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1.
Brain ; 142(10): 2996-3008, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31532509

RESUMO

Epilepsy of infancy with migrating focal seizures was first described in 1995. Fifteen years later, KCNT1 gene mutations were identified as the major disease-causing gene of this disease. Currently, the data on epilepsy of infancy with migrating focal seizures associated with KCNT1 mutations are heterogeneous and many questions remain unanswered including the prognosis and the long-term outcome especially regarding epilepsy, neurological and developmental status and the presence of microcephaly. The aim of this study was to assess data from patients with epilepsy in infancy with migrating focal seizures with KCNT1 mutations to refine the phenotype spectrum and the outcome. We used mind maps based on medical reports of children followed in the network of the French reference centre for rare epilepsies and we developed family surveys to assess the long-term outcome. Seventeen patients were included [age: median (25th-75th percentile): 4 (2-15) years, sex ratio: 1.4, length of follow-up: 4 (2-15) years]. Seventy-one per cent started at 6 (1-52) days with sporadic motor seizures (n = 12), increasing up to a stormy phase with long lasting migrating seizures at 57 (30-89) days. The others entered this stormy phase directly at 1 (1-23) day. Ten patients entered a consecutive phase at 1.3 (1-2.8) years where seizures persisted at least daily (n = 8), but presented different semiology: brief and hypertonic with a nocturnal (n = 6) and clustered (n = 6) aspects. Suppression interictal patterns were identified on the EEG in 71% of patients (n = 12) sometimes from the first EEG (n = 6). Three patients received quinidine without reported efficacy. Long-term outcome was poor with neurological sequelae and active epilepsy except for one patient who had an early and long-lasting seizure-free period. Extracerebral symptoms probably linked with KCNT1 mutation were present, including arteriovenous fistula, dilated cardiomyopathy and precocious puberty. Eight patients (47%) had died at 3 (1.5-15.4) years including three from suspected sudden unexpected death in epilepsy. Refining the electro-clinical characteristics and the temporal sequence of epilepsy in infancy with migrating focal seizures should help diagnosis of this epilepsy. A better knowledge of the outcome allows one to advise families and to define the appropriate follow-up and therapies. Extracerebral involvement should be investigated, in particular the cardiac system, as it may be involved in the high prevalence of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy in these cases.

2.
Cell Rep ; 28(6): 1596-1611.e10, 2019 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31390572

RESUMO

Apical radial glia (aRGs) are predominant progenitors during corticogenesis. Perturbing their function leads to cortical malformations, including subcortical heterotopia (SH), characterized by the presence of neurons below the cortex. EML1/Eml1 mutations lead to SH in patients, as well as to heterotopic cortex (HeCo) mutant mice. In HeCo mice, some aRGs are abnormally positioned away from the ventricular zone (VZ). Thus, unraveling EML1/Eml1 function will clarify mechanisms maintaining aRGs in the VZ. We pinpoint an unknown EML1/Eml1 function in primary cilium formation. In HeCo aRGs, cilia are shorter, less numerous, and often found aberrantly oriented within vesicles. Patient fibroblasts and human cortical progenitors show similar defects. EML1 interacts with RPGRIP1L, a ciliary protein, and RPGRIP1L mutations were revealed in a heterotopia patient. We also identify Golgi apparatus abnormalities in EML1/Eml1 mutant cells, potentially upstream of the cilia phenotype. We thus reveal primary cilia mechanisms impacting aRG dynamics in physiological and pathological conditions.

3.
Mol Genet Metab ; 127(2): 147-157, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31182398

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: HPRT deficiency is a rare disorder of purine metabolism whose natural history is not fully understood. No optimal management recommendations exist. The objective of the present study is to characterize a large cohort of patients with HPRT deficiency, comparing Lesch-Nyhan Disease (LND) and its attenuated variants, with the purpose of helping clinicians in disease management and prognostic definition. METHODS: Genetic and clinical features of French and Italian patients with a confirmed diagnosis of HPRT deficiency were collected. RESULTS: A hundred and one patients were studied, including 66 LND, 22 HND (HPRT-related Neurological Dysfunction) and 13 HRH (HPRT-Related Hyperuricemia) patients. The clinical manifestations at onset were not specific, but associated with an orange coloration of diapers in 22% of patients. The overall neurological involvement was more severe in LND than in HND patients. Behavioural disturbances were not limited to self-injuries and were not exclusive of LND. Median age of involuntary movements and self-injuries appearance in LND was 1.0 and 3 years, respectively. Renal manifestations (66.3% of patients) occurred at any age with a median onset age of 1.1 years, while gout (25.7% of patients) appeared later in disease course (median onset age 18 years) and was more frequent in attenuated variants than in LND. HPRT activity and genotype showed a significant correlation with the severity of the neurological disease. On the contrary, there were no significant differences in the development of nephropathy or gout. For the treatment of neurological aspects, botulinum toxin injections, oral or intrathecal baclofen and gabapentin were partially efficacious and well tolerated, while deep brain stimulation was associated to a worsening of patients' condition. CONCLUSIONS: The present study improves the knowledge of the natural history of HPRT deficiency and could represent a starting point for the development of future management guidelines.

4.
Brain ; 142(4): 867-884, 2019 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30879067

RESUMO

Recessive mutations in RTTN, encoding the protein rotatin, were originally identified as cause of polymicrogyria, a cortical malformation. With time, a wide variety of other brain malformations has been ascribed to RTTN mutations, including primary microcephaly. Rotatin is a centrosomal protein possibly involved in centriolar elongation and ciliogenesis. However, the function of rotatin in brain development is largely unknown and the molecular disease mechanism underlying cortical malformations has not yet been elucidated. We performed both clinical and cell biological studies, aimed at clarifying rotatin function and pathogenesis. Review of the 23 published and five unpublished clinical cases and genomic mutations, including the effect of novel deep intronic pathogenic mutations on RTTN transcripts, allowed us to extrapolate the core phenotype, consisting of intellectual disability, short stature, microcephaly, lissencephaly, periventricular heterotopia, polymicrogyria and other malformations. We show that the severity of the phenotype is related to residual function of the protein, not only the level of mRNA expression. Skin fibroblasts from eight affected individuals were studied by high resolution immunomicroscopy and flow cytometry, in parallel with in vitro expression of RTTN in HEK293T cells. We demonstrate that rotatin regulates different phases of the cell cycle and is mislocalized in affected individuals. Mutant cells showed consistent and severe mitotic failure with centrosome amplification and multipolar spindle formation, leading to aneuploidy and apoptosis, which could relate to depletion of neuronal progenitors often observed in microcephaly. We confirmed the role of rotatin in functional and structural maintenance of primary cilia and determined that the protein localized not only to the basal body, but also to the axoneme, proving the functional interconnectivity between ciliogenesis and cell cycle progression. Proteomics analysis of both native and exogenous rotatin uncovered that rotatin interacts with the neuronal (non-muscle) myosin heavy chain subunits, motors of nucleokinesis during neuronal migration, and in human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived bipolar mature neurons rotatin localizes at the centrosome in the leading edge. This illustrates the role of rotatin in neuronal migration. These different functions of rotatin explain why RTTN mutations can lead to heterogeneous cerebral malformations, both related to proliferation and migration defects.

5.
Neuron ; 2018 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30449657

RESUMO

Corpus callosum malformations are associated with a broad range of neurodevelopmental diseases. We report that de novo mutations in MAST1 cause mega-corpus-callosum syndrome with cerebellar hypoplasia and cortical malformations (MCC-CH-CM) in the absence of megalencephaly. We show that MAST1 is a microtubule-associated protein that is predominantly expressed in post-mitotic neurons and is present in both dendritic and axonal compartments. We further show that Mast1 null animals are phenotypically normal, whereas the deletion of a single amino acid (L278del) recapitulates the distinct neurological phenotype observed in patients. In animals harboring Mast1 microdeletions, we find that the PI3K/AKT3/mTOR pathway is unperturbed, whereas Mast2 and Mast3 levels are diminished, indicative of a dominant-negative mode of action. Finally, we report that de novo MAST1 substitutions are present in patients with autism and microcephaly, raising the prospect that mutations in this gene give rise to a spectrum of neurodevelopmental diseases.

6.
Eur J Med Genet ; 61(12): 759-764, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30268909

RESUMO

The advent of next generation sequencing has improved gene discovery in neurodevelopmental disorders. A greater understanding of the genetic basis of these disorders has expanded the spectrum of pathogenic genes, thus enhancing diagnosis and therapeutic management. Genetic overlap between distinct neurodevelopmental disorders has also been revealed, which can make determining a strict genotype-phenotype correlation more difficult. Intellectual disability and cortical malformations are two neurodevelopmental disorders particularly confronted by this difficulty. Indeed, for a given pathogenic gene, intellectual disability can be associated, or not, with cortical malformations. Here, we report for the first time, two individuals with the same de novo mutation in TBR1, leading to a frameshift starting at codon Thr532, and resulting in a premature stop codon 143 amino acids downstream (c.1588_1594dup, p.(Thr532Argfs*144)). These individuals presented with a developmental encephalopathy characterized by frontal pachygyria and severe intellectual disability. Remarkably, 11 TBR1 gene mutations were previously reported in intellectual disability and autism spectrum disorders. Our study supports the observation that TBR1-related disorders range from intellectual disability to frontal pachygyria. We also highlight the need for first-line, good quality neuroimaging for patients with intellectual disability.

7.
Eur J Med Genet ; 61(12): 765-772, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30315939

RESUMO

Mutations in COL4A1 have been reported in schizencephaly and porencephaly combined with microbleeds or calcifications, often associated with ocular and renal abnormalities, myopathy, elevated creatine kinase levels and haemolytic anaemia. In this study, we aimed to clarify the phenotypic spectrum of COL4A1/A2 mutations in the context of cortical malformations that include schizencephaly, polymicrogyria and/or heterotopia. METHODS: We screened for COL4A1/A2 mutations in 9 patients with schizencephaly and/or polymicrogyria suspected to be caused by vascular disruption and leading to a cerebral haemorrhagic ischaemic event. These included 6 cases with asymmetrical or unilateral schizencephaly and/or polymicrogyria and 3 cases with bilateral schizencephaly. RESULTS: One de novo missense COL4A1 mutation (c.3715 G > A, p.(Gly1239Arg)) and two COL4A2 mutations were found, respectively in one familial case (c.4129G > A, p.(Gly1377Arg)) and one sporadic patient (c.1776+1G > A). In three other cases, COL4A1 variants of unknown significance were identified. None of our patients demonstrated neuromuscular or hematological anomalies. Brain malformations included a combination of schizencephaly, mainly asymmetrical, with porencephaly or ventriculomegaly (3/3 mutated patients). We did not observe microbleeds or microcalcifications in any of our cases, hence we do not believe that they represent a distinctive feature of COL4A1/A2 mutations. CONCLUSIONS: Our study further emphasizes the need to search for both COL4A1 and COL4A2 mutations in children presenting with uni- or bilateral polymicrogyria with schizencephaly, even in the absence of intracranial microbleeds, calcification or associated systemic features.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30262236

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Rett syndrome (RS) is a severe neurodevelopment disorder associated with abnormal breathing during wakefulness and disturbed nocturnal behaviour. Breathing abnormalities during daytime have been extensively reported but polysomnographic (PSG) findings have been poorly studied. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Consecutive patients with RS carrying distinct mutations in MECP2 gene, who underwent a PSG between October 2014 and January 2018, were included in the study. Clinical and PSG data were collected. RESULTS: Seventeen RS girls, mean age 9.5 ± 2.8 years, were included in the study. Mean total sleep time was 366 ± 102 min. Mean sleep efficiency was reduced (66 ± 19%) with only 3 girls presenting a sleep efficiency above 80%. Wake after sleep onset was increased (33 ± 20%) with an arousal index of 7 ± 6 events/hour. Sleep stages were altered with a normal N1 (2 ± 3%), a decreased N2 (34 ± 20%), an increase of N3 (51 ± 23%) and a decrease of REM sleep (12 ± 9%). Mean apnea hypopnea index (AHI) was increased at 19 ± 37 events/hour, with a predominance of obstructive events. Thirteen patients had an AHI > 1.5 event/hour. Four patients had an obstructive AHI >10 events/hour with one patient having associated tonsillar hypertrophy. Two patients had predominant severe central apneas (central AHI 53 and 132 events/hour) which resolved with noninvasive ventilation and nocturnal oxygen therapy respectively. CONCLUSION: Girls with RS have poor sleep quality with alterations in slow wave and REM sleep stages. Obstructive respiratory events are uncommon in patients without adenotonsillar hypertrophy. Central respiratory events are rare. Longitudinal studies should help understanding the natural history of sleep disturbances in RS and their relationship with the neurocognitive decline.

9.
Eur J Med Genet ; 61(12): 755-758, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30121372

RESUMO

Autosomal recessive missense Rotatin (RTTN) mutations are responsible for syndromic forms of malformation of cortical development, ranging from isolated polymicrogyria to microcephaly associated with primordial dwarfism and other major malformations. We identified, by trio based whole exome sequencing, a homozygous missense mutation in the RTTN gene (c.2953A > G; p.(Arg985Gly)) in one Moroccan patient from a consanguineous family. The patient showed early onset primary microcephaly, detected in the fetal period, postnatal growth restriction, encephalopathy with hyperkinetic movement disorders and self-injurious behavior with sleep disturbance. Brain MRI showed an extensive dysgyria associated with nodular heterotopia, large interhemispheric arachnoid cyst and corpus callosum hypoplasia.

10.
Brain ; 141(7): 1998-2013, 2018 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29878067

RESUMO

Cerebellar atrophy is a key neuroradiological finding usually associated with cerebellar ataxia and cognitive development defect in children. Unlike the adult forms, early onset cerebellar atrophies are classically described as mostly autosomal recessive conditions and the exact contribution of de novo mutations to this phenotype has not been assessed. In contrast, recent studies pinpoint the high prevalence of pathogenic de novo mutations in other developmental disorders such as intellectual disability, autism spectrum disorders and epilepsy. Here, we investigated a cohort of 47 patients with early onset cerebellar atrophy and/or hypoplasia using a custom gene panel as well as whole exome sequencing. De novo mutations were identified in 35% of patients while 27% had mutations inherited in an autosomal recessive manner. Understanding if these de novo events act through a loss or a gain of function effect is critical for treatment considerations. To gain a better insight into the disease mechanisms causing these cerebellar defects, we focused on CACNA1G, a gene not yet associated with the early-onset form. This gene encodes the Cav3.1 subunit of T-type calcium channels highly expressed in Purkinje neurons and deep cerebellar nuclei. We identified four patients with de novo CACNA1G mutations. They all display severe motor and cognitive impairment, cerebellar atrophy as well as variable features such as facial dysmorphisms, digital anomalies, microcephaly and epilepsy. Three subjects share a recurrent c.2881G>A/p.Ala961Thr variant while the fourth patient has the c.4591A>G/p.Met1531Val variant. Both mutations drastically impaired channel inactivation properties with significantly slower kinetics (∼5 times) and negatively shifted potential for half-inactivation (>10 mV). In addition, these two mutations increase neuronal firing in a cerebellar nuclear neuron model and promote a larger window current fully inhibited by TTA-P2, a selective T-type channel blocker. This study highlights the prevalence of de novo mutations in early-onset cerebellar atrophy and demonstrates that A961T and M1531V are gain of function mutations. Moreover, it reveals that aberrant activity of Cav3.1 channels can markedly alter brain development and suggests that this condition could be amenable to treatment.

11.
Orphanet J Rare Dis ; 13(1): 85, 2018 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29855327

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Secondary use of data collected in Electronic Health Records opens perspectives for increasing our knowledge of rare diseases. The clinical data warehouse (named Dr. Warehouse) at the Necker-Enfants Malades Children's Hospital contains data collected during normal care for thousands of patients. Dr. Warehouse is oriented toward the exploration of clinical narratives. In this study, we present our method to find phenotypes associated with diseases of interest. METHODS: We leveraged the frequency and TF-IDF to explore the association between clinical phenotypes and rare diseases. We applied our method in six use cases: phenotypes associated with the Rett, Lowe, Silver Russell, Bardet-Biedl syndromes, DOCK8 deficiency and Activated PI3-kinase Delta Syndrome (APDS). We asked domain experts to evaluate the relevance of the top-50 (for frequency and TF-IDF) phenotypes identified by Dr. Warehouse and computed the average precision and mean average precision. RESULTS: Experts concluded that between 16 and 39 phenotypes could be considered as relevant in the top-50 phenotypes ranked by descending frequency discovered by Dr. Warehouse (resp. between 11 and 41 for TF-IDF). Average precision ranges from 0.55 to 0.91 for frequency and 0.52 to 0.95 for TF-IDF. Mean average precision was 0.79. Our study suggests that phenotypes identified in clinical narratives stored in Electronic Health Record can provide rare disease specialists with candidate phenotypes that can be used in addition to the literature. CONCLUSIONS: Clinical Data Warehouses can be used to perform Next Generation Phenotyping, especially in the context of rare diseases. We have developed a method to detect phenotypes associated with a group of patients using medical concepts extracted from free-text clinical narratives.

12.
Eur J Med Genet ; 61(12): 729-732, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29758293

RESUMO

Postnatal microcephaly comprises a heterogeneous group of neurodevelopmental disorders of varying severity, characterized by normal head size at birth, followed by a postnatal deceleration in head circumference of greater than 3 standard deviations (SD) below the mean. Many postnatal microcephaly syndromes are caused by mutations in genes known to be important for the regulation of gene expression in the developing forebrain. We studied a consanguineous Pakistani family with postnatal microcephaly, orofacial dyskinesia, spastic quadriplegia and, on MRI, cortical atrophy with myelination delay, suggestive of a FOXG1-like presentation. Using trio-based exome sequencing, we identified a homozygous missense mutation in the Transducin-like enhancer of split-1 (TLE1) gene, encoding for a non DNA-binding transcriptional corepressor, highly expressed in the postnatal brain. The regulation of the post-mitotic neural survival activity of TLE1 depends critically on an interaction with FOXG1, a gene shown to be involved in a postnatal microcephaly syndrome. Functional analysis on affected dermal fibroblasts showed a significant decrease in mitotic and proliferative index, indicating a lengthening of the cell cycle and a delay in mitosis, supporting that this gene could be a new candidate for postnatal microcephaly.

13.
Am J Med Genet A ; 176(5): 1091-1098, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29681083

RESUMO

Corpus callosum (CC) is the major brain commissure connecting homologous areas of cerebral hemispheres. CC anomalies (CCAs) are the most frequent brain anomalies leading to variable neurodevelopmental outcomes making genetic counseling difficult in the absence of a known etiology that might inform the prognosis. Here, we used whole exome sequencing, and a targeted capture panel of syndromic CCA known causal and candidate genes to screen a cohort of 64 fetuses with CCA observed upon autopsy, and 34 children with CCA and intellectual disability. In one fetus and two patients, we identified three novel de novo mutations in ZBTB20, which was previously shown to be causal in Primrose syndrome. In addition to CCA, all cases presented with additional features of Primrose syndrome including facial dysmorphism and macrocephaly or megalencephaly. All three variations occurred within two out of the five zinc finger domains of the transcriptional repressor ZBTB20. Through homology modeling, these variants are predicted to result in local destabilization of each zinc finger domain suggesting subsequent abnormal repression of ZBTB20 target genes. Neurohistopathological analysis of the fetal case showed abnormal regionalization of the hippocampal formation as well as a reduced density of cortical upper layers where originate most callosal projections. Here, we report novel de novo ZBTB20 mutations in three independent cases with characteristic features of Primrose syndrome including constant CCA. Neurohistopathological findings in fetal case corroborate the observed key role of ZBTB20 during hippocampal and neocortical development. Finally, this study highlights the crucial role of ZBTB20 in CC development in human.

14.
Ann Clin Transl Neurol ; 5(2): 118-127, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29468173

RESUMO

Objective: Rett Syndrome (RTT) is a severe neurodevelopmental condition with breathing disorders, affecting around one in 10,000 female births. Desipramine, a noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor, reduced the number of apneas in Mecp2-deficient mice, a model of RTT. We planned a phase 2 trial to test its efficacy and its safety on breathing patterns in 36 girls with RTT. Methods: The trial was a 6-month, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00990691. Girls diagnosed according to clinical examination and confirmed by genotyping were randomly assigned in a 1:1:1 ratio to receive 2-3 mg/kg Desipramine per day (high Desipramine), 1-2 mg/kg Desipramine per day (low Desipramine), or a placebo. The primary outcome was the change of apnea hypopnea index (AHI), defined by the number of apnea and hypopnea events per hour, assessed at 6 months from baseline. Intention-to-treat analysis was applied. Results: The median change in AHI from baseline to 6 months was -31 (IQR: -37 to -11) for the high Desipramine, -17.5 (IQR: -31 to 13) for the low Desipramine, and -13 (IQR:-31 to 0) for the placebo group. We did not find any significant difference in these changes between the groups (P = 0.781). A significant inverse correlation between Desipramine plasma concentration and AHI (r = -0.44; P = 0.0002) was underlined. Interpretation: This first clinical trial of desipramine did not show clinical efficacy. Although required further studies, the significant correlation between Desipramine concentrations and improvement of AHI provided additional and relevant reasons to test the noradrenergic pathway in RTT.

15.
Brain ; 2018 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29365063

RESUMO

Polymicrogyria is a malformation of cortical development. The aetiology of polymicrogyria remains poorly understood. Using whole-exome sequencing we found de novo heterozygous missense GRIN1 mutations in 2 of 57 parent-offspring trios with polymicrogyria. We found nine further de novo missense GRIN1 mutations in additional cortical malformation patients. Shared features in the patients were extensive bilateral polymicrogyria associated with severe developmental delay, postnatal microcephaly, cortical visual impairment and intractable epilepsy. GRIN1 encodes GluN1, the essential subunit of the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor. The polymicrogyria-associated GRIN1 mutations tended to cluster in the S2 region (part of the ligand-binding domain of GluN1) or the adjacent M3 helix. These regions are rarely mutated in the normal population or in GRIN1 patients without polymicrogyria. Using two-electrode and whole-cell voltage-clamp analysis, we showed that the polymicrogyria-associated GRIN1 mutations significantly alter the in vitro activity of the receptor. Three of the mutations increased agonist potency while one reduced proton inhibition of the receptor. These results are striking because previous GRIN1 mutations have generally caused loss of function, and because N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor agonists have been used for many years to generate animal models of polymicrogyria. Overall, our results expand the phenotypic spectrum associated with GRIN1 mutations and highlight the important role of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor signalling in the pathogenesis of polymicrogyria.

16.
Hum Mol Genet ; 27(2): 224-238, 2018 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29077851

RESUMO

Genetic findings reported by our group and others showed that de novo missense variants in the KIF2A gene underlie malformations of brain development called pachygyria and microcephaly. Though KIF2A is known as member of the Kinesin-13 family involved in the regulation of microtubule end dynamics through its ATP dependent MT-depolymerase activity, how KIF2A variants lead to brain malformations is still largely unknown. Using cellular and in utero electroporation approaches, we show here that KIF2A disease-causing variants disrupts projection neuron positioning and interneuron migration, as well as progenitors proliferation. Interestingly, further dissection of this latter process revealed that ciliogenesis regulation is also altered during progenitors cell cycle. Altogether, our data suggest that deregulation of the coupling between ciliogenesis and cell cycle might contribute to the pathogenesis of KIF2A-related brain malformations. They also raise the issue whether ciliogenesis defects are a hallmark of other brain malformations, such as those related to tubulins and MT-motor proteins variants.

17.
Semin Cell Dev Biol ; 76: 33-75, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28951247

RESUMO

Cerebral cortical development involves a complex series of highly regulated steps to generate the laminated structure of the adult neocortex. Neuronal migration is a key part of this process. We provide here a detailed review of cortical malformations thought to be linked to abnormal neuronal migration. We have focused on providing updated views related to perturbed mechanisms based on the wealth of genetic information currently available, as well as the study of mutant genes in animal models. We discuss mainly type 1 lissencephaly, periventricular heterotopia, type II lissencephaly and polymicrogyria. We also discuss functional classifications such as the tubulinopathies, and emphasize how modern genetics is revealing genes mutated in atypical cases, as well as unexpected genes for classical cases. A role in neuronal migration is revealed for many mutant genes, although progenitor abnormalities also predominate, depending on the disorder. We finish by describing the advantages of human in vitro cell culture models, to examine human-specific cells and transcripts, and further mention non-genetic mechanisms leading to cortical malformations.


Assuntos
Malformações do Desenvolvimento Cortical do Grupo I/genética , Humanos
18.
PLoS One ; 12(10): e0186941, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29073271

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Classic Rett Syndrome (RS) is a disabling condition mainly caused by MECP2 mutations. Girls with RS are at risk of developing bone fragility and fractures at a young age which results in pain and may seriously impair quality of life. OBJECTIVE: To retrospectively assess the safety and efficacy of IV bisphosphonates on fracture, bone mineral density (BMD) and bone markers in RS girls with bone fragility. METHODS: RS girls received either IV pamidronate (n = 19) or IV zoledronate (n = 1) for 2 years. RESULTS: Of 20 patients studied (age: 12.5 years [6; 39]), 14 were non-ambulatory. The incidence of fracture decreased from 37 fractures in 20 patients, to 1 fracture during or after treatment (follow-up: 3.1 years [1.5; 5]). The spine BMD Z-score improved from -3.2 [-5.6; -0.1] to -2.2 [-3.8; 0.0], p = 0.0006. Most parents reported decreases in chronic pain and 2 patients started to walk. Urinary calcium excretion decreased from 0.7 [0.18; 1.5] to 0.2 [0.03; 0.67] mM/mM of creatinine (p = 0.0001). Pamidronate was well tolerated. CONCLUSION: RS girls should be screened for impaired bone mineralization and preventive measures should be taken. In girls experiencing fractures, IV bisphosphonates constitute a beneficial adjuvant treatment to diminish the risk of fracture and restore bone density.


Assuntos
Conservadores da Densidade Óssea/uso terapêutico , Difosfonatos/uso terapêutico , Fraturas Ósseas/epidemiologia , Síndrome de Rett/complicações , Adolescente , Adulto , Densidade Óssea , Cálcio/urina , Criança , Creatinina/urina , Feminino , Fraturas Ósseas/etiologia , Fraturas Ósseas/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Imidazóis/uso terapêutico , Incidência , Pamidronato , Adulto Jovem , Ácido Zoledrônico
19.
Brain ; 140(10): 2597-2609, 2017 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28969387

RESUMO

Microlissencephaly is a rare brain malformation characterized by congenital microcephaly and lissencephaly. Microlissencephaly is suspected to result from abnormalities in the proliferation or survival of neural progenitors. Despite the recent identification of six genes involved in microlissencephaly, the pathophysiological basis of this condition remains poorly understood. We performed trio-based whole exome sequencing in seven subjects from five non-consanguineous families who presented with either microcephaly or microlissencephaly. This led to the identification of compound heterozygous mutations in WDR81, a gene previously associated with cerebellar ataxia, intellectual disability and quadrupedal locomotion. Patient phenotypes ranged from severe microcephaly with extremely reduced gyration with pontocerebellar hypoplasia to moderate microcephaly with cerebellar atrophy. In patient fibroblast cells, WDR81 mutations were associated with increased mitotic index and delayed prometaphase/metaphase transition. Similarly, in vivo, we showed that knockdown of the WDR81 orthologue in Drosophila led to increased mitotic index of neural stem cells with delayed mitotic progression. In summary, we highlight the broad phenotypic spectrum of WDR81-related brain malformations, which include microcephaly with moderate to extremely reduced gyration and cerebellar anomalies. Our results suggest that WDR81 might have a role in mitosis that is conserved between Drosophila and humans.


Assuntos
Fibroblastos/citologia , Microcefalia/genética , Microcefalia/patologia , Mitose/genética , Mutação/genética , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Células-Tronco Neurais/citologia , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/patologia , Células Cultivadas , Pré-Escolar , Drosophila , Proteínas de Drosophila/genética , Proteínas de Drosophila/metabolismo , Feminino , Fibroblastos/patologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Humanos , Antígeno Ki-67/metabolismo , Masculino , Microcefalia/diagnóstico por imagem , Células-Tronco Neurais/patologia , Interferência de RNA/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
20.
J Biomed Inform ; 73: 51-61, 2017 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28754522

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In the context of rare diseases, it may be helpful to detect patients with similar medical histories, diagnoses and outcomes from a large number of cases with automated methods. To reduce the time to find new cases, we developed a method to find similar patients given an index case leveraging data from the electronic health records. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We used the clinical data warehouse of a children academic hospital in Paris, France (Necker-Enfants Malades), containing about 400,000 patients. Our model was based on a vector space model (VSM) to compute the similarity distance between an index patient and all the patients of the data warehouse. The dimensions of the VSM were built upon Unified Medical Language System concepts extracted from clinical narratives stored in the clinical data warehouse. The VSM was enhanced using three parameters: a pertinence score (TF-IDF of the concepts), the polarity of the concept (negated/not negated) and the minimum number of concepts in common. We evaluated this model by displaying the most similar patients for five different rare diseases: Lowe Syndrome (LOWE), Dystrophic Epidermolysis Bullosa (DEB), Activated PI3K delta Syndrome (APDS), Rett Syndrome (RETT) and Dowling Meara (EBS-DM), from the clinical data warehouse representing 18, 103, 21, 84 and 7 patients respectively. RESULTS: The percentages of index patients returning at least one true positive similar patient in the Top30 similar patients were 94% for LOWE, 97% for DEB, 86% for APDS, 71% for EBS-DM and 99% for RETT. The mean number of patients with the exact same genetic diseases among the 30 returned patients was 51%. CONCLUSION: This tool offers new perspectives in a translational context to identify patients for genetic research. Moreover, when new molecular bases are discovered, our strategy will help to identify additional eligible patients for genetic screening.


Assuntos
Data Warehousing , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Doenças Raras , Epidermólise Bolhosa Simples , França , Humanos , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases
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