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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32081429

RESUMO

Alzheimer disease (AD), which poses a serious challenge in aging societies, still lacks effective treatments to reverse its progression, and thus, has been a major focus of research for decades. There are several risk factors associated with the etiology of AD. To further identify potential new factors involved in AD pathogenesis, a forward genetic screening method using transgenic Caenorhabditis elegans CL4176 exposed to different temperatures was employed to screen mutant worms resistant to ß-amyloid toxicity. After transcriptome sequencing, and analysis of single nucleotide polymorphism variations by RNA-Seq and DNA-Seq, it is suggested that a novel gene hmgs-1 is involved in AD pathogenesis. We verified its involvement again by the phenotype of gene knockdown mutant and the rescue effect of complementing hmgs-1. Our study provides a workable screening method for new gene mutations and a potential target of hmgs-1 in the AD pathogenesis.

2.
Med Sci Monit ; 26: e921233, 2020 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32032347

RESUMO

BACKGROUND Osteosarcoma is a common malignant tumor of musculoskeletal stromal cells. Osteosarcoma clinical behavior depends mostly on the histologic grade, the site of primary tumor, the response to chemotherapy, and the presence of pulmonary metastases. The aim of this study was to knockout SHOX CNE9/10 in U2OS osteosarcoma cells and to analyze the effects on cell growth and apoptosis. MATERIAL AND METHODS U2OS cells with CNE9 knockout and U2OS cells with CNE10 knockout were established via the CRISPR/Cas9 system. Sanger sequencing was used to detect the success of the knockdown experiment. Western blotting and quantitative polymerase chain reaction were used to detect the expression levels of short stature homeobox-containing gene (SHOX) protein and messenger RNA (mRNA) after knockdown of CNE9 and CNE10. The cell viability and apoptotic rate were detected by the Cell Counting Kit-8 method and by flow cytometry. RESULTS The Sanger sequencing results showed that the knockdown experiment was successful. The levels of SHOX mRNA and protein were significantly reduced after knocking down CNE9 and CNE10. Knockdown of CNE9 and CNE10 significantly increased the growth and inhibited the apoptosis of U2OS osteosarcoma cells. CNE9/CNE10 knockdown U2OS cells were successfully constructed. CONCLUSIONS Knockdown of CNE9 and CNE10 promoted U2OS cell growth and inhibited apoptosis by decreasing SHOX expression. This CNE9/CNE10 knockout U2OS cell model could provide a bridge for the research on SHOX and CNEs in osteosarcoma.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32020410

RESUMO

Previous studies demonstrated that men were more likely to have plaque rupture and are at greater risk for myocardial infarction and stroke than women. We evaluated differences in carotid plaque characteristics by MRI between men and women with mild-moderate atherosclerosis and elevated ApoB levels. One hundred eighty-two subjects (104 men and 78 women) with CAD or carotid stenosis (≥ 15% by ultrasound), ApoB ≥ 120 mg/dL and carotid MRI scan were included. Percent wall volume (%WV) was calculated as (wall volume/total vessel volume) × 100%. Three major plaque compositions, fibrous tissue (FT), calcification (CA) and lipid rich necrotic core (LRNC), were identified and quantified using published MRI criteria. Adventitial and plaque neovascularization as fractional plasma volume (Vp) and permeability as transfer constant (Ktrans) were analyzed using kinetic modeling. These characteristics were compared between men and women. Men, compared to women, were younger (54 ± 8 vs. 58 ± 8 years, p = 0.01), had higher rate of previous MI (46 vs. 26%, p = 0.005) but lower proportions of metabolic syndrome (37 vs. 59%, p = 0.003). After adjusting for between-gender differences, men were significantly more likely to have LRNC (OR 2.22, 95% CI 1.04-4.89, p = 0.04) and showed significantly larger %LRNC than women (diff = 4.3%, 95% CI 1.6-6.9%, p = 0.002), while %WV, FT, and CA were similar between men and women. There were no statistically significant differences in adventitial and plaque Vp or Ktrans. Men were significantly more likely to have LRNC and had larger LRNC than women. However, men and women showed relatively similar levels of adventitial and plaque neovascularization and permeability.Trial registration: NCT00715273 at ClinicalTrials.gov. Registered 15 July 2008, retrospectively registered.

4.
Thorac Cancer ; 2020 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32020764

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is an aggressive disease involving immunodeficiency for which chemotherapy is the standard treatment. Pegylated recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (PEG-rhG-CSF) is widely used for primary or secondary prophylaxis of febrile neutropenia (FN) in chemotherapy. However, whether PEG-rhG-CSF influences immune cells, such as lymphocytes, remains unclear. METHODS: A total of 17 treatment-naïve SCLC patients were prospectively enrolled and divided into the PEG-rhG-CSF and control groups according to their FN risk. Longitudinal sampling of peripheral blood was performed before, after and 4-6 days after the first cycle of chemotherapy. Flow cytometry was used to assess lymphocyte subsets, including CD3+ T, CD4+ T, CD8+ T, NK, and B cells. The diversity and clonality of the T-cell receptor (TCR) repertoire was analyzed by next-generation sequencing. RESULTS: In the PEG-rhG-CSF group, the proportions of CD3+ T and CD4+ T cells had increased significantly (P = 0.002, P = 0.020, respectively), whereas there was no increase in CD8+ T cells. Further, TCR diversity increased (P = 0.009) and clonality decreased (P = 0.004) significantly after PEG-rhG-CSF treatment. However, these factors showed opposite trends before and after chemotherapy. Vß and Jß gene fragment types, which determine TCR diversity, were significantly amplified in the PEG-rhG-CSF group. The change in TCR diversity was significantly correlated with changes in the CD3+ T or CD4+ T cell proportions, but not the CD8+ T cell proportion. CONCLUSIONS: PEG-rhG-CSF regulates the immune status of SCLC patients; CD4+ T cells may be the main effector cells involved in this process. These findings may optimize the treatment of SCLC. KEY POINTS: PEG-rhG-CSF regulates SCLC immunity. PEG-rhG-CSF increased CD3+ T and CD4+ T cell proportions. PEG-rhG-CSF increased TCR diversity and decreased clonality in peripheral blood. Change in TCR diversity were correlated with CD3+ T or CD4+ T changes.

5.
Sensors (Basel) ; 20(2)2020 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31968639

RESUMO

The nonlinear post-flutter instabilities were experimentally investigated through two-degree-of-freedom sectional model tests on a typical flat closed-box bridge deck (width-to-depth ratio 9.14). Laser displacement sensors and piezoelectric force balances were used in the synchronous measurement of dynamic displacement and aerodynamic force. Beyond linear flutter boundary, the sectional model exhibited heave-torsion coupled limit cycle oscillation (LCOs) with an unrestricted increase of stable amplitudes with reduced velocity. The post-critical LCOs vibrated in a complex mode with amplitude-dependent mode modulus and phase angle. Obvious heaving static deformation was found to be coupled with the large-amplitude post-critical LCOs, for which classical quasi-steady theory was not applicable. The aerodynamic torsional moment and lift during post-critical LCOs were measured through a novel wind-tunnel technique by 4 piezoelectric force balances. The measured force signals were found to contain significantly higher-order components. The energy evolution mechanism during post-critical LCOs was revealed via the hysteresis loops of the measured force signals.

6.
Anal Chim Acta ; 1098: 66-74, 2020 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31948588

RESUMO

A streamlined analytical workflow was developed for the analysis of infant drink samples using a miniature mass spectrometry system preceded by solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and extraction nano-electrospray ionization. Potential chemical contaminants in infant drinks (milk, lactic acid bacteria beverage, and fruit juice) were extracted and enriched using a custom-made stainless-steel SPME probe, which was coated with a thin layer of polyaniline and multi-walled carbon nanotubes nanocomposites (PANI/MWCNTs) by electrochemical deposition. The resulting porous microstructure has a larger surface area and enhanced microextraction efficiency, with enrichment factors ranging from 3055 to 8695 for exemplary analytes of antibiotics, bisphenol A, and perfluorinated compounds. The enriched analytes on the electrochemically fabricated SPME probe were simultaneously desorbed and ionized within a pulled glass capillary by extraction nano-electrospray ionization. The ionized species were subjected to instrumental analysis on a miniature ion trap mass spectrometer with adequate tandem mass spectrometry capability. The developed method was optimized and validated in terms of sensitivity, linearity, repeatability, and recovery. The integrated experimental protocol combining SPME, ambient ionization, and miniature mass spectrometry is promising for rapid, on-site screening of hazardous substances in food to ensure consumer health.

7.
Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom ; : e8731, 2020 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31960493

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Linear ion traps with simplified structure have been widely used in miniaturized mass spectrometers. However, linear ion traps usually have low ion detection efficiency when used in a miniaturized mass spectrometer, in which only one ion detector can be installed. To solve this problem, an asymmetric radio frequency voltage was applied to introduce the asymmetric electric fields in the trapping volume of the linear ion traps, which would lead to unidirectional ion ejection. METHODS: An asymmetric RF voltage was applied on both half round-rod electrode and triangular electrode linear ion traps, and their performances including unidirectional ion ejection efficiency and mass resolution were evaluated by computer simulation. The relationship between asymmetric RF voltage difference δ and internal electric field distribution was investigated, and the impact of δ and resonance excitation signal frequency on the unidirectional ion ejection efficiency and mass resolution was also explored. RESULTS: A unidirectional ion ejection efficiency of around 83% and a mass resolution of over 2700 were achieved with δ=7% in both half round-rod electrode and triangular electrode linear ion traps. CONCLUSIONS: By applying an asymmetric RF voltage, the ion detection efficiency could be significantly improved without any change of the structures of existing linear ion traps. This method provided a simple and general solution for improving the ion detection efficiency and sensitivity of miniaturized linear ion trap mass spectrometers.

8.
Neurochem Int ; 134: 104671, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31926197

RESUMO

Parkinson's disease (PD), the second most common chronic neurodegenerative disorder, broadly remains incurable. Both genetic susceptibility and exposure to deleterious environmental stimuli contribute to dopaminergic neuron degeneration in the substantia nigra. Hence, reagents that can ameliorate the phenotypes rendered by genetic or environmental factors should be considered in PD therapy. In this study, we found that polydatin (Pol), a natural compound extracted from grapes and red wines, significantly attenuated rotenone- (Rot) or Parkin deficiency-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and cell death in SH-SY5Y, a human dopaminergic neuronal cell line. We showed that Pol significantly attenuated the Rot-induced decrease in cell viability, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), and Sirt 1 expression and increase in cell death, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and DJ1 expression. Rot resulted in a decrease in mTOR/Ulk-involved autophagy and an increase in PGC1ß/mfn2-involved mitochondrial fusion, which was inhibited by Pol. We further demonstrated that the protective effects of Pol are partially blocked when autophagy-related gene 5 (Atg5) is genetically inactivated, suggesting that Pol-mediated neuroprotection requires Atg5. Moreover, Pol rescued Parkin knockdown-induced oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, autophagy impairment, and mitochondrial fusion enhancement. Interestingly, Pol treatment could also rescue the mitochondrial morphological abnormality and motorial dysfunction of a Drosophila PD model induced by Parkin deficiency. Thus, Pol could represent a useful therapeutic strategy as a disease-modifier in PD by decreasing oxidative stress and regulating autophagic processes and mitochondrial fusion.

9.
Small ; 16(1): e1905977, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31814281

RESUMO

Refractory periapical periodontitis, which is a persistent infection after root canal treatment, still has no effective treatment. Its most common pathogen is Enterococcus faecalis. Here, the precursor of phytosteroids, dioscin, is introduced to fight against the inflammation induced by Enterococcus faecalis. The findings suggest that dioscin inhibits the nuclear transport of NF-κB and the expression of reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced by lipoteichoic acid from the Enterococcus faecalis. The decrease in mRNA and protein levels of NLRP3, Caspase-1, and IL-1ß is observed in dioscin treated mouse macrophages. In the MC3T3-E1 cells, dioscin also promotes the expression of osteogenic-related factors, ALP, Runx2, and OCN. The increased formation of mineralized nodules after the application of dioscin further indicates that dioscin has the potential to promote osteogenesis. The above results suggest dioscin can be a potential root canal irrigation or root canal sealant for the treatment of refractory apical periodontitis.

10.
Plant Cell Rep ; 39(2): 195-206, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31680208

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: Cotton pollen abortion, under drought stress, was closely associated with changes in anther carbohydrate metabolism, and pollen abortion rate due to drought was higher in drought-sensitive cultivars than drought-tolerant cultivars. Cotton reproductive failure under drought stress is intrinsically connected with altered male fertility, however, studies investigating the effect of drought stress on cotton male fertility are nonexistent. Thus, a drought stress experiment was conducted with two cotton cultivars, differing in drought tolerance, to study pollen fertility and anthers' physiology. Results indicated that drought stress reduced pollen fertility of both cultivars due to decreases in anther starch and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthesis. Lower assimilate supply capacity in conjunction with impaired activities of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase and soluble starch synthase were the main reasons for the decreased starch levels in drought-stressed anthers. The decreased activities of sucrose synthetase and acid invertase were responsible for the higher sucrose level in drought-stressed anthers than well-watered anthers and the changing trend of sucrose was intensified by the decreased expressions of sucrose synthase genes (GhSusA, GhSusB, GhSusD) and acid invertase genes (GhINV1, GhINV2). However, despite sucrose degradation being limited in drought-stressed anthers, glucose level was higher in droughted anthers than well-watered ones, and that might be attributed to the down-regulated respiration since decreased anther ATP levels were detected in drought-stressed plants. Furthermore, compared to the drought-tolerant cultivar, pollen fertility was more suppressed by drought stress for the drought-sensitive cultivar, and that was attributed to the larger decrease in starch and ATP contents.

11.
Cancer Immunol Res ; 8(1): 146-154, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31719056

RESUMO

T-cell receptor (TCR)-based biomarkers might predict patient response to immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) but need further exploration and validation for that use. We sequenced complementarity-determining region 3 of TCRß chains isolated from PD-1+ CD8+ T cells to investigate its value for predicting the response to anti-programmed cell death 1 (PD-1)/PD-ligand 1 (PD-L1) therapy in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Two independent patient cohorts (cohort A, n = 25; cohort B, n = 15) were used as discovery and validation sets, respectively. Pre- and post-ICB peripheral blood samples were collected. In cohort A, patients with high PD-1+ CD8+ TCR diversity before ICB treatment showed better response to ICB and progression-free survival (PFS) compared with patients with low diversity [6.4 months vs. 2.5 months, HR, 0.39; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.17-0.94; P = 0.021]. The results were validated in cohort B. Pre-ICB PD-1+ CD8+ TCR diversity achieved an optimal Youden's index of 0.81 (sensitivity = 0.87 and specificity = 0.94) for differentiating the ICB response in the merged dataset (cohort A plus cohort B). Patients with increased PD-1+ CD8+ TCR clonality after ICB treatment had longer PFS (7.3 months vs. 2.6 months, HR, 0.26; 95% CI, 0.08-0.86; P = 0.002) than those with decreased clonality. Thus, TCR diversity and clonality in peripheral blood PD-1+ CD8+ T cells may serve as noninvasive predictors of patient response to ICB and survival outcomes in NSCLC.

12.
Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek ; 113(1): 13-20, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31587117

RESUMO

A Gram-stain negative, rod-shaped bacterial, catalase and oxidase positive strain (83-4T) that formed yellow colonies was isolated from human Meibomian gland secretions. Strain 83-4T belongs to the genus Lysobacter according to phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences. The DNA G+C content was 67.1 mol%. The circular genome was 2.6 Mb, which contained 2431 protein-coding sequences, 75 pseudogenes, 46 tRNAs, 3 rRNAs and 4 ncRNAs. A bacteriocin cluster and aryl polyene cluster were also found in the genome. The average nucleotide identity value was 79.6% between isolate 83-4T and the closely related type strain Lysobacter tolerans UM1T. The estimated DNA-DNA hybridization value between strain 83-4T and L. tolerans UM1T was 41.6%. Diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylglycerol were the major polar lipids. Iso-C15:0, iso-C11:0 3-OH, iso-C11:0 and summed feature 9 (iso-C17:1ω9c) were the major fatty acids. Ubiquinone (Q-8) was the only respiratory quinone. Therefore, based on the data of phylogenetic analysis, chemotaxonomical and biochemical analyses, it is concluded that strain 83-4T represents a novel species of the genus Lysobacter with the name of Lysobacter oculi sp. nov. The type strain is 83-4T (= CGMCC 1.13464T = NRBC 113451T).

14.
Ann Transl Med ; 7(20): 559, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31807540

RESUMO

Background: Autophagy has increasingly been recognized as playing an essential role in the pathogenesis of myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury (MIRI). Moxibustion, a form of heat therapy commonly used in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), has been shown to exhibit cardioprotective effects. However, whether the cardioprotective effect of moxibustion is related to the regulation of autophagy remains unknown. This study aimed to investigate the possible mechanism underlying the cardioprotective effect of moxibustion preconditioning at PC6 on MIRI by measuring the expressions of proteins involved in the regulation of autophagy. Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided to receive moxibustion preconditioning or autophagy inhibitor 3-Methyladenine (3-MA) intervention. Then the MIRI model was established by ligating the left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery for 30 minutes followed by reperfusion for 4 hours. After 4 hours of reperfusion, the myocardial infarction area was assessed using Evans blue and TTC staining, and cTnT and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels in the serum were determined by ELISA. Hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining was performed for morphological evaluation of ventricular tissues. Expressions of autophagy components Beclin 1, Bcl-2, and Akt were assessed using quantitative real-time PCR, immunohistochemistry (IHC) and western blot. Results: Moxibustion preconditioning significantly reduced the necrotic area and the levels of cTnT and LDH were similar to the 3-MA intervention, also attenuated morphological alterations were induced by MIRI. Simultaneously, the mRNA and protein expressions of Beclin 1 and Akt were up-regulated, while those of Bcl-2 were down-regulated by MIRI. Moxibustion preconditioning and 3-MA intervention reversed MIRI-induced changes in Beclin 1, Akt, and Bcl-2 expressions. Conclusions: Moxibustion preconditioning at PC6 can attenuate myocardial injury for MIRI in a similar way to 3-MA intervention. This cardioprotective effect of moxibustion preconditioning may be mediated by modulating autophagy via regulation of Beclin 1, Bcl-2 and Akt.

15.
Mikrochim Acta ; 186(12): 860, 2019 11 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31786663

RESUMO

An aptasensor is described for the electrochemical determination of bisphenol A (BPA). Gold-coated multiwalled carbon nanotubes (Au/MWCNTs) and a single-stranded DNA-dye complex are used as a double signal-amplification system. The BPA-binding aptamer was assembled on a disposable electrode modified with Au/MWCNTs. Methylene blue (MB) was then intercalated into the immobilized aptamer with an approximately molecular ratio of 4 to form a complex. Upon interaction with BPA, the immobilized aptamer underwent a conformational change. This causes the intercalated MB to be released from the complex into solution. As a result, the electrochemical signal of the intercalated MB, typically measured using square wave voltammetry at a potential of -0.20 V (vs. Ag/AgCl (saturated KCl)) decreases. The fabrication of the aptasensor was characterized by the scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and electrochemical techniques. Under optimal experimental conditions, the current drops linearly with the logarithm of BPA concentrations over the range from 10 fM to 1 nM, and the limit of detection is 8 fM. The assay was applied to the determination of BPA in plastic drinking bottles, tap water, and milk. Graphical AbstractSchematic illustration of fabricating the aptasensor for bisphenol A (BPA) based on double signal amplification via gold-coated multiwalled carbon nanotubes (Au/MWCNT) and an aptamer-dye complex. PET: poly(ethylene terephthalate).

16.
Autophagy ; : 1-16, 2019 Dec 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31884871

RESUMO

Age-related impairment of macroautophagy/autophagy and loss of cardiac tissue homeostasis contribute significantly to cardiovascular diseases later in life. MTOR (mechanistic target of rapamycin kinase) signaling is the most well-known regulator of autophagy, cellular homeostasis, and longevity. The MTOR signaling consists of two structurally and functionally distinct multiprotein complexes, MTORC1 and MTORC2. While MTORC1 is well characterized but the role of MTORC2 in aging and autophagy remains poorly understood. Here we identified TGFB-INHB/activin signaling as a novel upstream regulator of MTORC2 to control autophagy and cardiac health during aging. Using Drosophila heart as a model system, we show that cardiac-specific knockdown of TGFB-INHB/activin-like protein daw induces autophagy and alleviates age-related heart dysfunction, including cardiac arrhythmias and bradycardia. Interestingly, the downregulation of daw activates TORC2 signaling to regulate cardiac autophagy. Activation of TORC2 alone through overexpressing its subunit protein rictor promotes autophagic flux and preserves cardiac function with aging. In contrast, activation of TORC1 does not block autophagy induction in daw knockdown flies. Lastly, either daw knockdown or rictor overexpression in fly hearts prolongs lifespan, suggesting that manipulation of these pathways in the heart has systemic effects on longevity control. Thus, our studies discover the TGFB-INHB/activin-mediated inhibition of TORC2 as a novel mechanism for age-dependent decreases in autophagic activity and cardiac health.Abbreviations: AI: arrhythmia index; BafA1: bafilomycin A1; BMP: bone morphogenetic protein; CQ: chloroquine; CVD: cardiovascular diseases; DI: diastolic interval; ER: endoplasmic reticulum; HP: heart period; HR: heart rate; MTOR: mechanistic target of rapamycin kinase; NGS: normal goat serum; PBST: PBS with 0.1% Triton X-100; PDPK1: 3-phosphoinositide dependent protein kinase 1; RICTOR: RPTOR independent companion of MTOR complex 2; ROI: region of interest; ROUT: robust regression and outlier removal; ROS: reactive oxygen species; R-SMAD: receptor-activated SMAD; SI: systolic interval; SOHA: semi-automatic optical heartbeat analysis; TGFB: transformation growth factor beta; TSC1: TSC complex subunit 1.

17.
J Thorac Oncol ; 2019 Dec 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31843683

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Blood-based tumor mutational burden (bTMB) has been studied to identify patients with NSCLC who would benefit from anti-programmed cell death protein 1 (anti-PD-1) or anti-programmed death ligand 1 (anti-PD-L1) therapies. However, it failed to predict overall survival (OS) benefits, which warrants further exploration. METHODS: Three independent cohorts of patients with NSCLC treated with immunotherapy were used in this study. A new bTMB algorithm was first developed in the two independent cohorts (POPLAR, N = 211, and OAK, N = 462) and further validated in the third National Cancer Center (NCC) cohort (N = 64). RESULTS: bTMB-H (bTMB ≥ cutoff point) was not associated with favorable OS after immunotherapy regardless of the cutoff points in either the POPLAR and OAK or the NCC cohorts (p > 0.05) owing to its correlation with the amount of circulating tumor DNA, which was associated with poor OS. In the POPLAR and OAK cohorts, with allele frequency (AF) adjustment, a high AF bTMB (HAF-bTMB, mutation counts with an AF > 5%) was strongly correlated with the amount of circulating tumor DNA (Pearson r = 0.65), whereas a low AF bTMB (LAF-bTMB, mutation counts with an AF ≤ 5%) was not (Pearson r = 0.09). LAF-bTMB-H was associated with favorable OS (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.70, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.52-0.95, p = 0.02), progression-free survival (PFS; HR = 0.62, 95% CI: 0.47-0.80, p < 0.001), and objective response rate (ORR) (p < 0.001) after immunotherapy but not chemotherapy, with a cutoff point of 12 trained in the POPLAR cohort and validated in the OAK cohort. The LAF-bTMB algorithm was further validated in the NCC cohort in which LAF-bTMB-H was associated with OS (HR = 0.20, 95% CI: 0.05-0.84, p = 0.02), PFS (HR = 0.30, 95% CI: 0.13-0.70, p = 0.003), and ORR (p = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: We developed and validated a new LAF-bTMB algorithm as a feasible predictor of OS, PFS, and ORR after anti-PD-(L)1 therapies in patients with NSCLC, which needs to be prospectively validated.

18.
JAMA Oncol ; 2019 Dec 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31876895

RESUMO

Importance: Immune checkpoint inhibitors of programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) and its ligand (PD-L1) have led to a paradigm shift in cancer treatment. Understanding the clinical efficacy and safety profile of these drugs is necessary for treatment strategy in clinical practice. Objective: To assess the differences between anti-PD-1 and anti-PD-L1 regarding efficacy and safety shown in randomized clinical trials across various tumor types. Data Sources: Systematic searches of PubMed, Cochrane CENTRAL, and Embase were conducted from January 1, 2000, to March 1, 2019. In addition, abstracts and presentations from all major conference proceedings were reviewed. Study Selection: All randomized clinical trials that compared anti-PD-1 and anti-PD-L1 with standard treatment in patients with cancer were selected as candidates. Retrospective studies, single-arm phase 1/2 studies, and trials comparing anti-PD-1 and anti-PD-L1 with other immunotherapies were excluded. Studies of anti-PD-1 and anti-PD-L1 therapy were screened and paired by the matching of clinical characteristics as mirror groups. Data Extraction and Synthesis: Three investigators independently extracted data from each study following the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses) guideline. Trial names, first author, year of publication, study design, National Clinical Trial identifier number, blinding status, study phase, pathologic characteristics, number of patients, patients' age and sex distribution, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Performance Status, lines of treatment, study drugs, biomarker status, follow-up time, incidence of adverse events, and hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% CIs for overall survival and progression-free survival were extracted. A random-effects model was applied for data analysis. Main Outcomes and Measures: Differences in OS between anti-PD-1 and anti-PD-L1 across different cancer types were assessed. An effect size was derived from each mirror group and then pooled across all groups using a random-effects model. Results: Nineteen randomized clinical trials involving 11 379 patients were included in the meta-analysis. Overall, anti-PD-1 exhibited superior overall survival (HR, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.65-0.86; P < .001) and progression-free survival (HR, 0.73; 95% CI, 0.56-0.96; P = .02) compared with anti-PD-L1. No significant difference was observed in their safety profiles. Sensitivity analysis presented consistency in the overall estimates across these analyses. Consistent results were observed through frequentist and bayesian approaches with the same studies. Conclusions and Relevance: Comprehensive analysis suggests that anti-PD-1 exhibited favorable survival outcomes and a safety profile comparable to that of anti-PD-L1, which may provide a useful guide for clinicians.

19.
Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop ; 156(5): 633-640, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31677672

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Although the Invisalign system has been used widely in recent years, the influences of this treatment on the oral microbiome and whether or not this influence is different from that of fixed appliances is still unknown. In this study, we investigated the changes in the oral microbiome in patients treated with the Invisalign system or with fixed appliances. METHODS: Fifteen subjects were enrolled, comprising 5 fixed appliance patients, 5 Invisalign patient, and 5 healthy controls. Saliva samples were collected, and high-throughput pyrosequencing was performed based on the 16S rRNA gene. RESULTS: Both fixed and Invisalign orthodontic treatments resulted in dysbiosis of the oral microbiome. Firmicutes and TM7 at the phyla level and Neisseria at the genus level displayed statistically significant differences between the 2 orthodontic groups. The effect of these changes with microbiome on oral health was inconsistent. The inferred microbial function of the Invisalign group suggested this group was more predisposed to periodontal diseases. CONCLUSION: The influence of the Invisalign system on the oral microbiome was no better for oral health compared with fixed appliances. The convenience of maintaining oral hygiene rather than changes in the oral microbiome may be the underlying reason for the performance of the Invisalign system on oral health.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Aparelhos Ortodônticos Fixos , Aparelhos Ortodônticos Removíveis , Humanos , Boca/microbiologia , Higiene Bucal , Aparelhos Ortodônticos , RNA Ribossômico 16S
20.
Autophagy ; : 1-21, 2019 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31696776

RESUMO

Macroautophagy/autophagy plays key roles in development, oncogenesis, and cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. Autophagy-specific class III phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase complex I (PtdIns3K-C1) is essential for autophagosome formation. However, the regulation of this complex formation requires further investigation. Here, we discovered that STYK1 (serine/threonine/tyrosine kinase 1), a member of the receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) family, is a new upstream regulator of autophagy. We discovered that STYK1 facilitated autophagosome formation in human cells and zebrafish, which was characterized by elevated LC3-II and lowered SQSTM1/p62 levels and increased puncta formation by several marker proteins, such as ATG14, WIPI1, and ZFYVE1. Moreover, we observed that STYK1 directly binds to the PtdIns3K-C1 complex as a homodimer. The binding with this complex was promoted by Tyr191 phosphorylation, by means of which the kinase activity of STYK1 was elevated. We also demonstrated that STYK1 elevated the serine phosphorylation of BECN1, thereby decreasing the interaction between BECN1 and BCL2. Furthermore, we found that STYK1 preferentially facilitated the assembly of the PtdIns3K-C1 complex and was required for PtdIns3K-C1 complex kinase activity. Taken together, our findings provide new insights into autophagy induction and reveal evidence of novel crosstalk between the components of RTK signaling and autophagy.Abbreviations: AICAR: 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide; AMPK: adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase; ATG: autophagy related; ATP: adenosine triphosphate; BCL2: BCL2 apoptosis regulator; BECN1: beclin 1; Bre A: brefeldin A; Co-IP: co-immunoprecipitation; CRISPR: clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats; DAPI: 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole; EBSS: Earle's balanced salt solution; GAPDH: glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase; GFP: green fluorescent protein; GSEA: gene set enrichment analysis; MAP1LC3/LC3, microtubule associated protein 1 light chain 3; MAPK8/JNK1: mitogen-activated protein kinase 8; mRFP: monomeric red fluorescent protein; MTOR: mechanistic target of rapamycin kinase; MTT: 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide; PIK3C3: phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase catalytic subunit type 3; PIK3R4: phosphoinositide-3-kinase regulatory subunit 4; qRT-PCR: quantitative reverse transcription PCR; RACK1: receptor for activated C kinase 1; RUBCN: rubicon autophagy regulator; siRNA: small interfering RNA; SQSTM1: sequestosome 1; STYK1/NOK: serine/threonine/tyrosine kinase 1; TCGA: The Cancer Genome Atlas; Ub: ubiquitin; ULK1: unc-51 like autophagy activating kinase 1; UVRAG: UV radiation resistance associated; WIPI1: WD repeat domain, phosphoinositide interacting 1; ZFYVE1: zinc finger FYVE-type containing 1.

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