RECIST v1.1. RESULTS: At data cutoff, 494 patients were randomly assigned, with 492 (327 for PEGPH20 and 165 for placebo) included in intention-to-treat analyses. Baseline characteristics were balanced for PEGPH20 plus AG versus placebo plus AG. There were 330 deaths, with a median OS of 11.2 months for PEGPH20 plus AG versus 11.5 months for placebo plus AG (hazard ratio [HR], 1.00; 95% CI, 0.80 to 1.27; P = .97); median PFS was 7.1 months versus 7.1 months (HR, 0.97 [95% CI, 0.75 to 1.26]); ORR was 47% versus 36% (ORR ratio, 1.29 [95% CI, 1.03 to 1.63]). Grade ≥ 3 adverse events with a ≥ 2% higher rate with PEGPH20 plus AG than with placebo plus AG included fatigue (16.0% v 9.6%), muscle spasms (6.5% v 0.6%), and hyponatremia (8.0% v 3.8%). CONCLUSION: The addition of PEGPH20 to AG increased the ORR but did not improve OS or PFS. The safety profile of PEGPH20 plus AG was consistent with that found in previous studies. These results do not support additional development of PEGPH20 in metastatic PDA.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Albuminas/administração & dosagem , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/metabolismo , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/secundário , Desoxicitidina/administração & dosagem , Desoxicitidina/análogos & derivados , Progressão da Doença , Método Duplo-Cego , Fadiga/induzido quimicamente , Feminino , Humanos , Ácido Hialurônico/metabolismo , Hialuronoglucosaminidase/administração & dosagem , Hiponatremia/induzido quimicamente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Paclitaxel/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Critérios de Avaliação de Resposta em Tumores Sólidos , Espasmo/induzido quimicamente , Taxa de Sobrevida
19.
Mod Pathol ; 33(9): 1832-1843, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32376853

RESUMO

Mutations in RAS occur in 30-50% of metastatic colorectal carcinomas (mCRCs) and correlate with resistance to anti-EGFR therapy. Consequently, mCRC biomarker guidelines state RAS mutational testing should be performed when considering EGFR inhibitor treatment. However, a small subset of mCRCs are reported to harbor RAS amplification. In order to elucidate the clinicopathologic features and anti-EGFR treatment response associated with RAS amplification, we retrospectively reviewed a large cohort of mCRC patients that underwent targeted next-generation sequencing and copy number analysis for KRAS, NRAS, HRAS, BRAF, and PIK3CA. Molecular testing was performed on 1286 consecutive mCRC from 1271 patients as part of routine clinical care, and results were correlated with clinicopathologic findings, mismatch repair (MMR) status and follow-up. RAS amplification was detected in 22 (2%) mCRCs and included: KRAS, NRAS, and HRAS for 15, 5, and 2 cases, respectively (6-21 gene copies). Patients with a KRAS-amplified mCRC were more likely to report a history of inflammatory bowel disease (p < 0.001). In contrast, mutations in KRAS were associated with older patient age, right-sided colonic origin, low-grade differentiation, mucinous histology, and MMR proficiency (p ≤ 0.017). Four patients with a KRAS-amplified mCRC and no concomitant RAS/BRAF/PIK3CA mutations received EGFR inhibitor-based therapy, and none demonstrated a clinicoradiographic response. The therapeutic impact of RAS amplification was further evaluated using a separate, multi-institutional cohort of 23 patients. Eight of 23 patients with KRAS-amplified mCRC received anti-EGFR therapy and all 8 patients exhibited disease progression on treatment. Although the number of KRAS-amplified mCRCs is limited, our data suggest the clinicopathologic features associated with mCRC harboring a KRAS amplification are distinct from those associated with a KRAS mutation. However, both alterations seem to confer EGFR inhibitor resistance and, therefore, RAS testing to include copy number analyses may be of consideration in the treatment of mCRC.

20.
Ann Surg Oncol ; 27(10): 3950-3960, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32318949

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neoadjuvant therapy (NAT) is increasingly utilized for pancreatic cancer, however the added benefit of adjuvant therapy (AT) in this setting is unknown. We hypothesized that the magnitude of CA19-9 response to NAT can guide the need for further AT in resected pancreatic cancer. METHODS: CA19-9 secretors who received NAT for pancreatic cancer during 2008-2016 at a single institution were analyzed and CA19-9 response (difference between pre- and post-NAT values) was measured. Kaplan-Meier estimators and Cox proportional hazard ratio models were used to determine the optimal CA19-9 response at which AT ceases to confer any additional survival benefit after NAT. RESULTS: A total of 241 patients (mean age 65.4 years, 50% female) with complete CA19-9 data who underwent NAT followed by resection were analyzed. In a cohort of patients (n = 78) in whom CA19-9 normalized with a decrease > 50% after NAT (optimal responders), AT was not associated with additional survival benefit (40.6 vs. 39.0 months, p = 0.815). Conversely, in the cohort of patients (n = 163) in whom NAT was not associated with normalization and a decrease of ≤ 50% in CA19-9 (suboptimal responders), receipt of AT was associated with a survival benefit (34.5 vs. 19.1 months, p < 0.001) following NAT. A Cox proportional hazards model confirmed CA19-9 normalization and decrease > 50% during NAT to predict no additional survival benefit from AT. CONCLUSIONS: The magnitude of CA19-9 response to NAT may predict the need for further AT in resected pancreatic cancer. Prospective studies are needed to elucidate the optimal interplay of NAT and AT in pancreatic cancer.


Assuntos
Terapia Neoadjuvante , Neoplasias Pancreáticas , Adenocarcinoma/cirurgia , Idoso , Antígeno CA-19-9 , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pancreatectomia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/cirurgia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/terapia , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos
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