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1.
J Sci Food Agric ; 2021 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34642943

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Monascus pigments (MPs) produced by the genus Monascus, have been utilized for more than two thousand years in the food industry. In the present study, by submerged batch-fermentation, we were able to obtain a mutant strain with a high tolerance of inhibitory compounds generated from rice husk hydrolysate, allowing the production of MPs. RESULTS: The mutant strain, M. Purpureus M523 with high rice husk hydrolysate tolerance was obtained using the atmospheric and room temperature plasma (ARTP) screening system, producing 39.48 U mL-1 extracellular total MPs (yellow and orange MPs), using non-detoxified rice husk diluted sulfuric acid hydrolysate (RHSAH) as the carbon source in submerged batch-fermentation (SBF). Extracellular MPs (exMPs) production was enhanced to 72.1 U mL-1 and 80.7 U mL-1 in supplemented SBF (SSBF) and immobilized fermentation (IF) using non-detoxified RHSAH, with productivities of 0.16 U mL-1 h-1 and 0.37 U mL-1 h-1 , respectively. In addition, our findings revealed that despite having a high RHSAH tolerance, the mutant strain was unable to degrade phenolic compounds. Furthermore, we discovered that inhibitory compounds, including 5'-HMF and Fur, not only inhibit MP biosynthesis, but also regulate the conversion of pigment components. CONCLUSION: The low-cost agricultural by-product, rice husk, can serve as an efficient substitute for MP production with high productivity via immobilized fermentation by Monascus spp. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

2.
J Biotechnol ; 341: 137-145, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34601020

RESUMO

Extractive fermentation has been proven to be efficient in enhancing the secretion and production of secondary metabolites in submerged fermentation by Monascus spp., owing to increased cell membrane permeability and resolved product inhibition. In this study, we investigated the regulation effect of Triton X-100 on cell growth and secondary metabolite biosynthesis in submerged fermentation of M. purpureus DK. The results show that the maximum monascus pigments (MPs), citrinin (CIT) production, and specific growth rate are 136.86 U/mL, 4.57 mg/L, and 0.04 h-1, respectively, when 3 g/L of Triton X-100 is supplemented after fermentation for 10 d, and the extracellular MPs and CIT increased by 127.48% and 288.57%, respectively. RT-qPCR shows that the expression levels of MPs and CIT biosynthesis gene clusters are significantly upregulated, whereas those of glycolysis, tricarboxylic acid cycle, respiratory chains, and ATP synthase are downregulated. This study provides a vital strategy for extractive fermentation under extreme environmental conditions for further enhancing MP production.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34633173

RESUMO

Membrane biofouling has long been a major obstacle to highly efficient water treatment. The modification of the membrane surface with hydrophilic materials can effectively enhance biofouling resistance. However, the water flux of the membranes is often compromised for the improvement of antifouling properties. In this work, a composite membrane composed of a zwitterionic hydrogel and electrospinning fibers was prepared by a spin-coating and UV cross-linking process. At the optimum conditions, the composite membrane could effectively resist the biofouling contaminations, as well as purify polluted water containing bacteria or diatoms with a high flux (1349.2 ± 85.5 L m-2 h-1 for 106 CFU mL-1 of an Escherichia coli solution). Moreover, compared with the commercial poly(ether sulfone) (PES) membrane, the membrane displayed an outstanding long-term filtration performance with a lower water flux decline. Therefore, findings in this work provide an effective antifouling modification strategy for microfiltration membranes and hold great potential for developing antifouling membranes for water treatment.

4.
Drug Des Devel Ther ; 15: 4011-4023, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34594100

RESUMO

Purpose: Protocatechualdehyde (PCA) is a phenolic compound found in the roots of Salvia miltiorrhiza with anti-proliferative and antioxidant activities. At present, there are few studies on protocatechualdehyde against diabetic cataract (DC), and there is also lack of systematic research on the mechanism of protocatechualdehyde. Therefore, this study tried to comprehensively clarify the targets and complex mechanisms of PCA against DC from the perspective of network pharmacology. Materials and Methods: Through collecting relevant targets from the databases, GO and KEGG enrichment analysis were performed on the potential targets. Moreover, core genes were identified by topological analysis of protein-protein interaction (PPI) network and gene-phenotype correlation analysis. Results: The results indicated that protocatechualdehyde may be closely related to targets such as AKT1, MAPK3 and HDAC3, as well as signal pathways such as MAPK signaling pathway, PI3K-Akt signaling pathway and AGE-RAGE signaling pathway in diabetic complications. Conclusion: Together, the present study systematically clarified the possible mechanisms of protocatechualdehyde in the treatment of diabetic cataract and provided new ideas for the drug research of this disease.

5.
Small ; : e2103125, 2021 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34612010

RESUMO

Stimuli-responsive crystals capable of energy conversion have emerged as promising materials for smart sensors, actuators, wearable devices, and robotics. Here, a novel ferrocene-based organic molecule crystal (Fc-Cz) that possesses anisotropic piezoelectric, optical, and mechanical properties is reported. It is demonstrated that the new crystal Fc-Cz can be used as an ultrasensitive piezoelectric material in fabricating strain sensors. The flexible sensor made of crystal Fc-Cz can detect small strains/deformations and motions with a fast response speed. Analysis based on density functional theory (DFT) indicates that an external pressure can affect the dipole moment by changing the molecular configuration of the asymmetric single crystal Fc-Cz in the crystalline state, leading to a change of polarity, and thereby an enhanced dielectric constant. This work demonstrates a new artificial organic small molecule for high-performance tactile sensors, indicating its great potential for developing low-cost flexible wearable sensors.

6.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(19)2021 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34640688

RESUMO

Hand gesture recognition technology plays an important role in human-computer interaction and in-vehicle entertainment. Under in-vehicle conditions, it is a great challenge to design gesture recognition systems due to variable driving conditions, complex backgrounds, and diversified gestures. In this paper, we propose a gesture recognition system based on frequency-modulated continuous-wave (FMCW) radar and transformer for an in-vehicle environment. Firstly, the original range-Doppler maps (RDMs), range-azimuth maps (RAMs), and range-elevation maps (REMs) of the time sequence of each gesture are obtained by radar signal processing. Then we preprocess the obtained data frames by region of interest (ROI) extraction, vibration removal algorithm, background removal algorithm, and standardization. We propose a transformer-based radar gesture recognition network named RGTNet. It fully extracts and fuses the spatial-temporal information of radar feature maps to complete the classification of various gestures. The experimental results show that our method can better complete the eight gesture classification tasks in the in-vehicle environment. The recognition accuracy is 97.56%.


Assuntos
Gestos , Radar , Algoritmos , Humanos , Reconhecimento Automatizado de Padrão , Processamento de Sinais Assistido por Computador
7.
Environ Pollut ; 292(Pt A): 118306, 2021 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34634401

RESUMO

Slaughter wastewater is an important and wide range of environmental issues, and even threaten human health through meat production. A high efficiency and stability microsphere-immobilized Bacillus velezensis strain was designed to remove organic matter and inhibit the growth of harmful bacteria in process of slaughter wastewater. Bacillus velezensis was immobilized on the surface of sodium alginate (SA)/Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)/Nano Zinc Oxide (Nano-ZnO) microsphere with the adhesion to bio-carrier through direct physical adsorption. Results indicated that SA/PVA/ZnO and SA/ZnO microspheres could inhibit E.coli growth with adding 0.15 g/L nano-ZnO and not affect Bacillus velezensis strain, and the removal the chemical oxygen demand (COD) rates of SA/PVA/ZnO microsphere immobilized cells are 16.99%, followed by SA/ZnO (13.69%) and free bacteria (7.61%) from 50% concentration slaughter wastewater within 24 h at 37 °C, pH 7.0, and 120 rpm, a significant difference was found between the microsphere and control group. Moreover, when the processing time reaches 36 h, COD degradation of SA/PVA/ZnO microsphere is obviously higher than other groups (SA/PVA/ZnO:SA/ZnO:control vs 18.535 : 15.446: 10.812). Similar results were obtained from 30% concentration slaughter wastewater. Moreover, protein degradation assay was detected, and there are no significant difference (SA/PVA/ZnO:SA/ZnO:control vs 35.4 : 34.4: 36.0). The design of this strategy could greatly enhance the degradation efficiency, inhibit the growth of other bacteria and no effect on the activity of protease in slaughter wastewater. These findings suggested that the nano-ZnO hydrogel immobilization Bacillus velezensis system wastewater treatment is a valuable alternative method for the remediation of pollutants from slaughter wastewater with a novel and eco-friendly with low-cost investment as an advantage.

8.
BMC Anesthesiol ; 21(1): 248, 2021 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34666673

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sugammadex reverses neuromuscular blockade induced by steroidal relaxants. We compared the recovery for neuromuscular blockade reversal with sugammadex in children aged 1-12 years. METHODS: From August 2019 to August 2020, patients who received 2.0 mg·kg- 1 sugammadex for neuromuscular blockade reversal after surgery were recruited. The primary outcome was the time for the train-of-four ratio (TOFR) to recover to 0.9; secondary outcomes included the incidence of the TOFR < 0.9, extubation time, length of stay at the post-anesthesia care unit, and adverse events. Hemodynamic parameters before and 5 min after sugammadex administration and vital signs in the recovery room were also recorded. RESULTS: Eighty-six children were recruited (1 to < 3 years, n = 23; 3 to < 5 years, n = 33; 5 to ≤12 years, n = 30). Intergroup differences in the recovery of the TOFR to 0.9 were not statistically significant (F = 0.691, p = 0.504). Recurrence of the TOFR < 0.9 was not observed in any group. Five minutes after sugammadex administration, the heart rates of patients aged 3 to < 5 and 5 to ≤12 years were significantly lower than those at baseline (p < 0.05). Extubation time was similar in patients aged 1 to ≤12 years. Length of stay and end-tidal capnography at the post-anesthesia care unit as well as adverse events did not differ significantly. CONCLUSION: A moderate (TOF count two) rocuronium-induced neuromuscular blockade can be effectively and similarly reversed with sugammadex 2 mg·kg- 1 in Chinese children aged 1-12 years. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Chinese Clinical Trial Registry: ChiCTR1900023715 (June 8, 2019).

9.
Food Funct ; 12(20): 9549-9562, 2021 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34664582

RESUMO

As non-coding RNA molecules, microRNAs (miRNAs) are widely known for their critical role in gene regulation. Recent studies have shown that plant miRNAs obtained through dietary oral administration can survive in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, enter the circulatory system and regulate endogenous mRNAs. Diet-derived plant miRNAs have 2'-O-methylated modified 3'ends and high cytosine and guanine (GC) content, as well as exosomal packaging, which gives them high stability even in the harsh environment of the digestive system and circulatory system. The latest evidence shows that dietary plant miRNAs can not only be absorbed in the intestine, but also be absorbed and packaged by gastric epithelial cells and then secreted into the circulatory system. Alternatively, these biologically active plant-derived miRNAs may also affect the health of the host by affecting the function of the microbiome, while not need to be taken into the host's circulatory system and transferred to remote tissues. This cross-kingdom regulation of miRNAs gives us hope for exploring their therapeutic potential and as dietary supplements. However, doubts have also been raised about the cross-border regulation of miRNAs, suggesting that technical flaws in the experiments may have led to this hypothesis. In this article, we summarize the visibility of dietary plant miRNAs in the development of human health and recent research data on their use in therapeutics. The regulation of plant miRNAs across kingdoms is a novel concept. Continued efforts in this area will broaden our understanding of the biological role of plant miRNAs and will open the way for the development of new approaches to prevent or treat human diseases.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34465198

RESUMO

SIGNIFICANCE: Thioredoxin 1(Trx1) is a ubiquitous protein that is found in organisms ranging from prokaryotes to eukaryotes. Trx1 acts as reductases in redox regulation, protects proteins from oxidative aggregation and inactivation. Trx1 helps the cells to cope with various environmental stresses, and inhibits programmed cell death. It is beneficial to neuroregeneration and resistance against oxidative stress associated neurons damage. Trx1 also plays the important roles in suppressing neurodegenerative disorders. Recent Advances: Trx1 is a redox regulating protein involved in neuronal protection. According to a previous study, Trx1 expression is increased by nerve growth factor (NGF) and necessary for neurite outgrowth of PC12 cells. Trx1 has been shown to promote the growth of neurons. Trx1 knockout or knockdown has the worse impact on cell viability and survival. Critical Issue: Trx1 has functions in central nervous system (CNS). Trx1 plays the defensive roles against oxidative stress in neurodegenerative diseases. FUTURE DIRECTIONS: In this review, we focus on the structure of Trx1 and basic functions of Trx1. Trx1 plays a neuroprotective role by suppressing ER stress in Parkinson's disease (PD). Neurodegenerative diseases have no cure and carry a high cost to the health care system and patient's families. Trx1 may be taken as a new target for neurodegenerative disorders therapy. Further studies of the Trx1 roles and mechanisms on neurodegenerative diseases are needed.

11.
J Hazard Mater ; 423(Pt A): 127101, 2021 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34488094

RESUMO

In this study, a novel beta-cypermethrin (beta-cyp)-degrading strain Lactobacillus pentosus 3-27 (LP3-27) was screened from beta-cyp-contaminated silage. The strain could degrade 96% of beta-cyp (50 mg/L) in MSM medium after 4 d of culture, while the strain lost its degradation ability when the beta-cyp concentration reached 250 mg/L. The effects of LP 3-27 on fermentation, bacterial community, and bioremediation of contaminated alfalfa silage at two dry matter (DM) contents were studied. The results showed that inoculation with LP3-27 not only degraded beta-cyp, but also improved the fermentation quality of alfalfa silage after 60 d of ensiling. Meanwhile, L. pentosus dominated the bacterial community during ensiling in LP3-27 inoculated silages, whereas Pediococcus acidilactici was the dominant species in the control silage. LP3-27 inoculation also simplified the bacterial interaction networks of ensiled alfalfa. Beta-cyp degradation was positively correlated with L. pentosus in LP- inoculated silages, which confirmed the function of beta-cyp degradation by L. pentosus. In addition, higher beta-cyp degradation was observed in silage with 35% versus 43% DM. In summary, strain LP3-27 could be used as a candidate inoculum for bioremediation of beta-cyp-contaminated silage and to produce safe silage for animal production.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34519372

RESUMO

This study evaluated the effects of two organic acids on the fermentation of alfalfa silages at different dry matter (DM) contents. Alfalfa was wilted to DM contents of 30% (moderately low) and 38% (normal) and ensiled without additives (control) or treated with 0.6% fresh matter DL-malic acid (MA) or 0.6% fresh matter citric acid (CA) for 60 days. After ensiling, silages with a normal DM were higher in pH, water-soluble carbohydrates (WSC) and DM loss (p < 0.05) when compared to silages ensiled at a moderately low DM. The higher DM content also limited proteolysis in silages indicated by lower concentrations of ammonia N (NH3 -N). Compared with the control group, MA and CA-treated silages had lower pH, lower concentrations of acetic acid and NH3 -N but higher concentrations of lactic acid. The addition of MA and CA reduced DM losses in silages when compared to the control group except for MA-treated silage at a moderately low DM in which only numerically lower DM loss was observed. Malic acid and CA also resulted in a higher proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids, especially in silages with a moderately low DM. Including MA and CA could promote silage fermentation, limit proteolysis and lipolysis at the lower and medium-to-high end of DM contents in alfalfa silages.

13.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 607(Pt 1): 655-661, 2021 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34530186

RESUMO

Owing to the low cost, high energy density, and high theoretical specific capacity, lithium-sulfur batteries have been deemed as a potential choice for future energy storage devices. However, they also have suffered from several scientific and technical issues including low conductivity, polysulfides migration, and volume changes. In this study, CoS2-TiO2@carbon core-shell fibers were fabricated through combination of coaxial electrospinning and selective vulcanization method. The core-shell fibers are able to efficiently host sulfur, confine polysulfides, and accelerate intermediates conversion. This electrode delivers an initial specific capacity of 1181.1 mAh g-1 and a high capacity of 736.5 mAh g-1 after 300 cycles with high coulombic efficiency over 99.5% (capacity decay of 0.06% per cycle). This strategy of isolating interactant and selective vulcanization provides new ideas for effectively constructing heterostructure materials for lithium-sulfur batteries.

14.
Parasit Vectors ; 14(1): 406, 2021 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34399821

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Aedes albopictus is the primary vector of dengue fever in China. This mosquito species has a wide distribution range in China and can be found in the tropical climate zones of southern provinces through to temperate climate zones of northern provinces. Insecticides are an important control method, especially during outbreaks of dengue fever, but increasing insecticide resistance raises the risk of failure to control vector-borne diseases. Knockdown resistance (kdr) caused by point mutations in the voltage-gated sodium channel (VGSC) gene is a key mechanism that confers resistance to pyrethroids. In this study we explored the characteristics and possible evolutionary trend of kdr mutation in Ae. albopictus based on analysis of the kdr mutations in field populations of mosquitoes in China. METHODS: A total of 1549 adult Ae. albopictus were collected from 18 sites in China from 2017 to 2019 and 50 individuals from three sites in the 1990s. A fragment of approximately 350 bp from part of the S6 segment in the VGSC gene domain III was amplified and sequenced. Using TCS software version 1.21A, we constructed haplotypes of the VGSC gene network and calculated outgroup probability of the haplotypes. Data of annual average temperatures (AAT) of the collection sites were acquired from the national database. The correlation between AAT of the collection site and the kdr mutation rate was analyzed by Pearson correlation using SPSS software version 21.0. RESULTS: The overall frequency of mutant allele F1534 was 45.6%. Nine mutant alleles were detected at codon 1534 in 15 field populations, namely TCC/TCG (S) (38.9%), TTG/CTG/CTC/TTA (L) (3.7%), TGC (C) (2.9%), CGC (R) (0.3%) and TGG (W) (0.1%). Only one mutant allele, ACC (T), was found at codon 1532, with a frequency of 6.4% in ten field populations. Moreover, multiple mutations at alleles I1532 and F1534 in a sample appeared in five populations. The 1534 mutation rate was significantly positively related to AAT (Pearson correlation: r(18) = 0.624, P = 0.0056), while the 1532 mutation rate was significantly negatively related to AAT (Pearson correlation: r(18) = - 0.645, P = 0.0038). Thirteen haplotypes were inferred, in which six mutant haplotypes were formed by one step, and one additional mutation formed the other six haplotypes. In the samples from the 1990s, no mutant allele was detected at codon 1532 of the VGSC gene. However, F1534S/TCC was found in HNHK94 with an unexpected frequency of 100%. CONCLUSIONS: Kdr mutations are widespread in the field populations of Ae. albopictus in China. Two novel mutant alleles, F1534W/TGG and F1534R/CGC, were detected in this study. The 1534 kdr mutation appeared in the population of Ae. albopictus no later than the 1990s. The F1534 mutation rate was positively correlated with AAT, while the I1532 mutation rate was negatively correlated with AAT. These results indicate that iInsecticide usage should be carefully managed to slow down the spread of highly resistant Ae. albopictus populations, especially in the areas with higher AAT.

15.
Parasit Vectors ; 14(1): 407, 2021 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34399829

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Plasmodium vivax transmission-blocking vaccines (TBVs) are receiving increasing attention. Based on excellent transmission-blocking activities of the PbPH (PBANKA_0417200) and PbSOP26 (PBANKA_1457700) antigens in Plasmodium berghei, their orthologs in P. vivax, PVX_098655 (PvPH) and PVX_101120 (PvSOP26), were selected for the evaluation of their potential as TBVs. METHODS: Fragments of PvPH (amino acids 22-304) and PvSOP26 (amino acids 30-272) were expressed in the yeast expression system. The recombinant proteins were used to immunize mice to obtain antisera. The transmission-reducing activities of these antisera were evaluated using the direct membrane feeding assay (DMFA) using Anopheles dirus mosquitoes and P. vivax clinical isolates. RESULTS: The recombinant proteins PvPH and PvSOP26 induced robust antibody responses in mice. The DMFA showed that the anti-PvSOP26 sera significantly reduced oocyst densities by 92.0 and 84.1% in two parasite isolates, respectively, whereas the anti-PvPH sera did not show evident transmission-reducing activity. The variation in the DMFA results was unlikely due to the genetic polymorphisms of the two genes since their respective sequences were identical in the clinical P. vivax isolates. CONCLUSION: PvSOP26 could be a promising TBV candidate for P. vivax, which warrants further evaluation.

16.
Stem Cell Res Ther ; 12(1): 432, 2021 08 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34344474

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bone tissue engineering is a new concept bringing hope for the repair of large bone defects, which remains a major clinical challenge. The formation of vascularized bone is key for bone tissue engineering. Growth of specialized blood vessels termed type H is associated with bone formation. In vivo and in vitro studies have shown that low level laser therapy (LLLT) promotes angiogenesis, fracture healing, and osteogenic differentiation of stem cells by increasing reactive oxygen species (ROS). However, whether LLLT can couple angiogenesis and osteogenesis, and the underlying mechanisms during bone formation, remains largely unknown. METHODS: Mouse bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) combined with biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) grafts were implanted into C57BL/6 mice to evaluate the effects of LLLT on the specialized vessel subtypes and bone regeneration in vivo. Furthermore, human BMSCs and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were co-cultured in vitro. The effects of LLLT on cell proliferation, angiogenesis, and osteogenesis were assessed. RESULTS: LLLT promoted the formation of blood vessels, collagen fibers, and bone tissue and also increased CD31hiEMCNhi-expressing type H vessels in mBMSC/BCP grafts implanted in mice. LLLT significantly increased both osteogenesis and angiogenesis, as well as related gene expression (HIF-1α, VEGF, TGF-ß) of grafts in vivo and of co-cultured BMSCs/HUVECs in vitro. An increase or decrease of ROS induced by H2O2 or Vitamin C, respectively, resulted in an increase or decrease of HIF-1α, and a subsequent increase and decrease of VEGF and TGF-ß in the co-culture system. The ROS accumulation induced by LLLT in the co-culture system was significantly decreased when HIF-1α was inhibited with DMBPA and was followed by decreased expression of VEGF and TGF-ß. CONCLUSIONS: LLLT enhanced vascularized bone regeneration by coupling angiogenesis and osteogenesis. ROS/HIF-1α was necessary for these effects of LLLT. LLLT triggered a ROS-dependent increase of HIF-1α, VEGF, and TGF-ß and resulted in subsequent formation of type H vessels and osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells. As ROS also was a target of HIF-1α, there may be a positive feedback loop between ROS and HIF-1α, which further amplified HIF-1α induction via the LLLT-mediated ROS increase. This study provided new insight into the effects of LLLT on vascularization and bone regeneration in bone tissue engineering.


Assuntos
Terapia com Luz de Baixa Intensidade , Osteogênese , Animais , Regeneração Óssea , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana , Humanos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Subunidade alfa do Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/genética , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Neovascularização Fisiológica
17.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 223: 112590, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34364127

RESUMO

Arsenic exposure is related to insulin resistance (IR). However, the underlying mechanism is still uncertain. NOD-like receptors containing pyrin domain 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome is a key driving factor of IR. We found that NaAsO2 caused hepatic IR, activated NLRP3 inflammasome, and inhibited glycolysis pathway in vivo. We also found that tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA cycle) was inhibited, and the content of hepatic lactate was upregulated with the treatment of arsenic. Consistent with these findings, we found that NLRP3 inflammasome and glycolysis were involved in the development of IR in L-02 cells. Besides, inhibiting NLRP3 inflammasome upregulated aerobic glycolysis and inhibited anaerobic glycolysis. Moreover, we demonstrated that NLRP3 inflammasome could bind to pyruvate kinase, liver and RBC (PKLR). Simultaneously, insulin signaling rather than NLRP3 inflammasome activation was altered by overexpressing PKLR. In summary, after treatment with NaAsO2, NLRP3 inflammasome blocked the glycolytic pathway via binding to PKLR, which in turn caused hepatic IR. This study shed new light on the molecular mechanism underlying arsenic-induced IR.


Assuntos
Arsênio , Resistência à Insulina , Animais , Arsênio/toxicidade , Inflamassomos , Fígado , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/genética , Piruvato Quinase
18.
Biomater Sci ; 9(18): 6282-6294, 2021 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34378577

RESUMO

Photothermal therapy (PTT) is able to ablate tumors via hyperthermia, while immunotherapy could prevent tumor recurrence and metastasis by activating the host immune responses. Therefore, the combination of PTT and immunotherapy offers great advantages for the treatment of cancer. To achieve this goal, poly tannic acid (pTA) coated PLGA nanoparticles (PLGA-pTA NPs) were synthesized for combined photothermal-immunotherapy. pTA was a coordination complex formed by TA and Fe3+ and it could be easily coated on PLGA NPs within seconds with a coating rate of 5.89%. As a photothermal agent, PLGA-pTA revealed high photothermal conversion efficiency and excellent photo-stability upon 808 nm laser irradiation. It also exhibited strong photothermal cytotoxicity against 4T1 cells. Moreover, PLGA-pTA based PTT could effectively trigger DC maturation since it could induce the release of DAMPs. The result of animal experiments showed that PLGA-pTA plus laser irradiation raised the tumor temperature up to ca. 60 °C and effectively suppressed the growth of primary tumors. What's more, the progression of distant tumors as well as lung metastasis was also significantly inhibited due to the activation of anti-tumor responses by PLGA-pTA mediated PTT. When further combined with anti-PD-L1 antibody (a-PD-L1), the tumor growth and metastasis were almost completely inhibited. Our study provided a versatile platform to achieve combined photothermal-immunotherapy with enhanced therapeutic efficacy.


Assuntos
Hipertermia Induzida , Nanopartículas , Neoplasias , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Imunoterapia , Fototerapia , Taninos
19.
J Craniofac Surg ; 2021 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34456280

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Surgery to anterior skull base is challenging since complex structures are involved. Injury of olfactory fila and optic nerve may result in postoperative complications. In our study, the authors aim to use computer topographic image to provide a comprehensive anatomical information of anterior skull base and set up a new classification of optic canal (OC) in ethmoid sinus by the degree of bony defect, so as to help surgeons in endoscopic transnasal approach to anterior skull base. METHOD: Computer topographic angiography images of 112 individuals were reviewed, the measurement was performed on coronal, sagittal, and axis planes after the multiplanar reformation. Nostril and mid-sagittal lines were used to locate the anterior, middle, and posterior part of ethmoidal foramina and orbital opening of OC. Further, the authors classified OC in ethmoidal sinus into 4 types by the degree of the bony defect. RESULT: Distance between nostril to anterior, middle, and posterior part of ethmoidal foramina and OC are 6.23 ±â€Š0.21, 6.62 ±â€Š0.26, 7.29 ±â€Š0.25, and 7.76 ±â€Š0.41 mm, respectively. Angle between line from nostril to ethmoidal foramina and horizontal plane are 47.50°â€Š±â€Š1.03°, 41.67°â€Š±â€Š1.33°, 37.20°â€Š±â€Š1.34°, respectively. For the 4 types of OC, the percentage is 15.6%, 11.6%, 31.3%, and 41.5%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings provide anatomical information of ethmoidal foramina and OC during endoscopic transnasal approach to anterior skull base, on the basis of some fixed anatomical landmarks. So as to enhance the surgical safety of this procedure and aid in the choice of the appropriate endoscopic equipment for the procedure.

20.
BMC Pediatr ; 21(1): 336, 2021 08 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34372814

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Preoperative anxiety is a common problem in the paediatric population, and several studies have reported that it is related to adverse events such as emergence delirium and postoperative psychological and behavioural changes. In recent years, increasing attention has been paid to paediatric preoperative anxiety in China. A variety of strategies, including sedatives, parental presence, and audio-visual interventions, have been used to relieve paediatric preoperative anxiety, but there is no well-recognised procedure for paediatric preoperative sedation. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate current paediatric preoperative sedation practices in tertiary children's hospitals in China. METHODS: All tertiary maternity and children's hospitals registered with the National Health Commission of the People's Republic of China were invited to participate in an electronic survey, which included information on the preoperative sedation caseload, sites where preoperative sedation was performed, preoperative sedation methods used in different age groups, choice of sedatives, contraindications for premedication, staff structure for sedative administration and monitoring, and patient-monitoring practices. RESULTS: All 81 hospitals participating in our study completed the survey, and 38 hospitals (46.9 %) provided their preoperative sedation protocols. Twenty-four hospitals performed fewer than 5,000 preoperative sedation cases annually, and 9 hospitals performed more than 10,000 cases annually. Preoperative sedation was performed in preoperative preparation areas, preoperative holding areas, and operation rooms in 47.4 %, 26.3 %, and 13.2 % of hospitals, respectively. Sedatives were the most used interventions for paediatric preoperative sedation in all age groups, and the most widely used sedatives were propofol (intravenous) and dexmedetomidine (intranasal). The most common contraindications were American Society of Anesthesiologists class ≥ 3, emergency operation, and airway infection within 2 weeks. Sedatives were administered mainly by anaesthesiologists (63.2 %), and children were monitored mainly by anaesthesiologists (44.7 %) and nurses (39.5 %) after administration. Pulse oximetry was the most widely used monitoring device. CONCLUSIONS: Fewer than half of the tertiary maternity and children's hospitals in China provide paediatric preoperative sedation service, and the service practices vary widely. Further improvements are required to ensure the quality of paediatric preoperative sedation services and establish standard operating procedures.


Assuntos
Anestesia , Hipnóticos e Sedativos , Criança , Feminino , Hospitais Pediátricos , Humanos , Gravidez , Inquéritos e Questionários , Centros de Atenção Terciária
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