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1.
Age Ageing ; 2021 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34120182

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: frailty shows an upward trajectory with age, and higher levels increase the risk of mortality. However, it is less known whether the shape of frailty trajectories differs by age at death or whether the rate of change in frailty is associated with mortality. OBJECTIVES: to assess population frailty trajectories by age at death and to analyse whether the current level of the frailty index (FI) i.e. the most recent measurement or the person-specific rate of change is more predictive of mortality. METHODS: 3,689 individuals from three population-based cohorts with up to 15 repeated measurements of the Rockwood frailty index were analysed. The FI trajectories were assessed by stratifying the sample into four age-at-death groups: <70, 70-80, 80-90 and >90 years. Generalised survival models were used in the survival analysis. RESULTS: the FI trajectories by age at death showed that those who died at <70 years had a steadily increasing trajectory throughout the 40 years before death, whereas those who died at the oldest ages only accrued deficits from age ~75 onwards. Higher level of FI was independently associated with increased risk of mortality (hazard ratio 1.68, 95% confidence interval 1.47-1.91), whereas the rate of change was no longer significant after accounting for the current FI level. The effect of the FI level did not weaken with time elapsed since the last measurement. CONCLUSIONS: Frailty trajectories differ as a function of age-at-death category. The current level of FI is a stronger marker for risk stratification than the rate of change.

2.
ACS Synth Biol ; 10(5): 957-963, 2021 05 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33973783

RESUMO

Nootkatone is a valuable sesquiterpene widely used in the food, fragrance, and flavor industries. Its price is very high due to its limited production in grapefruit peels or Alaska cypress heartwoods. Chemical synthesis of nootkatone uses heavy metals, highly flammable compounds, and strong oxidants, which cause severe damage to the environment. In this study, nootkatone is synthesized in Artemisia annua, using synthetic biology methods. Engineered Artemisia annua coexpressing valencene synthase (VS) and valencene oxidase (VO) in the cytosol produced nootkatone ranging from 0.89 to 8.52 µg/g fresh weight (FW). Furthermore, transgenic Artemisia annua coexpressing farnesyl diphosphate synthase (FPS), VS, and VO in plastids produced nootkatone ranging from 12.11 to 47.80 µg/g FW. These results indicated that engineering nootkatone biosynthesis in plastids was superior to that in the cytosol. Meanwhile, artemisinin production was unaltered in nootkatone-producing Artemisia annua. Our study developed a green approach for producing nootkatone in Artemisia annua with great market potential.

3.
Med Care Res Rev ; : 10775587211012992, 2021 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33957807

RESUMO

In concentrated labor markets, where workers have fewer employers to choose from, employers may exploit their monopsony power by contributing less to workers' health benefits. This study examined if labor market concentration was associated with higher worker contributions to health plan premiums. We combined publicly available data from the Census to calculate labor market concentration and the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey Insurance/Employer Component to determine premium contributions from 2010 to 2016 for metropolitan areas. After controlling for year fixed-effects and market characteristics, we found that higher labor market concentration was associated with higher worker contributions to health plan premiums, lower take-home income, and no change in employer contributions to premiums, consistent with the hypothesis that greater labor market concentration is associated with less generous health benefits. When evaluating the effects of mergers and acquisitions on labor markets, regulatory agencies should critically assess worker contributions to health insurance premiums.

4.
J Law Med Ethics ; 49(1): 30-33, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33966649

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has revealed the vulnerability of the US generic drug supply chain to foreign production. Many policies have been proposed to mitigate this vulnerability. In this article, we argue that nonprofit drug manufacturers have the potential to make important contributions.


Assuntos
Indústria Farmacêutica/economia , Medicamentos Genéricos/provisão & distribuição , Organizações sem Fins Lucrativos/economia , Medicamentos sob Prescrição/provisão & distribuição , Legislação como Assunto , Estados Unidos
5.
Health Aff (Millwood) ; 40(4): 629-636, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33819096

RESUMO

The different tax treatment of government, nonprofit, and for-profit hospitals implies different charity care obligations, with the greatest obligation for government hospitals and the least for for-profit hospitals. Prior research has not examined charity care provision among all three ownership types at the national level. Using 2018 Medicare Hospital Cost Reports, we compared charity care provision across 1,024 government, 2,709 nonprofit, and 930 for-profit hospitals. In aggregate, nonprofit hospitals spent $2.3 of every $100 in total expenses incurred on charity care, which was less than government ($4.1) or for-profit ($3.8) hospitals. No hospital ownership type outperformed the other two types with respect to charity care provision in a majority of hospital service areas containing all three types. Using different kinds of analyses, we also found wide variation in charity care provision within ownership types and a lack of a consistent pattern across ownership types. These results suggest that many government and nonprofit hospitals' charity care provision was not aligned with their charity care obligations arising from their favorable tax treatment. Policy makers may consider initiatives to enhance hospitals' charity care provision, particularly hospitals with government and nonprofit ownership.


Assuntos
Instituições de Caridade , Hospitais Filantrópicos , Idoso , Governo , Humanos , Medicare , Organizações sem Fins Lucrativos , Estados Unidos
6.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(3): e210483, 2021 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33651110

RESUMO

Importance: Branded products of multisource drugs are frequently dispensed in the Medicare Part D program, increasing costs for the program and patients. Objective: To examine the reasons for dispensing branded multisource drugs in Medicare Part D. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional study examined claims for multisource drugs with more than 1000 branded claims dispensed in Medicare Part D using Medicare Prescription Drug Event data from a 2017 nationwide random sample of 20% of Medicare beneficiaries. Data were analyzed between January and October 2020. Exposures: Justification for branded dispensing as indicated by each claim's dispense-as-written code. Main Outcomes and Measures: Mean Medicare Part D program spending and patient out-of-pocket spending for branded and generic products, and generic vs branded spending discounts in program and patient out-of-pocket spending for each multisource drug. Results: Among 169 million claims for 224 multisource drugs, 8.3 million claims (4.9%) were dispensed with a branded product. Among these claims, 4.9 million claims (59.2%) did not have a recorded reason for branded dispensing; 1.4 million claims (16.9%) occurred because of prescriber requests; and 1.1 million claims (13.5%) occurred because of patient requests. If all branded dispensing requested by prescribers had been substituted by the corresponding generics, the projected savings to the Medicare Part D program and Medicare patients were $997 million (56.0%) and $161 million (64.4%), respectively. If all branded dispensing requested by patients had been substituted by generics, the projected savings to the Medicare Part D program and Medicare patient were $673 million (53.4%) and $109 million (55.1%), respectively. Drugs with the highest proportion of branded dispensing by physician or patient request were typically high cost (eg, drugs with above-median frequencies of branded dispensing: mean [SD] discount on generic vs branded, 73.9% [26.9%] for prescriber requests). Conclusions and Relevance: Prescribers and patients motivated 30.4% of all branded dispensing of multisource drugs in the Medicare Part D program. Branded dispensing requested by prescribers or patients incurred an incremental annual cost of $1.67 billion to the Medicare program and $270 million to patients when compared with switching to generics. Policy makers should consider ways to discourage prescribers and patients from requesting branded dispensing of multisource drugs because of the higher cost.

7.
Brain ; 2021 Mar 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33751098

RESUMO

Sensory neuronopathies are a rare and distinct subgroup of peripheral neuropathies, characterized by degeneration of the dorsal root ganglia neurons. About 50% of sensory neuronopathies are idiopathic and genetic causes remain to be clarified. Through a combination of homozygosity mapping and whole exome sequencing, we linked an autosomal recessive sensory neuronopathy to pathogenic variants in COX20 gene. We identified 8 unrelated families from the eastern China population carrying a founder variant c.41A>G (p. Lys14Arg) within COX20 in either a homozygous or compound heterozygous state. All patients displayed sensory ataxia with non-length-dependent sensory potentials decrease. COX20 encodes a key transmembrane protein implicated in the assembly of mitochondrial complex IV. We showed that COX20 variants lead to reduction of COX20 protein in patient's fibroblasts and transfected cell lines, consistent with a loss-of-function mechanism. Knockdown of COX20 expression in ND7/23 sensory neuron cells resulted in complex IV deficiency and perturbed assembly of complex IV, which subsequently compromised cell spare respiratory capacity and reduced cell proliferation under metabolic stress. Consistent with mitochondrial dysfunction in knockdown cells, reduced complex IV assembly, enzyme activity and oxygen consumption rate were also found in patients' fibroblasts. We speculated that the mechanism of COX20 was similar to other causative genes (e.g. SURF1, COX6A1, COA3 and SCO2) for peripheral neuropathies, all of which were functionally important in the structure and assembly of complex IV. Our study identifies a novel causative gene for the autosomal recessive sensory neuronopathy, whose vital function in complex IV and high expression in the proprioceptive sensory neuron further underlines loss of COX20 contributing to mitochondrial bioenergetic dysfunction as a mechanism in peripheral sensory neuron disease.

9.
Plant Sci ; 304: 110799, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33568298

RESUMO

The biosynthesis of flavonols and anthocyanins is precisely regulated by different transcription factors in plants. WRKY11 promotes the biosynthesis of flavonoids in apple, but the molecular mechanism of WRKY11 regulating flavonols biosynthesis, and whether WRKY11 plays the same roles in other plants species remains to be further studied. Here, we cloned four NtWRKY11 genes from tobacco, which all contained the conserved WRKYGQK heptapeptide and a zinc-finger motif. The NtWRKY11b showed higher expression levels than the other NtWRKY11 genes in all the tobacco tissues examined, especially in tobacco leaves. Silencing of NtWRKY11b in tobacco leaves reduced the content of flavonols to 45.2 %-69.8 % of that in the WT plants, but overexpression of NtWRKY11b increased the flavonols content by 37.8 %-80.7 %. Transcriptome analysis revealed 8 flavonoids related differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between NtWRKY11b-OE and WT plants, among which the transcription of NtMYB12, NtFLS, NtGT5, and NtUFGT was significantly induced by posttranslational activation of NtWRKY11b with the presence of protein synthesis inhibitor, indicating a putative direct promotion of NtWRKY11b on the transcription of these flavonoids related genes. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays further demonstrated that NtWRKY11b could bind to the promoter regions of NtMYB12, NtFLS, NtGT5, and NtUFGT to activate the transcription of these genes. Moreover, ectopic expression of NtWRKY11b also promoted the expression levels of NtCML38, NtCTL1, NtWRKY44, and NtCML37 genes, which have been shown to enhance plant resistance to various stresses. Our findings revealed the molecular mechanism of NtWRKY11b regulating flavonols biosynthesis, and provided a promising target for increasing flavonols content in tobacco.


Assuntos
Flavonóis/biossíntese , Proteínas de Plantas/fisiologia , Tabaco/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/fisiologia , Clonagem Molecular , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Filogenia , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
10.
Curr Protoc ; 1(2): e36, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33539685

RESUMO

Class II major histocompatibility complex peptide (MHC-IIp) multimers are precisely engineered reagents used to detect T cells specific for antigens from pathogens, tumors, and self-proteins. While the related Class I MHC/peptide (MHC-Ip) multimers are usually produced from subunits expressed in E. coli, most Class II MHC alleles cannot be produced in bacteria, and this has contributed to the perception that MHC-IIp reagents are harder to produce. Herein, we present a robust constitutive expression system for soluble biotinylated MHC-IIp proteins that uses stable lentiviral vector-transduced derivatives of HEK-293T cells. The expression design includes allele-specific peptide ligands tethered to the amino-terminus of the MHC-II ß chain via a protease-cleavable linker. Following cleavage of the linker, HLA-DM is used to catalyze efficient peptide exchange, enabling high-throughput production of many distinct MHC-IIp complexes from a single production cell line. Peptide exchange is monitored using either of two label-free methods, native isoelectric focusing gel electrophoresis or matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry of eluted peptides. Together, these methods produce MHC-IIp complexes that are highly homogeneous and that form the basis for excellent MHC-IIp multimer reagents. © 2021 Wiley Periodicals LLC. Basic Protocol 1: Lentivirus production and expression line creation Support Protocol 1: Six-well assay for estimation of production cell line yield Support Protocol 2: Universal ELISA for quantifying proteins with fused leucine zippers and His-tags Basic Protocol 2: Cultures for production of Class II MHC proteins Basic Protocol 3: Purification of Class II MHC proteins by anti-leucine zipper affinity chromatography Alternate Protocol 1: IMAC purification of His-tagged Class II MHC Support Protocol 3: Protein concentration measurements and adjustments Support Protocol 4: Polishing purification by anion-exchange chromatography Support Protocol 5: Estimating biotinylation percentage by streptavidin precipitation Basic Protocol 4: Peptide exchange Basic Protocol 5: Analysis of peptide exchange by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry Alternate Protocol 2: Native isoelectric focusing to validate MHC-II peptide loading Basic Protocol 6: Multimerization Basic Protocol 7: Staining cells with Class II MHC tetramers.

11.
J Hazard Mater ; 408: 124802, 2021 04 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33370698

RESUMO

A novel catalyst RM-BC(HP) was synthesized by hydrothermal treatment and pyrolysis (800 â„ƒ) using red mud and coconut shells. Influence of different preparation conditions on catalyst performance was explored. SEM showed that RM-BC(HP) was porous and RM was successfully loaded on the outside surface and inside the pores of BC. XRD revealed that Fe2O3 in RM was reduced to Fe0 and Fe3O4 in the pyrolysis process, in which pyrolysis temperature and addition ratio of coconut shells were critical. TGA-MS, FT-IR and XPS were also applied to character the catalyst. 100% of AO7 was removed within 30 min with conditions of 2 mM PS, 50 mg/L AO7 and 0.5 g/L RM-BC(HP), and the Fe leaching was negligible. High removal rate was obtained in tap, river, and lake water. RM-BC(HP)/PS system also exhibited excellent degradation performance for other dyes (MB, MG and RhB) and antibiotics (TC, OTC and CTC). The mechanism studies demonstrated that PS was mainly activated by Fe0 and Fe2+ in RM-BC(HP) to produce different radicals, then 1O2 was generated by the reactions among these radicals to degrade AO7. Finally, nine intermediate products of AO7 were identified by FT-ICR-MS and a probable degradation pathway was proposed.


Assuntos
Poluentes Químicos da Água , Domínio Catalítico , Carvão Vegetal , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33289035

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Biosimilars can generate competition and provide cost savings over reference biologics for the Medicare program and beneficiaries. The extent to which these benefits can be realized in the Medicare Part D program depends on how biosimilars and biologics are placed in the formulary. We conducted a study to examine Medicare formulary placement of the first biologic to have 2 biosimilars on the market-infliximab and its biosimilars infliximab-dyyb and infliximab-abda. METHODS: All standalone and Medicare Advantage (MA) prescription drug plans (PDPs) offered in Medicare Part D were examined between September 2016 (ie, at the end of the last quarter before the launch of the first infliximab biosimilar) and September 2018, at which time a second biosimilar had been on the market for about 14 months. When PDPs covered both the reference biologic and a biosimilar, we compared the cost-sharing tier and the frequency of prior authorization and step therapy requirements for each drug. RESULTS: Nearly all PDPs covered infliximab throughout the study period. By September 2018, 31.7% of MA plans and 14.9% of standalone PDPs were covering a biosimilar on the market. Nearly all plans that covered a biosimilar also covered the reference product. Most plans (98% of standalone PDPs and 89% of MA plans) had placed prior authorization restrictions on both the biologic and the biosimilar. All plans covering both products placed them in the same cost-sharing tier. No plan required step therapy for either product. CONCLUSION: Formulary placement of infliximab biologic and biosimilars in Medicare Part D is not optimized to generate cost savings for the Medicare program and beneficiaries, whose cost sharing is often based on the drug's list price. The Medicare program should provide incentives for PDPs to expand biosimilar coverage.

13.
Ital J Pediatr ; 46(1): 182, 2020 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33298123

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Thromboembolism is a life-threatening, limb-threatening or organ-threatening complication that occurs in patients with primary nephrotic syndrome (NS). There are few studies on the spectrum, complications and outcomes of thrombosis in children with NS. This study aimed to determine the spectrum of thrombosis and its relationship with the nephrotic state, treatment and outcomes in children and adolescents with primary NS. METHODS: The medical records of subjects aged 1-18 years with NS complicated with thromboembolism treated at our centre within the last 26 years were retrieved. Data on the status of NS, site, symptoms and signs, laboratory investigations, diagnosis, treatment, complications and outcomes of thrombosis were collected and reviewed retrospectively. A severe complication was defined as a condition associated with thrombosis requiring a special diagnostic modality to confirm or a specific treatment such as surgical intervention. The outcome of thrombosis was defined as the status of thrombosis, as determined by imaging methods and the functional status with respect to the anatomic sites of thrombosis at the last follow-up. The permanent dysfunction of an organ or limb related to thrombosis was defined as a sequela. RESULTS: We observed thrombosis in 1.4% (27/1995) of subjects with NS during the study period. There were 27 subjects with thrombosis, including 21 males and 6 females. Thrombosis was observed in 51.9% (14/27) of the study participants with steroid resistant NS. Most episodes of thrombosis occurred during the active stage of NS; however, 7.4% of thrombosis cases occurred during the remission of proteinuria. Renal vein thrombosis (33.3%) and pulmonary embolism (25.9%) were the most common types of thrombosis. Among the 17 subjects biopsied, minimal change disease and membranous nephropathy were the two most common findings. Six (22.2%) subjects experienced severe complications or sequelae; 1 had persistent intracranial hypertension, 1 had intestinal perforation, 1 had hypoxemia and pulmonary hypertension, 1 had lameness, 1 had epilepsy, and 1 had an askew mouth due to facial paralysis. In 19 (70.4%) subjects, the symptoms resolved completely or improved without severe complications or sequelae. CONCLUSIONS: Thrombosis mostly occurred in males of school age during the active stage of NS. Renal vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism were the most common types of thrombosis. In most patients with thrombosis, the symptoms improved completely without complications with standard anticoagulation therapy. However, 22.2% had severe complications or sequelae requiring an advanced diagnostic modality and aggressive treatment.

14.
Med Care Res Rev ; : 1077558720980561, 2020 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33327861

RESUMO

Insurance agents and brokers play an important role in facilitating the contracting of fully insured health insurance and pharmacy benefit plans for U.S. employers. They are primarily compensated with a commission charged back to the plan. Using a national sample that covered 11.7 million employees enrolled in 33,689 health plans in 2017, we found that a plan's commission (median: $178) was positively associated with a plan's premium (coefficient: 0.01 for the full sample and 0.03 for small plans, p < .001) after controlling for the number of enrollees. The commission-to-premium ratio was greater for smaller plans and plans offered by nonmajor insurance companies, and varied by geographic region. Policy makers should consider improving transparency of the commission to facilitate employers making efficient broker contracting and plan purchasing decisions. The fee-based brokerage model has the potential to help employers and workers contain health care spending.

16.
Endocrine ; 2020 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33161496

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The expression pattern of exosomal miRNAs derived from parathyroid tumor is still unknown. In the present work, we aimed to examine the differences on microRNA (miRNA) expression, present in serum exosomes, by comparing parathyroid carcinoma (PC) and parathyroid adenoma (PA). METHODS: MiRNA expression profile of serum exosomes, derived from 4 PC patients and 4 PA patients, were analyzed by next-generation sequencing technology. The differential expressions of target miRNAs were further verified in both serum exosomes and tissues of PC/PA patients by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Lastly, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were plotted to investigate the efficiency of target exosomal miRNAs in distinguishing PC patients from PA controls. RESULTS: Multiple differentially expressed miRNAs of serum exosomes were screened out by sequencing. Based on this screening, hsa-miR-146b-5p (p = 0.0846), hsa-miR-27a-5p (p = 0.0412), hsa-miR-93-5p (p = 0.73), hsa-miR-381-3p (p = 0.1239) and hsa-miR-134-5p (p = 0.0694) were upregulated in the serum exosomes of PC patients. These results were validated by qPCR, where the trend on differential miRNA expression was consistent with the sequencing results. Specifically, the expression of exosomal hsa-miR-27a-5p was able to clearly distinguish PC patients from PA controls, and related analysis indicated that the area under the ROC curve was 0.8594 (p = 0.0157). CONCLUSIONS: Here we present, for the first time, the miRNA expression profile of serum exosomes derived from PC patients. Based on this result, we presently suggest that the exosomal hsa-miR-27a-5p may serve as a putative tumor marker for preoperative identification of PC and PA subjects.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33136338

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify and characterize the pathogenicity of novel variants in Chinese patients with Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease. METHODS: Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) and whole-exome sequencing (WES) were performed in 30 unrelated CMT patients. Minigene assay was used to verify the effect of a novel splicing variant (c.694+1G>A) on pre-mRNA. Primary fibroblast cell lines were established from skin biopsies to characterize the biological effects of the novel variants p.L26R and p.S169fs. The mitochondrial structure was observed by an electron microscope. The expression level of protein was analyzed by Western Blotting. Mitochondrial dynamics and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP, Δψm) were analyzed via immunofluorescence study. Mitochondrial ATP levels were analyzed via bioluminescence assay. The rate of oxygen consumption was measured with a Seahorse Bioscience XF-96 extracellular flux analyzer. RESULTS: We identified 10 pathogenic variants in three known CMT related genes, including three novel variants (p.L26R, p.S169fs, c.694+1G>A) and one known pathogenic variant (p.R120W) in GDAP1. Further, we described the clinical features of patients carrying pathogenic variants in GDAP1 and found that almost all Chinese CMT patients with GDAP1 variants present axonal type. The effect of c.694+1G>A on pre-mRNA was verified via minigene splice assay. Cellular biological effects showed ultrastructure damage of mitochondrial, reduced protein levels, different patterns of mitochondrial dynamics, decreased mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm), ATP content, and defects in respiratory capacity in the patient carrying p.L26R and p.S169fs in GDAP1. INTERPRETATION: Our results broaden the genetic spectrum of GDAP1 and provided functional evidence for mitochondrial pathways in the pathogenesis of GDAP1 variants.

18.
J Sci Food Agric ; 2020 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33124037

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Phytosterols are partly removed during oil refining, and the magnitude of phytosterols loss largely depends on the refining conditions applied and the molecular conformation. The aim of this research was to study the effect of deodorization conditions and molecular unsaturation on the esterification of phytosterols during deodorization of corn oil. RESULTS: In the chemical model, free fatty acids (FFAs) were the major provider of acyl groups during the formation of phytosteryl fatty acid esters (PEs) under deodorization conditions. Among the main parameters of the deodorization, temperature played a role in the formation of PEs with a time-dependent manner. In comparison, saturated palmitic acid had a higher capability of esterifying free phytosterols (FPs) to PEs than unsaturated oleic acid and linoleic acid. Moreover, the influence of FFA unsaturation on the degradation of FPs depended on temperature. Besides, the formation of stigmasteryl ester had a competitive advantage over that of sitosteryl ester by quantum chemistry simulation. CONCLUSION: For laboratory-scale deodorization of corn oil, saturated fatty acids and deodorization process with steam as stripping gas could obviously esterify FPs to PEs. FPs were abundantly enriched in distillate during the deodorization process with nitrogen as stripping gas, whereas FPs and PEs were distilled simultaneously during the deodorization process with steam. © 2020 Society of Chemical Industry.

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