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1.
BMC Med ; 19(1): 239, 2021 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34615542

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With the revolutionary progress of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) achieved in non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC), identifying patients benefiting from ICIs becomes critical and urgent. The associations of genomic alterations in protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor-type (PTPRs) and ICIs responses are unknown. METHODS: Whole-exome sequencing (WES) of 73 advanced NSCLC tumors sampled before anti-PD-(L)1 therapy was carried out with corresponding clinical data collected as a discovery cohort to find the associations of PTPR mutations and ICI responses. Three validation cohorts consolidated by 7 public cohorts of 1920 NSCLC patients with WES or target sequencing data of tumor tissue-derived DNA or circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) and relevant clinical data were applied as validation cohorts. The lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) cohort (n=586) in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database was used for analyzing the potential anti-tumor immunologic mechanisms. RESULTS: With the highest mutation frequency among all PTPRs, PTPRD mutations in non-squamous NSCLC (ns-NSCLC) were linked to longer progression-free survivals (PFS, 324 vs 63 days, hazard ratio (HR)=0.36, p= 0.0152) and higher objective response rate (ORR, p=0.0099). In validation cohort 1 (n=377), ns-NSCLC patients with tissue PTPRD mutations had favorable PFS (9.10 vs 4.33 months, HR=0.62, p=0.0184) and ORR (p=0.013). In validation cohort 2 (n=406), ns-NSCLC patients with tissue PTPRD mutations had favorable overall survivals (OS, over 40 vs 11.94 months, HR=0.57, p=0.011). In validation cohort 3 (n=1137), ns-NSCLC patients with ctDNA PTPRD mutations had longer PFS (6.97 vs 2.73 months, HR=0.63, p=0.028) and higher ORR (p=0.047). Moreover, it was deleterious mutations in phosphatase domains (phosphatase-mut), rather than other mutations (other-mut), that were responsible of PTPRD's prediction efficiency. In addition, in validation cohort 3, ctDNA phosphatase-mut also functioned as a predictive biomarker helping identify patients benefiting more from ICIs than chemotherapy (interaction P for PFS=0.0506, for OS=0.04). Univariate and multivariate regression analysis revealed that phosphatase-mut was independent on PD-L1 expression and tumor mutation burden (TMB) to predict. In silico analysis based on TCGA LUAD cohort discovered enhanced anti-tumor immunity in phosphatase-mut patients. CONCLUSIONS: Tissue or ctDNA PTPRD phosphatase domain deleterious mutations might function as a both prognostic and predictive biomarker predicting clinical outcomes of ICIs in ns-NSCLC patients, independent on TMB or PD-L1 expression.

3.
Anal Chem ; 93(36): 12360-12366, 2021 09 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34472338

RESUMO

Facing the complex environment of on-site detection, the development of active substrates with wide-spectrum surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) activity is essential. Herein, we report on the low temperature and reproducible synthesis of plasmonic δ-MoN yolk microspheres by in situ-nitriding amorphous MoO2 microspheres at 500 °C and 1 atm. The yolk-structured δ-MoN exhibits strong and wide-spectrum surface plasmon resonance and SERS effects and can perform highly selective detection for probes with different absorption wavelengths under excitation of 532, 633, and 785 nm lasers, with a limitation of 10-11 M and an enhanced factor of 3.6 × 107. Moreover, the plasmonic δ-MoN yolk microspheres have high environmental durability, which can maintain high sensitivity in strong acid and alkaline solutions.


Assuntos
Análise Espectral Raman , Ressonância de Plasmônio de Superfície , Microesferas
5.
Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Basis Dis ; 1868(1): 166268, 2021 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34536536

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) remains a challenge. It is urgent to understand the microenvironment to improve therapy and prognosis. METHODS: Bioinformatics methods were used to analyze transcription expression profile of AML patient samples with complete clinical information from UCSC Xena TCGA-AML datasets and validate with GEO datasets. Western blot, qPCR, RNAi and CCK8 assay were used to assay the effect of GPX1 expression on AML cell viability and the expression of genes of interest. RESULTS: Our analyses revealed that highly expressed GPX1 in AML patients links to unfavorable prognosis. GPX1 expression was positively associated with not only fraction levels of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), monocytes and T cell exhaustion, the expression levels of MDSC markers, MDSC-promoting CCR2 and immune inhibitory checkpoints (TIM3/Gal-9, SIRPα and VISTA), but also negatively with low fraction levels of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. Silencing GPX1 expression reduced AML cell viability and CCR2 expression. Moreover, GPX1-targetd kinases were PKC family, SRC family, SYK and PAK1, which promote AML progression and the resistance to therapy. Furthermore, Additionally, GPX1-associated prognostic signature (GPS) is an independent risk factor with high area under curve (AUC) values of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. High risk group based on GPS enriched not only with endocytosis which transfers mitochondria to favor AML cell survival in response to chemotherapy, but also NOTCH, WNT and TLR signaling which promote therapy resistance. CONCLUSION: Our results revealed the significant involvement of GPX1 in AML immunosuppression via and provided a prognostic signature for AML patients.

6.
Zhongguo Zhen Jiu ; 41(9): 1023-8, 2021 Sep 12.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34491653

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) on expression of interleukin (IL) -23/IL-17 axis and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) in the infarcted tissue in rats with myocardial infarction (MI), and to explore the mechanism of EA on alleviating MI injury. METHODS: Forty male SD rats were randomly divided into a sham-operation group, a sham-operation plus EA group, a model group and an EA group, 10 rats in each group. The MI models were established by ligation of left anterior descending coronary artery in the model group and EA group, while only threading was performed in the sham-operation group and sham-operation plus EA group. The rats in the sham-operation plus EA group and EA group were treated with EA at "Neiguan" (PC 6), disperse-dense wave, 2 Hz/100 Hz, 2 mA, once a day, 20 min each time, for 3 days. After the intervention, the ejection fraction (EF) was measured by echocardiography to evaluate the cardiac function; the infarct area was measured by TTC staining; the HE staining was used to observe the morphological changes of myocardial tissue; the levels of IL-23 and IL-17 in infarcted tissue were detected by ELISA; the protein expression of TLR4 in infarcted tissue was detected by Western blot. RESULTS: Compared with the sham-operation group, the EF was decreased (P<0.01), the infarct area was increased (P<0.01), the myocardial fiber injury was obvious, accompanied by inflammatory cell infiltration, and the contents of IL-23, IL-17 and the expression of TLR4 in infarcted tissue were increased in the model group (P<0.01). Compared with the model group, the EF was increased (P<0.05), the infarct area was reduced (P<0.05), the myocardial fiber injury was significantly improved, the inflammatory cell infiltration was reduced, and the contents of IL-23, IL-17 and TLR4 expression in infarcted tissue were decreased in the EA group (P<0.05). CONCLUSION: EA may alleviate the excessive inflammatory response after MI by inhibiting the expression of IL-23/IL-17 axis in MI rats, and TLR4 may be involved during the process.


Assuntos
Eletroacupuntura , Infarto do Miocárdio , Animais , Interleucina-17/genética , Interleucina-23/genética , Masculino , Infarto do Miocárdio/genética , Infarto do Miocárdio/terapia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/genética
7.
Exp Ther Med ; 22(5): 1230, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34539826

RESUMO

The effect of androgens on follicular development and female reproduction has become an active research topic. Moxibustion is a Traditional Chinese Medicine therapy that has been reported to be able to prevent and treat numerous ovary-related problems. However, studies on the effect of moxibustion for diminished ovarian reserve (DOR) on androgen balance are still lacking. The present study aimed to assess the efficacy of moxibustion intervention prior to disease onset and at the early stage of disease in a rat model of DOR and explore the mechanisms of its effect on ovarian function. A total of 32 rats were randomly divided into four groups: Blank group, Model group (a drug-induced model of DOR), Moxibustion group 1 and Moxibustion group 2. Moxibustion was performed on the BL23 and RN4 acupoints of female rats daily for a total of 20 days (once a day, five times a week for a total of 4 weeks). The two moxibustion groups were established with different intervention times: One group was subjected to pre-disease intervention and the other group to early-disease intervention. The ovarian function was evaluated by detecting anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), estradiol (E2), testosterone (T), dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and androgen receptor (AR) levels in the serum or the ovary samples. To further investigate the downstream regulatory factors for AR after moxibustion treatment for pre-disease or early-disease intervention, FSH receptor (FSHR) and microRNA (miR)-125b expression in ovaries were also analyzed. The results indicated that AMH and DHT levels were reduced in the model group compared with those in the blank group, while FSH, T and DHEA levels were increased. AMH and DHT levels were increased in Moxibustion group 1 compared with those in the model group, while FSH, T and DHEA levels were reduced. There was no difference in E2 levels between Moxibustion group 1 and the model group. Compared with that in the model group, the AR content in the ovary was increased in Moxibustion group 1. There was no difference in FSHR mRNA in the ovaries between Moxibustion group 1 and the model group. miR-125b levels were significantly increased in Moxibustion group 1 as compared with those in the model group. Furthermore, AMH and DHT levels were increased in Moxibustion group 2 compared with those in the model group, while FSH, T and DHEA levels were reduced. E2 levels were significantly decreased in Moxibustion group 2 compared with those in the model group. The relative mRNA expression of AR, FSHR and miR-125b was decreased following establishment of the model. Compared with that in the model group, the AR content in the ovary was increased in Moxibustion group 2. In comparison with the blank and model groups, the FSHR content in the ovary of Moxibustion group 2 was significantly increased. miR-125b levels were not obviously altered in Moxibustion group 2 as compared with those in the model group. In addition, there was no significant difference in AMH, FSH, T and DHEA levels between the two moxibustion groups. E2 and DHT levels were higher in Moxibustion group 1 than in Moxibustion group 2. There was no difference in AR mRNA expression between the two moxibustion groups. FSHR mRNA levels were lower in Moxibustion group 1 than in Moxibustion group 2, while miR-125b mRNA levels were higher in Moxibustion group 1 than in Moxibustion group 2. In conclusion, the present study suggested that moxibustion intervention prior to disease onset and at the early disease stage was able to improve ovarian function via modulation of the AR-mediated stable equilibrium of androgens. However, the effects and mechanisms of moxibustion intervention for pre-disease and early-disease intervention of DOR appear to be different. The appropriate duration of treatment and the time-effect relationship require to be further studied.

8.
Nano Lett ; 21(18): 7724-7731, 2021 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34477392

RESUMO

The synthesis of metallic transition metal nitrides (TMNs) has traditionally been performed under harsh conditions, which makes it difficult to prepare TMNs with high surface area and porosity due to the grain sintering. Herein, we report a general and rapid (30 s) microwave synthesis method for preparing TMNs with high specific surface area (122.6-141.7 m2 g-1) and porosity (0.29-0.34 cm3 g-1). Novel single-crystal porous WN, Mo2N, and V2N are first prepared by this method, which exhibits strong surface plasmon resonance, photothermal conversion, and surface-enhanced Raman scattering effects. Different from the conventional low-temperature microwave absorbing media such as water and polymers, as new concept absorbing media, hydrated metal oxides and metallic metal oxides are found to have a remarkable high-temperature microwave heating effect and play key roles in the formation of TMNs. The current research results provide a new-concept microwave method for preparing high lattice energy compounds with high specific surface.

9.
Front Plant Sci ; 12: 694973, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34489999

RESUMO

Fusarium graminearum is the causal agent of Gibberella stalk rot in maize stem, resulting in maize lodging, yield, quality, and mechanical harvesting capacity. To date, little is known about the maize stem defense mechanism in response to the invasion of F. graminearum. This study represents a global proteomic approach to document the infection by F. graminearum. A total of 1,894 differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) were identified in maize stem with F. graminearum inoculation. Functional categorization analysis indicated that proteins involved in plant-pathogen interaction were inducible at the early stages of infection. We also found that the expression of proteins involved in phenylpropanoid, flavonoid, and terpenoid biosynthesis were upregulated in response to F. graminearum infection, which may reflect that these secondary metabolism pathways were important in the protection against the fungal attack in maize stem. In continuously upregulated proteins after F. graminearum infection, we identified a WRKY transcription factor, ZmWRKY83, which could improve the resistance to plant pathogens. Together, the results show that the defense response of corn stalks against F. graminearum infection was multifaceted, involving the induction of proteins from various immune-related pathways, which had a directive significance for molecular genetic breeding of maize disease-resistant varieties.

10.
Anal Chem ; 93(37): 12776-12785, 2021 09 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34493037

RESUMO

The development of low-cost, biocompatible, and durable high-performance substrates is an urgent issue in the field of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). Herein, by reducing and exfoliating the TiO2-layered nanoplates in the gas phase, nitrogen-doped titanium monoxide (N-TiO) ultrathin nanosheets composed of 2-3 single layers with a thickness of only ∼1.2 nm are synthesized. Compared with pure TiO, the oxidation resistance of N-TiO is greatly improved, in which the oxidation threshold is significantly increased from 187.5 to 415.6 °C. The N-TiO ultrathin nanosheets are found to have strong surface plasmon resonance in the visible region. These ultrathin N-TiO nanosheets can be easily assembled into a large-scale flexible membrane and exhibit remarkable SERS effects. Moreover, this low-cost flexible SERS substrate combines the high durability of noble-metal substrates and the high biocompatibility of semiconductor substrates.


Assuntos
Análise Espectral Raman , Titânio , Óxido Nítrico , Nitrogênio , Ressonância de Plasmônio de Superfície
11.
Saudi J Biol Sci ; 28(9): 4900-4907, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34466064

RESUMO

Ovarian cancer is one of the deadliest gynecologic malignancies and is the seventh leading cause of mortalities and morbidities globally. Although there are various therapeutic strategies, a major challenge for scientific community is to come up with effective strategy to treat ovarian cancer. Tilianin, a polyphenol flavonoid is well known for its extensive biological actions like cardioprotective, neuroprotective, anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic and anti-tumor properties. The current study is designed to investigate the anti-cancer action of Tilianin in ovarian cancer (PA-1) cells. The findings of this study revealed that Tilianin treatment results in significant and concentration dependent decrease in cell viability. The growth inhibiting action of Tilianin is associated with apoptosis which was confirmed by DAPI and AO/EtBr staining. The Tilianin-triggered apoptosis in PA-1 cells was correlated with elevated generation of ROS, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, alterations in pro-apoptotic (upregulated mRNA expression of Bax) and anti-apoptotic (downregulated mRNA expression of Bcl2) factors and activation of caspase-8, -9 and -3. Cell cycle analysis revealed that Tilianin treatment prevented G1/S transition through reduced mRNA expression of cyclin D1. Additionally, the findings of this study also showed Tilianin inhibited JAK2/STAT3 signaling (downregulated expression of pJAK2, JAK2, pSTAT3, and STAT3) with no change in mRNA expression level of ERK indicating its non-involvement in the apoptotic and/or growth inhibition of ovarian cancer cells. In conclusion, the findings of this exploration provided clear evidence of anti-cancer effects of Tilianin in PA-1 cells through its anti-proliferative action, ability to induce apoptosis both through extrinsic and intrinsic pathways, cell cycle (G1/S) arrest and JAK2/STAT3 signaling inhibition.

12.
Front Immunol ; 12: 677169, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34354701

RESUMO

Background: The endoplasmic reticulum oxidoreductin-1-like (ERO1L) gene encodes an endoplasmic reticulum luminal localized glycoprotein known to associated with hypoxia, however, the role of ERO1L in shaping the tumor immune microenvironment (TIME) is yet to be elucidated in lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD). Methods: In this study, raw datasets (including RNA-seq, methylation, sgRNA-seq, phenotype, and survival data) were obtained from public databases. This data was analyzed and used to explore the biological landscape of ERO1L in immune infiltration. Expression data was used to characterize samples. Using gene signatures and cell quantification, stromal and immune infiltration was determined. These findings were used to predict sensitivity to immunotherapy. Results: This study found that ERO1L was significantly overexpressed in LUAD in comparison to normal tissue. This overexpression was found to be a result of hypomethylation of the ERO1L promoter. Overexpression of ERO1L resulted in an immune-suppressive TIME via the recruitment of immune-suppressive cells including regulatory T cells (Tregs), cancer associated fibroblasts, M2-type macrophages, and myeloid-derived suppressor cells. Using the Tumor Immune Dysfunction and Exclusion (TIDE) framework, it was identified that patients in the ERO1L high group possessed a significantly lower response rate to immunotherapy in comparison to the ERO1L low group. Mechanistic analysis revealed that overexpression of ERO1L was associated with the upregulation of JAK-STAT and NF-κB signaling pathways, thus affecting chemokine and cytokine patterns in the TIME. Conclusions: This study found that overexpression of ERO1L was associated with poor prognoses in patients with LUAD. Overexpression of ERO1L was indicative of a hypoxia-induced immune-suppressive TIME, which was shown to confer resistance to immunotherapy in patients with LUAD. Further studies are required to assess the potential role of ERO1L as a biomarker for immunotherapy efficacy in LUAD.

13.
Lancet Oncol ; 22(9): 1265-1274, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34391508

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Numerous ongoing trials are testing anti-PD-1-based or anti-PD-L1-based cancer treatment combinations. Understanding the toxicity profiles of treatment-related adverse events is essential. The aim of this study was to comprehensively investigate the incidences and profiles of treatment-related adverse events across different combination therapies. METHODS: We did a systematic review and meta-analysis comparing different chemotherapy, targeted therapy, immunotherapy, and radiotherapy combinations with PD-1 or PD-L1 inhibitors. We searched Pubmed, Embase, and Cochrane databases for articles published in English between Jan 1, 2000, and May 21, 2020, investigating globally approved PD-1 or PD-L1 inhibitor-based combination therapies. Only prospective trials reporting overall incidence or tabulated data of treatment-related adverse events were included. Trials investigating sequential therapies, comprising three or more classes of therapies, and enrolling less than ten patients were excluded. The primary outcomes were overall incidences and profiles for all-grade and grade 3 or higher treatment-related adverse events by random-effect models. Heterogeneity between studies was assessed with I2 statistics. The summary measures for main outcomes are incidences (95% CI). The 95% CI were calculated together with the incidence through a random-effects model with a logit transformation. The protocol is registered with PROSPERO (CRD42020189617). FINDINGS: We identified 2540 records, of which 161 studies (17 197 patients) met the inclusion criteria. The overall incidence of treatment-related adverse events in the chemotherapy combination was 97·7% (95% CI 96·4-98·5; I2=75%) for all-grade adverse events and 68·3% (60·7-75·0; I2=93%) for grade 3 or higher adverse events; in the targeted therapy combination was 94·5% (90·7-96·8; I2=86%) for all-grade adverse events and 47·3% (37·3-57·5; I2=93%) for grade 3 or higher adverse events; in the immunotherapy combination was 86·8% (80·9-91·1; I2=94%) for all-grade adverse events and 35·9% (29·5-42·9; I2=92%) for grade 3 or higher adverse events; and in the radiotherapy combination was 89·4% (69·0-96·9; I2=74%) for all-grade adverse events and 12·4% (4·4-30·6; I2=73%) for grade 3 or higher adverse events. For these four combination therapies, the most common all-grade adverse events were anaemia (45.4% [95% CI 32·4-59·1]), fatigue (34·3% [27·5-41·9]), fatigue (26·4% [19·2-35·2]), and dysphagia (30·0% [18·7-44·5]), respectively, and the most common grade 3 or higher adverse events were neutropenia (19·6% [13·5-27·7]), hypertension (9·3% [5·7-14·9]), lipase increased (7·2% [5·2-9·9]), and lymphopenia (10·3% [4·5-21·8]). All included randomised controlled trials had a low risk of bias. INTERPRETATION: Our study provides comprehensive data on treatment-related adverse events of different PD-1 or PD-L1 inhibitor-based combination therapies. Our results provide an essential reference of toxicity profiles of PD-1 or PD-L1 inhibitor-based combination therapies for clinicians in routine practice of cancer care. FUNDING: National Key Research and Development Programme, National Natural Science Foundation of China key program, National Natural Science Foundation of China general program, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences Initiative for Innovative Medicine, Beijing Municipal Science and Technology Commission, Non-profit Central Research Institute Fund.


Assuntos
Antígeno B7-H1/antagonistas & inibidores , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/efeitos adversos , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Terapia Combinada/efeitos adversos , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/epidemiologia , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/patologia , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Incidência
14.
Microvasc Res ; 138: 104235, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34453991

RESUMO

Electroacupuncture (EA) intervention has a remarkable cardioprotection against myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury (MIRI). Recently, it has been suggested that the gut microbiota plays an important role in regulating the progression and prognosis of MIRI. The purpose of this study was to illustrate the relationship between gut microbiota and cardioprotection of EA on MIRI. We conducted a MIRI model by ligating the left anterior descending coronary artery for 30 min followed by reperfusion in male Sprague Dawley rats, which then received 7 days of EA intervention. Echocardiography was employed to evaluate left ventricular function. Fecal samples were collected for microbial analysis by 16S rDNA high-throughput sequencing. Blood samples and myocardium were collected for inflammatory cytokine detection by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Western blot. Hematoxylin & eosin (HE) staining and immunofluorescence of ileum tissue were performed for intestinal damage evaluation. After 7 days of EA intervention, the left ventricular function was improved with significantly increased ejection fraction and fractional shortening. Furthermore, we found that EA intervention reversed the changed gut microbiota induced by MIRI, including Clostridiales, RF39, S24-7, Desulfovibrio, and Allobaculum, improved the impaired gut barrier, reduced the production and circulation of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), inhibited the level of interleukin 6 (IL-6) and interleukin 12 (IL-12) in periphery and decreased the expression of Toll like receptor 4 (TLR4) and IL-6 in myocardium. EA intervention could improve the impaired gut mucosal barrier and reduce the production and circulation of LPS after MIRI through regulating gut microbiota, thus inhibiting the circulation and myocardium inflammation and finally exerted the cardioprotective effect.

15.
Front Immunol ; 12: 701282, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34381452

RESUMO

The nucleotide-binding domain leucine-rich repeat and pyrin domain containing receptor protein 3 (NLRP3) is an important pattern recognition receptor in human innate immunity. Activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome play a key role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Theories explaining activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome include the reactive oxygen species theory, the lysosomal damage theory and the mitochondrial DNA theory. The NLRP3 activation promotes occurrence of AD by producing IL-1ß, IL-18 and other cytokines, and then by affecting the deposition of Aß and tau proteins. Over-activated NLRP3 inflammasome often impair cell function and induces immune-related diseases. Some mechanisms have been found to negatively regulate activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome, which may be through receptor binding blocking mechanism, autophagy related mechanism, abnormal cytokine secretion mechanism, or interference related gene expression regulation mechanism. In this review, we summarize the possible mechanisms by which the activation of NLRP3 inflammasomes affects the pathogenesis of AD, and the recent advances in the prevention and treatment of AD by controlling the activation of NLRP3 inflammasomes. By researching the activation or inactivation of NLRP3 inflammasome, it is possible to reveal the pathogenesis of AD from a new perspective and provide a new idea for the prevention and treatment of AD.

16.
Thorac Cancer ; 2021 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34432361

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With the improvement of therapeutic strategies from cytotoxic chemotherapy to immunotherapy, the possibility of achieving timely intervention for lung cancer has dramatically increased. This study aimed to systematically evaluate the reporting quality of randomized controlled trials (RCT) on immunotherapy in lung cancer. METHODS: The RCTs evaluating the efficacy of immunotherapy in lung cancer published up to 2021 were searched and collected from PUBMED and EMBASE by two investigators. The 2010 Consolidated Standards for Test Reports (CONSORT) statement-based 28-point overall quality score (OQS) and the 2001 CONSORT statement-based 19-point OQS was utilized for assessing the overall quality of each report. RESULTS: One hundred and fifty-two related RCTs were retrieved in this study, including 81,931 patients. The average OQS in 2010 was 17.89 (range, 7.5-24.5). Overall, studies have sufficiently reported the eligibility criteria (143/152; 94.07%), described the scientific background (150/152; 98.7%) and discussed interventions (147/152; 96.7%). However, the RCTs did not consistently report the changes to trial after commencement (48/152; 31.6%), allocation, enrollment and assignment personnel (34/152; 22.4%), blinding (48/152; 31.6%), or randomization method (58/152; 38.2%). CONCLUSIONS: The overall reporting quality of RCTs on immunotherapy in lung cancer was found to be unsatisfactory despite the fact that the CONSORT statement was issued more than a decade ago. Furthermore, there was virtual selectivity and heterogeneity in reporting some key issues in these trials. This is the first study to enlighten lung cancer researchers especially focusing on immunotherapy, and also to remind editors and peer reviewers to strengthen their due diligence.

17.
Infect Immun ; 89(10): e0006721, 2021 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34310887

RESUMO

To antagonize infection of pathogenic bacteria in soil and confer increased survival, Caenorhabditis elegans employs innate immunity and behavioral avoidance synchronously as the two main defensive strategies. Although both biological processes and their individual signaling pathways have been partially elucidated, knowledge of their interrelationship remains limited. The current study reveals that deficiency of innate immunity triggered by mutation of the classic immune gene pmk-1 promotes avoidance behavior in C. elegans and vice versa. Restoration of pmk-1 expression using the tissue-specific promoters suggested that the functional loss of both intestinal and neuronal pmk-1 is necessary for the enhanced avoidance. Additionally, PMK-1 colocalized with the E3 ubiquitin ligase HECW-1 in OLL neurons and regulated the expressional level of the latter, which consequently affected the production of NPR-1, a G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) homologous to the mammalian neuropeptide Y receptor, in RMG neurons in a non-cell-autonomous manner. Collectively, our study illustrates that once the innate immunity is impaired when C. elegans antagonizes bacterial infection, the other defensive strategy of behavioral avoidance can be enhanced accordingly via the HECW-1/NPR-1 module, suggesting that GPCRs in neural circuits may receive the inputs from the immune system and integrate those two systems for better adapting to the real-time status.

18.
Lab Invest ; 2021 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34326457

RESUMO

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Dysregulation of circular RNAs (circRNAs) appears to be a critical factor in CRC progression. However, mechanistic studies delineating the role of circRNAs in CRC remain limited. In this study, qRT-PCR and western blot assays were used to measure the expression of genes and proteins. Migration, invasion, proliferation, and apoptosis were examined by wound-healing, transwell, CCK-8, colony formation, and flow cytometry assays, respectively. Molecular interactions were validated by a dual-luciferase report system. A xenograft animal model was established to examine in vivo tumor growth and lung metastasis. Our data indicated that circN4BP2L2 expression was increased in CRC tissues and cell lines. Notably, inhibition of circN4BP2L2 effectively inhibited proliferation, migration, and invasion of LoVo cells, and inhibited tumor growth and metastasis in vivo, whereas the forced expression of circN4BP2L2 facilitated the proliferation, migration, and invasion of HT-29 cells. Mechanistic studies revealed that circN4BP2L2 acted as a molecular sponge of miR-340-5p to competitively promote CXCR4 expression. Furthermore, inhibition of miR-340-5p reversed the anti-cancer effects of circN4BP2L2 or CXCR4 silencing. Our data indicated an oncogenic role of circN4BP2L2 in CRC via regulation of the miR-340-5p/CXCR4 axis, which may be a promising biomarker and target for CRC treatment.

19.
Langmuir ; 37(29): 8829-8839, 2021 Jul 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34270266

RESUMO

The controllable integration of low-dimensional nanomaterials on solid surfaces is pivotal for the fabrication of next-generation miniaturized electronic and optoelectronic devices. For instance, organization of two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials on polymeric surfaces paves the way for the development of flexible electronics for applications in wearable devices. Nevertheless, the understanding of the molecular interactions between these nanomaterials and the polymeric surfaces remains limited, which impedes the rational design of 2D nanomaterial-based functional coatings. In the current work, we report that graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets, in their dispersion phase, can be adsorbed on multiple polymeric surfaces in a spontaneous manner. Both experimental findings and simulational results indicate that the main driving force is hydrogen bonding interactions, although other molecular interactions such as polarity and dispersion ones contribute to the adsorption as well. The relatively high hydrogen bonding interactions cause not only increased GO surface coverage but also enhanced GO adsorption kinetics on polymeric surfaces. The adsorbed GO layers are robust, which can be explained by the large aspect ratios of GO nanosheets and the presence of multiple spots for molecular interactions. As a proof of concept, GO-covered polymethyl methacrylate effectively decreases surface static charges when compared with its pristine counterpart. The integration of the GO constituents turns many inert polymeric substrates into multifunctional hybrids, and the functional groups on GO can be used further to bridge with additional functional materials for the development of high-performance electronic devices.

20.
Anal Chem ; 93(29): 10152-10159, 2021 07 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34254788

RESUMO

The reliable identification of fentanyl and its analogs is of great significance for public security. However, with the growing prevalence of fentanyl compounds, current analytical strategies cannot fully meet the need for fast and high-throughput detection. In this study, a simple, rapid, and on-site analytical protocol was developed based on a miniature mass spectrometer. A dramatically simplified workflow was implemented using matrix-assisted ionization, bypassing complex sample pretreatment and chromatographic separation. The tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) capability afforded by the miniature ion trap mass spectrometer facilitated the investigation of fragmentation patterns for 49 fentanyl analogs during collision-induced dissociation, revealing valuable information on marker fragment ions and characteristic neutral loss. Calculations on Laplacian bond order values further verified the mass spectrometric behavior. A computation-assisted expandable mass spectral library was constructed in-house for fentanyl compounds. Smart suspect screening was carried out based on the full-scan MS and MS/MS data. The present study demonstrates an appealing potential for forensic applications, enabling streamlined screening for the presence of illicit fentanyl compounds at the point of seizures of suspect samples.


Assuntos
Fentanila , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Medicina Legal , Íons , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray
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