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1.
Obes Surg ; 2019 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31214966

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Obesity is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Weight loss due to gastric bypass (GBP) surgery improves clinical outcomes and may be a cost-effective intervention. To estimate the cost-effectiveness of GBP compared to clinical treatment in severely obese individuals with and without diabetes in the perspective of the Brazilian public health system. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A Markov model was developed to compare costs and outcomes of gastric bypass in an open approach to clinical treatment. Health states were living with diabetes, remission of diabetes, non-fatal and fatal myocardial infarction, and death. We also included the occurrence of complications related to surgery and plastic surgery after the gastric bypass surgery. The direct costs were obtained from primary data collection performed in three public reference centers for obesity treatment. Utility values also derived from this cohort, while transition probabilities came from the international literature. A sensitivity analysis was performed to evaluate uncertainties. The model considered a 10-year time horizon and a 5% discount rate. RESULTS: Over 10 years, GBP increased quality-adjusted life years (QALY) and costs compared to clinical treatment, resulting in an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of Int$1820.17/QALY and Int$1937.73/QALY in individuals with and without diabetes, respectively. Sensitivity analysis showed that utility values and direct costs of treatments were the parameters that affected the most the ICERs. CONCLUSION: The study demonstrated that GBP is a cost-effective intervention for severely obese individuals in the Brazilian public health system perspective, with a better result in individuals with diabetes.

2.
Value Health Reg Issues ; 20: 73-78, 2019 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31048261

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To develop a budgetary impact analysis regarding the possibility of offering complete upper and lower dentures to an eligible population of elderly people (above 65 years) in the São Paulo state, Brazil. METHODS: The proportion of eligible population was calculated by assessing the prevalence of edentulous (upper and lower arch) and by defining the eligible group (public health system users). The budgetary impact analysis was designed under the following scenario: 5-year time horizon (2018-2022), prospect of municipal expenses with prostheses, and additional progressive incorporation of technology (upper and lower dentures) at an annual rate of 10%, 15%, 20%, 25%, and 30%. Sensibility analysis was performed in 3 different situations (reference, more pessimistic, and more optimistic) based on the calculation of spending through assessed demand and epidemiological demand. RESULTS: The municipal cost for each denture, already discounted the value transferred by the union for this procedure, was R$50.97. The incremental impact on the budget measured by the epidemiological demand relative to assessed demand was approximately R$59 141 510 over 5 years, meaning an impact of 0.08% (0.01% more optimistic; 0.13% more pessimistic) of the "medium and high complexity care" budget and 0.09% (0.03%-0.14%) of the primary care budget. CONCLUSION: The budgetary impact of increasing the oral rehabilitation with complete dentures for elderly population in the São Paulo state is low relative to the expenses with primary or specialized care budgets. In addition, incorporation of denture rehabilitation would be feasible, according to the financial availability and priorities of each municipality.

3.
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1005738

RESUMO

Objetivo: No cenário da avaliação de tecnologias em saúde (ATS), as estimativas de custos são um fator crítico no desenvolvimento das avaliações econômicas completas, especialmente pelo uso de diferentes metodologias de custeio. A fim de contribuir com a acurácia dos dados de custos usados nessas análises, este artigo sugere recomendações para apuração de custos em saúde no Brasil. Métodos: Reuniram-se pesquisadores de ATS de diferentes expertises e centros de pesquisa do Brasil, e ao longo de dois anos foram conduzidas revisões da literatura nacional e internacional e discussões sobre as formas de abordar a temática. Três simpósios foram realizados reunindo os pesquisadores com o propósito de alcançar o consenso entre os autores sobre as melhores recomendações para a realização de estudos de Microcusteio. Resultados: Consolidou-se em forma de uma recomendação este artigo que representa uma versão compacta da diretriz completa a ser publicada pela Rede Brasileira de Avaliação de Tecnologias em Saúde. A metodologia de Microcusteio é considerada como padrão-ouro para a identificação dos custos em saúde. Os métodos de definição do estudo, coleta e análise de dados apresentados são descritos de modo a permitir uma valoração dos custos validada e homogênea, principalmente para o uso dessa informação em avaliações econômicas de saúde. Conclusão: Essa recomendação tem o propósito de aumentar a acurácia das estimativas dos custos de saúde no nosso meio e homogeneizar a comunicação entre estudos conduzidos por diferentes grupos de pesquisa. Por fim, é esperado que a utilização dessas recomendações contribua para que as decisões baseadas em dados econômicos sejam mais acuradas e equânimes quando da incorporação de tecnologias no país.


Objective: In the context of health technology assessment (HTA), cost estimates are a critical factor in the development of economic evaluations, especially through the use of different costing methodologies. In order to contribute to the accuracy of the cost data used in these analyzes, this article suggests recommendations to develop health cost analysis in Brazil. Methods: HTA researchers with heterogeneous background and from different Brazilian research centers were engaged on the development of this health cost analysis recommendation over two years. Reviews of national and international literature and discussions on how to approach the theme were conducted. Three symposia were held bringing together the researchers with the purpose of reaching consensus among the authors on the best recommendations for micro-accounting studies. Results: This article was consolidated as a recommendation, which represents a compact version of the complete guideline that will be published by the Brazilian Health Technology Assessment Network (REBRATS). The Microcosting methodology is considered as a gold standard for the analysis of health costs. Methods to define the study, to perform data collection and analysis are described in order to allow a validated and homogeneous cost evaluation, mainly for the use of this information in economic health assessments. Conclusion: This recommendation is intended to increase the health cost estimated accuracy in our country and to homogenize the communication between studies conducted by different research groups. Finally, it is expected that the use of these recommendations will contribute to make decisions based on economic data more accurate and equitable when incorporating health technologies in the country.

4.
J Pediatr (Rio J) ; 2018 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30121174

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to assess the quality of systematic reviews on prevention and non-pharmacological treatment of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents. DATA SOURCE: A search was done in electronic databases (Medline via PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, LILACS, the Cochrane Library, and Clinical Trials), including only systematic reviews with meta-analysis. Reviews were selected by two researchers, and a third one solved the divergences. PRISMA statement and checklist were followed. SUMMARY OF DATA: A total of 4574 records were retrieved, including 24 after selection. Six reviews were on obesity prevention, 17 on obesity treatment, and one on mixed interventions for prevention and treatment of obesity. The interventions were very heterogeneous and showed little or no effects on weight or body mass index. Mixed interventions that included dieting, exercise, actions to reduce sedentary behavior, and programs involving the school or families showed some short-term positive effects. Reviews that analyzed cardiovascular risk factors demonstrated significant improvements in the short-term. CONCLUSION: The systematic reviews of interventions to prevent or reduce obesity in children and adolescents generally showed little or no effects on weight or body mass index, although cardiovascular profile can be improved. Mixed interventions demonstrated better effects, but the long-term impact of obesity treatments of children and adolescents remains unclear.

5.
Arch Endocrinol Metab ; 62(3): 303-308, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29791657

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death in Brazil, imposing substantial economic burden on the health care system. Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is known to greatly increase the risk of premature coronary artery disease (CAD). This study aimed to estimate the economic impact of hospitalizations due to CAD attributable to FH in the Brazilian Unified Health Care System (SUS). SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Retrospective, cross-sectional study of data obtained from the Hospital Information System of the SUS (SIHSUS). We selected all adults (≥ 20 years of age) hospitalized from 2012--2014 with primary diagnoses related to CAD (ICD-10 I20 to I25). Attributable risk methodology estimated the contribution of FH in the outcomes of interest, using international data for prevalence (0.4% and 0.73%) and relative risk for events (RR = 8.56). RESULTS: Assuming an international prevalence of FH of 0.4% and 0.73%, of the 245,981 CAD admissions/year in Brazil, approximately 7,249 and 12,915, respectively, would be attributable to an underlying diagnosis --of FH. The total cost due to CAD per year, considering both sexes and all adults, was R$ 985,919,064, of which R$ 29,053,500 and R$ 51,764,175, respectively, were estimated to be attributable to FH. The average cost per FH-related CAD event was R$ 4,008. CONCLUSION: Based on estimated costs of hospitalization for CAD, we estimated that 2.9-5.3% are directed to FH patients. FH can require early specific therapies to lower risk in families. It is mandatory to determine the prevalence of FH and institute appropriate treatment to minimize the clinical and economic impact of this disease in Brazil.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana/economia , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitalização/economia , Hipercolesterolemia/economia , Saúde Pública/economia , Adulto , Idoso , Brasil , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/etiologia , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/terapia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Hipercolesterolemia/complicações , Hipercolesterolemia/terapia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Saúde Pública/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
6.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 62(3): 303-308, May-June 2018. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-950061

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Objective: Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death in Brazil, imposing substantial economic burden on the health care system. Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is known to greatly increase the risk of premature coronary artery disease (CAD). This study aimed to estimate the economic impact of hospitalizations due to CAD attributable to FH in the Brazilian Unified Health Care System (SUS). Subjects and methods: Retrospective, cross-sectional study of data obtained from the Hospital Information System of the SUS (SIHSUS). We selected all adults (≥ 20 years of age) hospitalized from 2012­-2014 with primary diagnoses related to CAD (ICD-10 I20 to I25). Attributable risk methodology estimated the contribution of FH in the outcomes of interest, using international data for prevalence (0.4% and 0.73%) and relative risk for events (RR = 8.56). Results: Assuming an international prevalence of FH of 0.4% and 0.73%, of the 245,981 CAD admissions/year in Brazil, approximately 7,249 and 12,915, respectively, would be attributable to an underlying diagnosis ­­of FH. The total cost due to CAD per year, considering both sexes and all adults, was R$ 985,919,064, of which R$ 29,053,500 and R$ 51,764,175, respectively, were estimated to be attributable to FH. The average cost per FH-related CAD event was R$ 4,008. Conclusion: Based on estimated costs of hospitalization for CAD, we estimated that 2.9-5.3% are directed to FH patients. FH can require early specific therapies to lower risk in families. It is mandatory to determine the prevalence of FH and institute appropriate treatment to minimize the clinical and economic impact of this disease in Brazil.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29419786

RESUMO

Diabetes is associated with a significant burden globally. The costs of diabetes-related hospitalizations are unknown in most developing countries. The aim of this study was to estimate the total number and economic burden of hospitalizations attributable to diabetes mellitus (DM) and its complications in adults from the perspective of the Brazilian Public Health System in 2014. Data sources included the National Health Survey (NHS) and National database of Hospitalizations (SIH). We considered diabetes, its microvascular (retinopathy, nephropathy, and neuropathy) and macrovascular complications (coronary heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, and peripheral arterial disease), respiratory and urinary tract infections, as well as selected cancers. Assuming that DM patients are hospitalized for these conditions more frequently that non-DM individuals, we estimated the etiological fraction of each condition related to DM, using the attributable risk methodology. We present number, average cost per case, and overall costs of hospitalizations attributable to DM in Brazil in 2014, stratified by condition, state of the country, gender and age group. In 2014, a total of 313,273 hospitalizations due to diabetes in adults were reported in Brazil (4.6% of total adult hospitalization), totaling (international dollar) Int$264.9 million. The average cost of an adult hospitalization due to diabetes was Int$845, 19% higher than hospitalization without DM. Hospitalizations due to cardiovascular diseases related to diabetes accounted for the higher proportion of costs (47.9%), followed by microvascular complications (25.4%) and DM per se (18.1%). Understanding the costs of diabetes and its major complications is crucial to raise awareness and to support the decision-making process on policy implementation, also allowing the assessment of prevention and control strategies.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/economia , Hospitalização/economia , Adolescente , Adulto , Brasil , Doenças Cardiovasculares/economia , Custos e Análise de Custo , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/economia , Doenças Respiratórias/economia , Doenças Urológicas/economia , Adulto Jovem
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29316689

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to estimate the annual costs for the treatment of diabetic foot disease (DFD) in Brazil. We conducted a cost-of-illness study of DFD in 2014, while considering the Brazilian Public Healthcare System (SUS) perspective. Direct medical costs of outpatient management and inpatient care were considered. For outpatient costs, a panel of experts was convened from which utilization of healthcare services for the management of DFD was obtained. When considering the range of syndromes included in the DFD spectrum, we developed four well-defined hypothetical DFD cases: (1) peripheral neuropathy without ulcer, (2) non-infected foot ulcer, (3) infected foot ulcer, and (4) clinical management of amputated patients. Quantities of each healthcare service was then multiplied by their respective unit costs obtained from national price listings. We then developed a decision analytic tree to estimate nationwide costs of DFD in Brazil, while taking into the account the estimated cost per case and considering epidemiologic parameters obtained from a national survey, secondary data, and the literature. For inpatient care, ICD10 codes related to DFD were identified and costs of hospitalizations due to osteomyelitis, amputations, and other selected DFD related conditions were obtained from a nationwide hospitalization database. Direct medical costs of DFD in Brazil was estimated considering the 2014 purchasing power parity (PPP) (1 Int$ = 1.748 BRL). We estimated that the annual direct medical costs of DFD in 2014 was Int$ 361 million, which denotes 0.31% of public health expenses for this period. Of the total, Int$ 27.7 million (13%) was for inpatient, and Int$ 333.5 million (87%) for outpatient care. Despite using different methodologies to estimate outpatient and inpatient costs related to DFD, this is the first study to assess the overall economic burden of DFD in Brazil, while considering all of its syndromes and both outpatients and inpatients. Although we have various reasons to believe that the hospital costs are underestimated, the estimated DFD burden is significant. As such, public health preventive strategies to reduce DFD related morbidity and mortality and costs are of utmost importance.

9.
Food Sci. Technol (SBCTA, Impr.) ; 38(4): 561-576, Oct.-Dec. 2018. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-999842

RESUMO

High postprandial glycemia in the non-diabetic population is one of the known universal mechanisms for the progression of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs), which have impacted the finances of both individuals and of health systems. In order to highlight the role of carbohydrates in glycemic control and its implications on health, the International Life Sciences Institute Brazil held an international workshop on "Carbohydrates, Glycemia and Health". Carbohydrate digestion rate is related to glycemic response, which mainly depends on the quality and amount of carbohydrate ingested, and thus it may be modulated by intrinsic and extrinsic factors. These effects can be verified by using different methods which evidence how physiology adapts in the uptake of glucose. Consumers can be aided with the knowledge/awareness of the benefits of high postprandial glycemia control in non-diabetic subjects. Multisectorial actions can contribute to decrease the onset and worsening of NCDs. A strategy indicated to the public in general to expand the availability of products that do not result in a sudden increase of postprandial plasma glucose and/or insulin would be to use alternative ingredients and/or technology in addition to making the legally allowed communication of benefits, which are supported by scientific studies.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Efetividade , Alimento Funcional , Hiperglicemia , Sistemas de Saúde , Carboidratos , Fibras na Dieta , Alimentos , Doenças não Transmissíveis , Doenças não Transmissíveis/epidemiologia
10.
Obes Surg ; 27(12): 3273-3280, 2017 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28717859

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Obesity is a major global epidemic and a burden to society and health systems. This study aimed to estimate and compare the anual costs of clinical and surgical treatment of severe obesity from the perspective of the Brazilian Public Health System. METHODS: An observational and cross-sectional study was performed in three reference centers. Data collection on health resources utilization and productivity loss was carried out through an online questionnaire. Participants were divided in clinical (waiting list for a bariatric surgery) and surgical groups (open Roux-en-Y gastric bypass), and then allocated by the time of surgery (up to 1 year; 1-2 years; 2-3 years; and >3 years). Costs of visits, medications, exams, and surgeries were obtained from government sources. Data on non-medical costs, such as transportation, special diets, and caregivers, were also colleted. Productivity loss was estimated using self-reported income. Costs in local currency (Real) were converted to international dollars (Int$ 2015). RESULTS: Two hundred and seventy-four patients, 140 in surgical group and 134 in clinical group were included. In first postoperative year, the surgical group had higher costs than clinical group (Int$6005.47 [5000.18-8262.36] versus 2148.14 [1412.2-3506.8]; p = 0.0002); however, from the second year, the costs decreased progressively. In the same way, indirect costs decreased significantly after surgery (259.08 [163.63-662.72] versus 368.17 [163.62-687.27]; p = 0.06). CONCLUSION: Total costs were higher in the surgical group in the first 2 years after surgery. However, from the third year on, the costs were lower than in the clinical group.


Assuntos
Fármacos Antiobesidade/economia , Fármacos Antiobesidade/uso terapêutico , Cirurgia Bariátrica/economia , Obesidade Mórbida/economia , Obesidade Mórbida/terapia , Adulto , Cirurgia Bariátrica/estatística & dados numéricos , Brasil/epidemiologia , Custos e Análise de Custo , Estudos Transversais , Dietoterapia/economia , Dietoterapia/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade Mórbida/epidemiologia , Saúde Pública/economia , Programas de Redução de Peso/economia , Programas de Redução de Peso/estatística & dados numéricos
11.
Oncologist ; 22(10): 1154-e105, 2017 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28652279

RESUMO

LESSONS LEARNED: Pregabalin is a medication that can decrease neuronal hyperexcitability, relieve neuropathic pain, and reach stable plasma levels after a titration period of only a few days.Its use during oxaliplatin infusions was not able to decrease the incidence of chronic, oxalipaltin-related neuropathic pain, compared with placebo. BACKGROUND: Patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) receiving oxaliplatin (OXA) develop acute and chronic painful oxaliplatin-induced peripheral neuropathy (OXAIPN). Acute and chronic OXA-related neuropathies have different pathophysiological bases, but both lead to a common phenomenon: central sensitization (CS) of nociceptive neuronal networks, leading to increased sensitivity (hyperlgesia, allodynia) in the somatosensory system, the common ground of chronic neuropathic pain. Because CS is related to increased risk of painful OXAIPN, we hypothesized that preemptive use of the anti-hyperalgesic drug pregabaline (known to decrease CS) during OXA infusions would decrease the incidence of chronic OXAIPN. METHODS: Pain-free, chemotherapy-naïve CRC patients receiving at least one cycle of modified-FLOX [5-FU(500 mg/m2)+leucovorin(20 mg/m2)/week for] 6 weeks+oxaliplatin(85 mg/m2) at weeks 1-3-5 every 8 weeks] were randomized (1:1) into the study. Patients received either pregabalin or placebo for 3 days before and 3 days after each OXA infusion and were followed for up to 6 months. Clinical assessments were performed at baseline, at the end of chemotherapy, and after the follow-up period. The main outcome was average pain at the last visit assessed by the visual analogic scale (0-10) item of the Brief Pain Inventory (BPI). Secondary endpoints were presence of neuropathic pain according to the Douleur Neuropathique-4 (DN-4), pain dimensions (short- form McGill Pain Questionnaire [MPQ]), Neuropathic Pain Symptom Inventory (NPSI), and changes in nerve conduction studies (NCS) and side effect profile. RESULTS: One hundred ninety-nine patients (57.0 ± 10.7 years old, 98 female, 101 male) were randomized. Data from 56 patients were not included in the analyses (as they did not receive at least one full cycle of modified FLOX). Data from 78 patients in the pregabalin group and 65 patients in the placebo group were retained for analyses. At the last visit, pain intensity in the pregabalin group was 1.03 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.79-1.26), and 0.85 (95% CI = 0.64-1.06) in the placebo group, which did not reach significance. Scores from the BPI, MPQ, DN-4, NPSI, and NCS and side-effect profiles and incidence of death did not differ between groups. Quality of life (QoL) score did not differ between groups (placebo = 76.9 ± 23.1, pregabalin group 79.4 ± 20.6). Mood scores were not significantly different between groups (placebo 9.7 [8.1-11.2]; pregabalin 6.8 [5.6-8.0]). CONCLUSION: The preemptive use of pregabalin during OXA infusions was safe, but did not decrease the incidence of chronic pain related to OXAIPN.


Assuntos
Anticonvulsivantes/uso terapêutico , Compostos Organoplatínicos/efeitos adversos , Dor/induzido quimicamente , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Periférico/induzido quimicamente , Pregabalina/uso terapêutico , Anticonvulsivantes/administração & dosagem , Anticonvulsivantes/farmacologia , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oxaliplatina , Pregabalina/administração & dosagem , Pregabalina/farmacologia
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28149328

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hypoglycemia is a critical and limiting factor of a good metabolic control and can adversely affect the quality of life of diabetic patients. The aim of the study was to evaluate the health-related quality of life and calculate utilities values associated with hypoglycemia in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). METHODS: A multicenter, cross-sectional and observational study with T1DM patients from reference centers of the Brazilian public health system was conducted in three cities. Demographic and clinical data were collected, besides details on the frequency and severity of hypoglycemia. Health-related quality of life was assessed using EQ-5D instrument and utility values generated. RESULTS: 221 patients (107 women, 114 men), aged 29.8 ± 11.6 and disease duration of 14.2 ± 9.1 years were included. Most patients (n = 214, 96.8%) reported at least one symptomatic hypoglycemia in the last three months, 68% (n = 150) reported nocturnal episodes and 34.8% (n = 77) reported severe episodes. High frequency (daily or weekly) was observed in 38.6 and 26% of those reporting nocturnal or severe hypoglycemia, respectively. The median visual analog scale was 70 [60-85] for all patients, with differences between those with and without severe hypoglycemia (70 [60-80] vs 80 [61-90]; p = 0.006) and those with high and low frequency (62.5 [50-72.25] vs 70 [60-80]; p = 0.007). The median utility values was 0.801 [0.756-1.000] for all patients, with difference between those with high and low frequency of severe episodes (0.737 [0.628-1.000] vs 0.801 [0.756-1.000]; p = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: This study shows the high frequency of hypoglycemia in a sample of T1DM patients treated in three reference centers of the Brazilian public health system and the impact of severe episodes on health-related quality of life. Utility values were generated and can be used in economic analysis for treatments that could decrease hypoglycemia and consequently improve quality of life.

13.
Rev Saude Publica ; 502016 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27305403

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the direct costs associated to outpatient and hospital care of diseases related to alcohol consumption in the Brazilian Unified Health System. METHODS: Attributable populational risks were estimated for the selected diseases related to the use of 25 g/day or more of ethanol (risk consumption), considering a relative risk (RR) ≥ 1.20. The RR estimates were obtained from three meta-analysis. The risk consumption rates of the Brazilian population ≥ 18 years old were obtained by a national survey. Data from the Hospital Information System of SUS (HIS-SUS) were used to estimate the annual costs of the health system with the diseases included in the analysis. RESULTS: The total estimated costs for a year regarding diseases related to risk consumption were U$8,262,762 (US$4,413,670 and US$3,849,092, for outpatient and hospital care, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Risk consumption of alcohol is an important economic and health problem, impacting significantly the health system and society.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/economia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Álcool/economia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Álcool/classificação , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Álcool/epidemiologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Custos e Análise de Custo , Feminino , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Programas Nacionais de Saúde , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais
14.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | LILACS, ECOS | ID: lil-781051

RESUMO

Objective: The aim of the current analysis was to measure the public health impact of dengue vaccination in Brazil using a published transmission dynamics model. Methods: We adapted a mathematical model that represented the transmission dynamics of the four dengue fever serotypes in humans and in the mosquito. This compartmental model represents the known characteristics of dengue transmission dynamics: host-vector interactions, immunological interactions between all four dengue serotypes, age structure of the population, levels of specific transmission by age, seasonality of the disease, and growth of the human and vector population. Results: Our mathematical model showed a 22% (CI95%: 9-37) reduction of all cases of dengue fever for a smaller scenario (routine vaccination at 9 years old and catch-up campaign to 10 years of age) and 81% (CI95%: 67-89) in the largest scenario (routine vaccination at 9 years old and catch-up campaign to 40 years of age) over a 5-year period. For the 10-year impact, we estimated a 22% (CI95%: 12-39) reduction in the smaller scenario,and a 92% (CI95%: 80-95) reduction in the larger scenario. This reduction in the number of cases would lead to significant decrease in the number of hospitalizations. Up to 233,509 (CI95%: 148,534 - 331,849) and 739,378 (CI95%: 604,386 ? 894,072) hospitalizations would be prevented over a 5-year and 10-year period, respectively, with the larger vaccination program. Conclusion: This analysis indicates that, within expected variations, a national dengue vaccination program in Brazil would lead to significant public health benefits by reducing dengue infections and hospitalizations.


Objetivo: O objetivo da análise é medir o impacto na saúde pública com vacinação da dengue no Brasil, utilizando um modelo dinâmico de transmissão publicado. Método: Adaptamos modelo matemático que representa a dinâmica de transmissão dos quatro sorotipos da dengue em humanos e no mosquito. O modelo é determinístico, compartimental, para representar as características conhecidas da dinâmica de transmissão da dengue: interações hospedeiro-vetor; interações imunológicas entre os quatro sorotipos de dengue; estrutura etária da população; níveis de transmissão específicas por idade; sazonalidade da doença e o crescimento da população de humanos e vetores. Resultado: Nosso modelo matemático estimou em 22% (IC95%: 9-37) de redução dos casos de dengue para o cenário mais conservador (rotina aos 9 anos e campanha de vacinação até 10 anos) e 81% (IC95%: 67-89) no cenário mais liberal (rotina aos 9 anos e campanha de vacinação até 40 anos) ao longo de 5 anos. Para o impacto de 10 anos, estimou-se 22% (IC95%: 12-39) de redução no cenário de mais conservador e 92% (IC95%: 80-95) de redução no cenário mais liberal. Esta redução dos casos leva a redução significativa do número de hospitalizações. Até 233,509 (CI95%: 148,534 - 331,849) e 739,378 (CI95%: 604,386 ? 894,072) internações poderiam ser salvas em 5 e 10 anos, respectivamente para período com o programa mais liberal de vacinação. Conclusão: A análise indica que, dentro de variações esperadas, um programa de vacinação nacional contra dengue no Brasil teria um benefício significativo para saúde pública, reduzindo infecções e internações de dengue.


Assuntos
Humanos , Dengue , Saúde Pública , Vacinação
15.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-962226

RESUMO

ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To estimate the direct costs associated to outpatient and hospital care of diseases related to alcohol consumption in the Brazilian Unified Health System. METHODS Attributable populational risks were estimated for the selected diseases related to the use of 25 g/day or more of ethanol (risk consumption), considering a relative risk (RR) ≥ 1.20. The RR estimates were obtained from three meta-analysis. The risk consumption rates of the Brazilian population ≥ 18 years old were obtained by a national survey. Data from the Hospital Information System of SUS (HIS-SUS) were used to estimate the annual costs of the health system with the diseases included in the analysis. RESULTS The total estimated costs for a year regarding diseases related to risk consumption were U$8,262,762 (US$4,413,670 and US$3,849,092, for outpatient and hospital care, respectively). CONCLUSIONS Risk consumption of alcohol is an important economic and health problem, impacting significantly the health system and society.


RESUMO OBJETIVO Estimar os custos diretos associados ao atendimento ambulatorial e hospitalar de doenças relacionadas com o consumo de álcool no Sistema Único de Saúde brasileiro. MÉTODOS Riscos atribuíveis populacionais foram calculados para doenças selecionadas relacionadas ao uso de 25 g/dia ou mais de etanol (consumo de risco), considerando-se o risco relativo (RR) ≥ 1,.20. As estimativas de RR foram obtidas a partir de três meta-análises e as taxas de consumo de risco em brasileiros ≥ 18 anos obtidos em pesquisa nacional. Os dados do Sistema de Informações Hospitalares do SUS (SIH-SUS) e do Sistema de Informações Ambulatoriais do SUS (SIA-SUS) foram utilizados para estimar os custos anuais do SUS com as doenças incluídas na análise. RESULTADOS Os custos totais estimados em um ano com todas as doenças relacionadas com consumo de risco foram US$8.262.762 (US$4.413.670 e US$3.849.092 para pacientes ambulatoriais e internados, respectivamente). CONCLUSÕES Consumo de risco de álcool representa importante problema econômico e de saúde, com um impacto significativo para o sistema de saúde e para a sociedade.

16.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 9(9): e0004042, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26402905

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dengue is an increasing public health concern in Brazil. There is a need for an updated evaluation of the economic impact of dengue within the country. We undertook this multicenter study to evaluate the economic burden of dengue in Brazil. METHODS: We estimated the economic burden of dengue in Brazil for the years 2009 to 2013 and for the epidemic season of August 2012- September 2013. We conducted a multicenter cohort study across four endemic regions: Midwest, Goiania; Southeast, Belo Horizonte and Rio de Janeiro; Northeast: Teresina and Recife; and the North, Belem. Ambulatory or hospitalized cases with suspected or laboratory-confirmed dengue treated in both the private and public sectors were recruited. Interviews were scheduled for the convalescent period to ascertain characteristics of the dengue episode, date of first symptoms/signs and recovery, use of medical services, work/school absence, household spending (out-of-pocket expense) and income lost using a questionnaire developed for a previous cost study. We also extracted data from the patients' medical records for hospitalized cases. Overall costs per case and cumulative costs were calculated from the public payer and societal perspectives. National cost estimations took into account cases reported in the official notification system (SINAN) with adjustment for underreporting of cases. We applied a probabilistic sensitivity analysis using Monte Carlo simulations with 90% certainty levels (CL). RESULTS: We screened 2,223 cases, of which 2,035 (91.5%) symptomatic dengue cases were included in our study. The estimated cost for dengue for the epidemic season (2012-2013) in the societal perspective was US$ 468 million (90% CL: 349-590) or US$ 1,212 million (90% CL: 904-1,526) after adjusting for under-reporting. Considering the time series of dengue (2009-2013) the estimated cost of dengue varied from US$ 371 million (2009) to US$ 1,228 million (2013). CONCLUSIONS: The economic burden associated with dengue in Brazil is substantial with large variations in reported cases and consequently costs reflecting the dynamic of dengue transmission.


Assuntos
Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Dengue/economia , Absenteísmo , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Dengue/epidemiologia , Feminino , Gastos em Saúde , Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Lactente , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Adulto Jovem
17.
BMC Neurosci ; 14: 97, 2013 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24011127

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bone marrow is an accessible source of progenitor cells, which have been investigated as treatment for neurological diseases in a number of clinical trials. Here we evaluated the potential benefit of bone marrow cells in protecting against convulsive seizures induced by maximum electroconvulsive shock (MES), a widely used model for screening of anti-epileptic drugs. Behavioral and inflammatory responses were measured after MES induction in order to verify the effects promoted by transplantation of bone marrow cells. To assess the anticonvulsant effects of bone marrow cell transplantation, we measured the frequency and duration of tonic seizure, the mortality rate, the microglial expression and the blood levels of cytokine IL-1, IL-6, IL-10 and TNF-α after MES induction. We hypothesized that these behavioral and inflammatory responses to a strong stimulus such as a convulsive seizure could be modified by the transplantation of bone marrow cells. RESULTS: Bone marrow transplanted cells altered the convulsive threshold and showed anticonvulsant effect by protecting from tonic seizures. Bone marrow cells modified the microglial expression in the analyzed brain areas, increased the IL-10 and attenuate IL-6 levels. CONCLUSIONS: Bone marrow cells exert protective effects by blocking the course of electroconvulsive seizures. Additionally, electroconvulsive seizures induced acute inflammatory responses by altering the pattern of microglia expression, as well as in IL-6 and IL-10 levels. Our findings also indicated that the anticonvulsant effects of these cells can be tested with the MES model following the same paradigm used for drug testing in pharmacological screening. Studies on the inflammatory reaction in response to acute seizures in the presence of transplanted bone marrow cells might open a wide range of discussions on the mechanisms relevant to the pathophysiology of epilepsies.


Assuntos
Transplante de Medula Óssea/métodos , Encéfalo/citologia , Microglia/citologia , Convulsões/terapia , Animais , Citocinas/sangue , Eletrochoque/efeitos adversos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
18.
Vaccine ; 31 Suppl 3: C33-44, 2013 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23777689

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pneumococcal disease is an important cause of morbidity and mortality associated with significant economic burden for healthcare systems and society. OBJECTIVES: To systematically review pneumococcal disease cost of illness and productivity loss studies in the Latin America and Caribbean (LAC) region. METHODS: A search of relevant databases was performed till November 2011. A broad and sensitive search strategy was used consisting of medical subject headings (MeSH) terms for pneumococcal disease, healthcare costs and productivity loss studies. No language restriction was applied. Only papers from LAC region and child population were analyzed. Additional exclusion criteria included duplicate studies, and insufficient information about methods. RESULTS: A total of 1241 citations were retrieved. After applying the exclusion criteria, only 16 studies remained for analysis. There were 4 papers from Brazil, 3 from Argentina, 2 from Colombia, 2 from Mexico, 1 from Uruguay, 1 from Chile, and 3 analyzing a group of LAC countries. Only 4 were cost-of-illness studies, 11 were cost-effectiveness studies of pneumococcal vaccine and 1 study of the pneumococcal burden of disease. Methods used for quantifying health resource utilization and costing methods varied significantly among studies, as well as data sources considered. Productivity losses were considered in 8 studies, all of which used the human capital approach method. Pneumococcal disease cost estimates varied significantly depending on the pneumococcal syndromes considered, methods used, study perspective and type of costs included. CONCLUSION: This systematic review reinforced the importance of standardization of methods for cost studies that can allow comparison and reproducibility in other settings. These estimates can be useful for future economic analysis conducted to support the decision making process on the introduction of new vaccines in LAC. However, caution must be taken, as methodological aspects of studies will result in estimates with varying levels of accuracy and external validity.


Assuntos
Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Infecções Pneumocócicas/economia , Região do Caribe/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Análise Custo-Benefício , Eficiência , Humanos , América Latina/epidemiologia , Infecções Pneumocócicas/epidemiologia , Vacinas Pneumocócicas/economia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
19.
Vaccine ; 31 Suppl 3: C45-57, 2013 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23777691

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rotavirus is the most common cause of severe acute diarrhea among children in both developed and developing countries. Vaccination can reduce the disease burden and its incorporation into health care systems should consider future costs and benefits. OBJECTIVES: To systematically review studies on costs due to rotavirus infection in Latin America and Caribbean (LAC) region, considering their methods and results. METHODS: A search of relevant databases including the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Embase, MEDLINE via PubMed, the Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature database (LILACS), and the Brazilian Thesis Databank was performed. Inclusion criteria for studies were: (a) economic evaluation or cost-of-illness studies; (b) conducted in the LAC region; (c) assess economic burden of rotavirus disease or the economic impact of rotavirus vaccination programs. Two authors independently screened the studies for eligibility. RESULTS: Of 444 studies initially retrieved, 21 met the eligibility criteria and were included (14 cost-effectiveness analyses of vaccination programs and 7 cost-of-illness studies). Direct medical costs were assessed in all 21 studies, but only 10 also investigated indirect and non-medical direct costs. The most commonly observed methods for cost estimation were retrospective database analysis and hospital-based surveillance study. Only one study was a household-based survey.A wide cost range was identified (e.g., inpatient care US$79.91 to US$858.40 and outpatient care US$13.06 to US$64.10), depending on the methods, study perspective, and type of costs included. CONCLUSION: Rotavirus-associated costs were assessed in 21 studies across the Latin America and Caribbean region. The majority of studies were made alongside economic evaluations of vaccination programs. Methods are broadly different among studies but administrative databases seem to be the most employed source of data.


Assuntos
Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Programas de Imunização/economia , Infecções por Rotavirus/economia , Região do Caribe/epidemiologia , Pré-Escolar , Análise Custo-Benefício , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Diarreia/virologia , Eficiência , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Humanos , América Latina/epidemiologia , Infecções por Rotavirus/epidemiologia , Vacinas contra Rotavirus/economia
20.
ScientificWorldJournal ; 2013: 864962, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24489516

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the expenses of HIV/AIDS and acute myocardial infarction (AMI) treatment in Brazil. METHODS: A search in the Brazilian epidemiological database (DATASUS) on AMI and AIDS hospitalizations and their costs was done from January 1998 to December 2011. The number of HIV/AIDS cases and antiretroviral treatment (ART) costs was obtained from public Brazilian databases. RESULTS: In 5 years, HIV/AIDS cases increased 38.5%, mainly in patients aged 25-49. There were 180,640 patients in ART in 2007 at a cost of R$ 3,920 per patient/year. The hospitalizations due to AIDS were stable over the last 13 years; however, the hospitalizations due to AMI have increased 78%. In 2007, the expenses with hospitalizations for HIV/AIDS and AMI (25-49 years) were approximately 0.12 and 1.52% of the Ministry of Health budget allocated to reimburse inpatient costs. The expenses on ART totaled 1.5% of the total budget (all age groups). CONCLUSION: The prevalence of HIV/AIDS is still increasing in Brazil. There are scientific evidences suggesting an increased incidence of AIM in this population. Considering the high costs for the treatment of both diseases, an economic analysis is important to alert health managers to strengthen the preventive measures to guarantee the financial sustainability of such treatment.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/economia , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/economia , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Brasil/epidemiologia , Custos e Análise de Custo , Bases de Dados Factuais , Infecções por HIV/terapia , Hospitalização/economia , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/terapia
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