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1.
Vet Microbiol ; 242: 108606, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32122609

RESUMO

Senecavirus A (SVA), previously called Seneca Valley virus, can cause vesicular lesions in sows and a sharp decline in neonatal piglet production. In this study, a SVA strain was isolated from a pig herd in Shandong Province in China and identified as SVV-CH-SD. The full genome was 7286 nucleotides (nt) in length and contained a single open reading frame (ORF) of 6546 nt, encoding a 2182 amino acid (aa). A phylogenetic analysis showed that the isolate shares highest sequence homology (98.52 %) with SVA strain USA-GBI26-2015. A genetic comparison of virulent and weakly virulent SVA strains showed that some amino acid residues may be associated with virulence. Animal challenge experiments showed that 90-100-day-old pigs inoculated with SVV-CH-SD intraorally and intranasally, intranasally, or intramuscularly developed low fever, blisters, and lameness. They had similar levels of neutralizing antibodies against SVA and viral loads in the serum and organs at 28 days post-CHallenge. However, 30-35- and 55-65-day-old pigs challenged with SVV-CH-SD showed no clinical signs, although anti-SVA neutralizing antibodies were detected. Our findings provide useful data for studying the pathogenesis and transmission of SVA in pigs.

2.
J Sci Food Agric ; 2020 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32166779

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Barley contains relatively high concentration of the mixed-linkage (1 → 3) (1 → 4) ß-glucan, which has been reported as a functional food with prebiotic potential. In the current study, we compared the properties of two neutral barley ß-glucans, obtained from raw barley (RBG) and Lactobacillus plantarum dy-1-fermented barley (FBG), respectively. RESULTS: Molecular characteristics revealed that the molecular weight of barley ß-glucan decreased from 1.13 × 105 D to 6.35 × 104 D after fermentation. Additionally, the fermentation improved the water/oil holding capacity, solubility, and swelling capacity of barley ß-glucan. Both RBG and FBG significantly improved the locomotive behavior of nematodes, thereby increasing their energy consumption and reducing fat deposition, more significantly by FBG. In addition, these effects might be potentially dependent on nhr-49, TGF-daf-7 mediated pathways and so on, in which nhr-49 factor was particularly required. CONCLUSION: These results suggested that fermentation may enhance in vitro physiological activities of barley ß-glucan, thereby altering the effects on the lipid metabolism in vivo. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(5)2020 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32111099

RESUMO

External secretions, composed of a variety of chemical components, are among the most important traits that endow insects with the ability to defend themselves against predators, parasites, or other adversities, especially pathogens. Thus, these exudates play a crucial role in external immunity. Red palm weevil larvae are prolific in this regard, producing large quantities of p-benzoquinone, which is present in their oral secretion. Benzoquinone with antimicrobial activity has been proven to be an active ingredient and key factor for external immunity in a previous study. To obtain a better understanding of the genetic and molecular basis of external immune secretions, we identify genes necessary for p-benzoquinone synthesis. Three novel ARSB genes, namely, RfARSB-0311, RfARSB-11581, and RfARSB-14322, are screened, isolated, and molecularly characterized on the basis of transcriptome data. To determine whether these genes are highly and specifically expressed in the secretory gland, we perform tissue/organ-specific expression profile analysis. The functions of these genes are further determined by examining the antimicrobial activity of the secretions and quantification of p-benzoquinone after RNAi. All the results reveal that the ARSB gene family can regulate the secretory volume of p-benzoquinone by participating in the biosynthesis of quinones, thus altering the host's external immune inhibitory efficiency.

4.
Virus Res ; 281: 197912, 2020 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32142743

RESUMO

The nucleocapsid (N) protein of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), the most important pathogen causing severe diarrhea in piglets, is a highly conserved structural protein. In this study, 5 monoclonal antibodies (McAbs) against the PEDV N-protein were prepared and identified. Three new epitopes, 56QIRWRMRRGERI67, 318GYAQIASLAPNVAALLFGGNVA VRE342 and 398HEEAIYDDV406, were firstly identified in the viral N-protein, by using McAbs 3F10, 6A11, and 1C9. The epitope 398HEEAIYDDV406 was deleted in SH strain (isolated by our lab) and different between CV777 and YZ strain (isolated by our lab). To study the characters of this epitope, four peptides were synthesized according to the sequence of SH and CV777 and used in the study. The result showed that the 398th amino acid maybe an important amino acid of the epitope. Biological information analysis showed that the three B cell linear epitopes are highly conserved among different PEDV isolates. In addition, McAb 1C9, which attached to the epitope 398HEEAIYDDV406, showed variant reactivity with PEDV CV777, SH, YZ and MS strains. McAb 1C9 reacted with PEDV strains CV777 and YZ, but not with SH which had a deletion from 399 to 410 amino acids in N-protein (No. MK841494). Among the three McAbs, 6A11, 3F10 and 1C9, only 6A11 reacted with porcine transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) in immunofluorescence assay, therefore the other two could be used to distinguish TGEV and PEDV. These mAbs and their defined epitopes may provide useful tool for the study of the PEDV N-protein structure and function, and facilitate the development of diagnostic methods for PEDV.

5.
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol ; 394: 114953, 2020 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32165127

RESUMO

Exercise training is one of the major non-pharmacological treatments for hypertension. However, the central mechanism by which exercise training attenuates the hypertensive responses remains unclear. Irisin is a muscle-secreted cytokine derived from fibronectin type III domain containing 5 (FNDC5) that will be released into the circulation during exercise. We hypothesized that irisin may play a role in the blood pressure regulation by exercise. To examine the hypothesis, our study investigated the effect of irisin on hypertension and its central mechanism. The study was performed in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) and normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats. We found that intravenous injection of irisin effectively reduced blood pressure, plasma norepinephrine, paraventricular nucleus (PVN) levels of neuronal activation, oxidative stress and inflammation in SHRs. Moreover, irisin activated nuclear factor E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) and restored the imbalance of neurotransmitters in the PVN. Our study also found PVN knockdown of Nrf2 abolished the protective effects of irisin on hypertension. These findings demonstrate irisin can improve hypertension via Nrf2-mediated antioxidant in the PVN.

6.
Chemosphere ; 248: 126082, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32032884

RESUMO

The study investigates transformation mechanism of ions on different waters in Alpine region through analyzed the hydrochemical characteristics of the major ions of precipitation, glacier and snow meltwater, supra-permafrost water and river water in permafrost regions in the Tibetan Plateau under climate warming. The results showed that, The relation between recharge and discharge was the major ways for ionic transformation of each water body. Precipitation and glacier and snow meltwater are the main input sources for ionic transformation, and river water is the final output source. Different water bodies had different ionic concentrations and different hydrochemical types. However, different water bodies in different months (from June to September) also had different hydrochemical types. The water - rock interaction, reactions for ions, dilution effect and other effect for ions played an important role in the process of ion transformation. The increasing of temperature would lead to the accelerated melting of glaciers, permafrost and snow in the alpine regions, so the amount of supra-permafrost water and glacier and snow meltwater will increase, which leads to the increase of runoff. Meanwhile, the increase of temperature makes evaporation stronger. The strong of evaporation will accelerate the transformation of liquid water to gaseous water. Moreover, ion translation and water conversion are synchronous. Accordingly, ions are also accelerating transformation in the process of accelerated transformation of water body. Climate change is not only the main driving force for multiphase water transformation, but also the main driving force for the ion transformation of various water bodies.

7.
Sci Total Environ ; 715: 136911, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32007887

RESUMO

The sources of supra-permafrost water and its hydrological effects were studied, based on the presence of stable isotopes in 562 samples collected in different ablation periods from the source regions of the Yangtze River. The δ18O (δD and d-excess) values for the initial ablation, ablation, and end ablation periods were -10.18‰ (-71.39‰ and 10.08‰), -12.14‰ (-85.58‰ and 11.51‰) and -11.50‰ (-78.75‰ and 13.23‰), respectively. The order of the slopes for the supra-permafrost water evaporation lines from the different ablation periods was initial ablation (IA) > ablation (A) > end ablation (EA). An anti-altitude effect is documented here, for a specific altitude range, in what is believed to be the first record of such an occurrence. Outside of that range, clear altitude effects were apparent. We have been able to show that supra-permafrost water was mainly recharged by atmospheric precipitation, ground ice, and glacier and snow meltwater, in the initial ablation and end ablation periods, and contributions from glacier and snow meltwater were mainly concentrated in higher altitude regions. In contrast, in the ablation period, supra-permafrost water was mainly recharged by atmospheric precipitation and ground ice. The contributions of precipitation to supra-permafrost water were 78.79%, 85.47%, and 82.99% in the initial ablation, ablation, and end ablation periods, respectively. The contributions of ground ice to the supra-permafrost water were 14.05%, 14.53%, and 11.94%, respectively, while contributions of glacier and snow meltwater were 7.15% and 5.07% in the initial and end ablation period. For the initial ablation, ablation, and end ablation periods, contributions from atmospheric precipitation to the supra-permafrost water were 85.47%, 86.86%, and 86.84%, while contributions from ground ice were 14.53%, 13.14% and 13.16%, respectively.

8.
Carbohydr Polym ; 231: 115685, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31888856

RESUMO

The effects of fermentation by Lactobacillus plantarum dy-1 on the main structural changes of barley ß-glucan and their in vitro activities were studied. Molecular characteristics, infrared spectroscopy, monosaccharide composition, methylation, 1D and 2D-NMR analyses and scanning electron microscopy revealed that both (raw barley ß-glucan) RBG and fermented barley ß-glucan (FBG) are polysaccharides predominanted by ß-(1→3) and ß-(1→4) linked glucose. However, different molecular weight (decreasing from 1.13×105 D to 6.35×104 D), the ratio of the ß-(1→3) residues to the ß-(1→4) residues (ranging from 1:1.98-1:2.50 to 1:1.8-1:2.24) and microstructure features (transforming from a rod-like to sheet-like structure) were observed. Bioassay results showed that FBG exhibited improved inhibitory activities of α-amylase, α-glucosidase and lipase, as well as the adsorption of cholesterol under acidic conditions compared to RBG. These results suggested that fermentation may enhance in vitro physiological activities of barley ß-glucan, especially related to glucose and lipid metabolism.

9.
Vet Microbiol ; 240: 108511, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31902508

RESUMO

Since late 2010, highly virulent PEDV G2-genotype strains have emerged globally extracting heavy losses on the pork industries of numerous countries. We investigated the characteristics of a field strain of PEDV (PEDV strain SH) isolated from a piglet with severe diarrhea on a farm in Shanghai China. Whole genome sequencing and analysis revealed that the SH strain belonged to subtype G2b and has a unique 12-aa deletion (aa 399-410) including the antigenic epitope NEP-1C9 (aa 398-406) of the N protein. PEDV SH strain is highly pathogenic to challenged newborn piglets, resulting in 100 % morbidity and mortality. Pathological examination revealed significant villus atrophy in the jejuna of infected piglets. Mice inoculated with inactivated PEDV SH produced antibodies against the N protein, but no antibodies against the deletions. These results illustrated that deletion of the NEP-1C9 epitope had no effect on the immunogenicity or pathogenicity of PEDV, providing evidence of the necessity to monitor the genetic diversity of the virus. Our study also contributes to development of candidate for vaccines and diagnostics that could differentiate pigs seropositive due to vaccination by conventional strains from wild virus infection.

10.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 11(24): 12361-12374, 2019 Dec 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31881005

RESUMO

Lyciumamide A (LyA), a dimer of phenolic amide isolated from the fruits of Lycium barbarum, has been confirmed to possess potent antioxidant activity. This study was aimed to investigate the neuroprotection and molecular mechanisms of LyA against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury via improving antioxidant activity. The model of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) and SH-SY5Y cells induced by oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD) were adopted to verify the neuroprotective effects and the potential pharmacology mechanisms of LyA in vivo and in vitro. In MCAO model, treatment with LyA significantly improved neurologic score, reduced infarct volume, and relieved oxidative stress injury at 48 h after reperfusion. Meanwhile, LyA markedly increased the transcription Nrf2 and HO-1 expressions in the ischemic cerebral cortex. In vitro results showed that LyA protected differentiated SH-SY5Y cells against OGD-induced injury. LyA significantly decreased the expression of caspase-3 and the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio. But knockdown of Nrf2 or HO-1 attenuated the protective effect of LyA. Similarly, knockdown of protein kinase Cε (PKCε) inhibited LyA-induced Nrf2/HO-1 activation, and abated its protective effects. In conclusion, this study firstly demonstrated that LyA protects against cerebral I/R injury, ameliorates oxidative damage and neuronal apoptosis, partly via activation of PKCε/Nrf2/HO-1 pathway.

11.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 40(12): 5272-5285, 2019 Dec 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31854598

RESUMO

This study is based on precipitation samples from eight sites at the northern slope of the Qilian Mountains, combined with meteorological factors over the same period. Precipitation isotope characteristics, influence factors and the vapor sources of precipitation were analyzed, and the results show that:① The stable isotopes of precipitation in the study area show obvious seasonal changes, which are characterized by enrichment in the summer half-year and depletion in the winter half-year. The spatial precipitation δ18O value shows a significant downward trend with increasing altitude, and the altitude effect of the annual precipitation δ18O is -0.19‰/100 m, respectively;② At all stations, the slope and intercept of local meteoric water lines show an increasing trend from low altitude to high altitude. The high-altitude mountains above 2000 m are affected by local water vapor recirculation;③ The temperature effect is more significant and the temperature effect of δ18O is 0.64‰, and there is only a weak precipitation effect in summer;④ The results indicate that sub-cloud evaporation has a great influence on the δ18O of precipitation; the average raindrop evaporation rate of δ18O is 23%, 11%, 12%, and 16%,and the δ18O composition has been enriched by 46%, 27%, 38%, and 32% in May, June, July, and August from cloud base to ground, respectively.⑤ Under the condition of continuous rainfall in summer, the vapor sources of precipitation mainly come from the west and are affected by local evaporation of water vapor. The study enhances knowledge of isotopic evolution of precipitation and provides a basis for further study of isotopic hydrology in arid regions.

12.
Vet Microbiol ; 239: 108498, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31767072

RESUMO

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) has caused huge economic losses to the pig industry worldwide over the last 30 years, yet the associated viral-host interactions remain poorly understood. S100A9 is a damage-associated molecular pattern of the S100 protein family. Here, we found that PRRSV infection stimulated S100A9 expression in porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs) and Marc-145 cells. S100A9 inhibited PRRSV replication via cellular Ca2+ dependent manner. The viral nucleocapsid (N) protein co-localized with S100A9 in the cytoplasm, and directly interacted at amino acid 78 of S100A9 and amino acids 36-37 of N protein. Moreover, we also found that the mutant S100A9 (E78Q) protein exhibited decreased antiviral activity against PRRSV compared with the parent S100A9. Recombinant PRRSV rBB (36/37) with two mutations in amino acid 36-37 in the N protein exhibited greater replication than the parent PRRSV BB0907 in S100A9-overexpressed PAM and Marc-145 cells. Thus, S100A9 may restrict PRRSV proliferation by interacting with the viral N protein.


Assuntos
Calgranulina B/metabolismo , Proteínas do Nucleocapsídeo/metabolismo , Vírus da Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Suína/fisiologia , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Mutação , Proteínas do Nucleocapsídeo/química , Proteínas do Nucleocapsídeo/genética , Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Suína/fisiopatologia , Vírus da Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Suína/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo , Suínos , Replicação Viral/fisiologia
13.
Vet Microbiol ; 239: 108455, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31767073

RESUMO

Clathrin-mediated endocytosis is a mechanism used for the invasion of cells by a variety of viruses. Mortalin protein is involved in a variety of cellular functions and plays a role in viral infection. In this study, we found that mortalin significantly inhibited the replication of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) through restricting virus entry. Mechanistically, a biochemical interaction between the carboxyl terminus of mortalin and clathrin heavy chain (CLTC) was been found, and mortalin could induce CLTC degradation through the proteasomal pathway, thereby inhibiting the clathrin-mediated endocytosis of PEDV into host cells. In addition, artificial changes in mortalin expression affected the cell entry of transferrin, further confirming the above results. Finally, we confirmed that this host-mounted antiviral mechanism was broadly applicable to other viruses, such as vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), rotavirus (RV), and transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV), which use the same clathrin-mediated endocytic to entry. These results reveal a new function of mortalin in inhibiting endocytosis, and provide a novel strategy for treating PEDV infections.


Assuntos
Clatrina/metabolismo , Endocitose/fisiologia , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP70/metabolismo , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos/fisiologia , Vírus da Diarreia Epidêmica Suína/fisiologia , Internalização do Vírus , Replicação Viral/fisiologia , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Regulação para Baixo/fisiologia , Inativação Gênica , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP70/genética , Células HeLa , Humanos , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo , Células Vero
14.
Dalton Trans ; 48(44): 16641-16649, 2019 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31660548

RESUMO

The most effective way to understand reaction mechanisms and kinetics is to identify the reaction intermediates and determine the possible reaction patterns. The influencing factors that must be considered in the self-assembly of clusters are the type of ligand, metal ion, coordination anion and the pH of the solution. However, changes in ligand substituents resulting in different self-assembly processes to obtain different types of structures are still very rare, especially with -H and -CH3 substituents, which do not exert significant steric hindrance effects. In this study, planar mononuclear Ni(L1)2 (L1 = 2-ethoxy-6-(iminomethyl)phenol) was dissolved in methanol and combined with Dy(NO3)3·6H2O for 48 h at room temperature to obtain a butterfly-like Ni2Dy2 cluster ([Dy2Ni2(L1)4(CH3O)2(NO3)4], 1). The Dy(iii) ions in cluster 1 are in an O8N coordination environment, and the Ni(ii) ions are in an O5N coordination environment. High-resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HRESI-MS) was used to track species changes during the formation of cluster 1. Six key intermediate fragments were screened, and the self-assembly mechanism was proposed as Ni(L1)2→ HL1 + NiL1→ DyL1/Ni(L1)2'→ DyNi(L1)2→ Dy2Ni2(L1)4. Through this assembly mechanism, we found that Ni(L1)2 was first cleaved into HL1 + NiL1 and then further assembled to obtain 1. Another butterfly-like tetranuclear heterometallic cluster ([Dy2Ni2(L2)4(CH3O)2(NO3)4], 2) was obtained using planar mononuclear Ni(L2)2 (L2 = (E)-2-ethoxy-6-((methylimino)methyl)phenol) with -CH3 substitution on the nitrogen atom under the same reaction conditions. The structural analysis of cluster 2 showed that the Dy(iii) ions are in an O9 coordination environment, and the Ni(ii) ions are in an O4N2 coordination environment. HRESI-MS was used to trace species changes during the formation of 2, and the assembly mechanism was proposed as Ni(L2)2→ DyNi(L2)2→ Dy2Ni(L2)2→ Dy2Ni2(L2)4. Analysis of the assembly mechanism of 2 showed that Ni(L2)2 was twisted during the reaction, and its coordination point was exposed to capture the Dy(iii) ions. Finally, Dy(NO3)3·6H2O was replaced with NaN3 to obtain a [Ni2Na2(L2)4(N3)4] cluster (3) under the same reaction conditions and verify the above-mentioned torsion step. HRESI-MS was also used to trace the assembly process, and the assembly mechanism was proposed as Ni(L2)2→ NiNa(L2)2→ NiNa2(L2)2→ Ni2Na2(L2)4. Herein, the effect of interference from substitution and the regulation self-assembly process were discovered in the formation of 3d-4f heterometallic clusters, and different types of coordination clusters were obtained.

15.
J Mater Chem B ; 7(42): 6508-6514, 2019 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31576898

RESUMO

In this work, a fluorometric and colorimetric analysis of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity was developed based on nanozymes. The nanozymes were composed of nucleotides (ATP, ADP and AMP) coordinated with copper ions. All three kinds of nanozymes (ATP-Cu, ADP-Cu and AMP-Cu) exhibited polyphenol oxidase (PPO)-mimic activity by catalyzing a chromogenic reaction of 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DP) and 4-aminoantipyrine (4-AP). However, there were obvious differences in the PPO-like activity and the fluorescence of the three nanozymes produced from the same concentration of nucleotides (keeping the concentration of Cu2+ unchanged at 5 mM). The catalytic activities of produced ADP-Cu and AMP-Cu were obviously higher than that of ATP-Cu at a certain nucleotide concentration of 3 mM. In addition, when ATP was hydrolyzed into ADP and AMP by ALP, more nanozymes were produced and the catalytic activity of the system was enhanced, which resulted in an obvious increase of the colorimetric signal. The signal intensity was proportional to ALP concentration in the range of 0-30 U L-1, and the detection limit for ALP was 0.3 U L-1 from the colorimetric detection. Moreover, the fluorescence intensity of the produced nanozymes was also proportional to the ALP concentration in the range of 1-30 U L-1 and the detection limit was 0.45 U L-1 from the fluorescence detection. A fluorometric and colorimetric sensing ALP method was thus established. The method showed a high selectivity for ALP activity compared with proteins, amino acids and other interference components. Furthermore, the proposed method was also used to detect ALP activity in human serum samples, which showed great potential for diagnostic and practical purposes.

16.
Vet Microbiol ; 238: 108431, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31648725

RESUMO

The infection by porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) has a severe impact on the world swine industry. However, commercially available vaccines provide only incomplete protection against this disease. Thus, novel approaches to control PRRSV infection are essential for the robust and sustainable swine industry. In our previous study, Xanthohumol (Xn), a prenylated flavonoid extracted for hops (Humulus lupulus L), was screened from 386 natural products to inhibit PRRSV proliferation and alleviate oxidative stress induced by PRRSV via the Nrf2-HMOX1 axis in Marc-145 cells. In this study, we furtherly found that Xn could inhibit PRRSV different sub-genotype strains infection with a low IC50 value in porcine primary alveolar macrophages (PAMs). In addition, it caused decreased expression of interleukin (IL)-1ß, IL-6, IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor-α in PAMs infected with PRRSV or treated with lipopolysaccharide. Animal challenge experiments showed that Xn effectively alleviated clinical signs, lung pathology, and inflammatory responses in lung tissues of pigs induced by highly pathogenic PRRSV infection. The results demonstrate that Xn is a promising therapeutic agent to combat PRRSV infections.


Assuntos
Flavonoides/farmacologia , Flavonoides/uso terapêutico , Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Suína/tratamento farmacológico , Vírus da Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Suína/efeitos dos fármacos , Propiofenonas/farmacologia , Propiofenonas/uso terapêutico , Animais , Antivirais/farmacologia , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Produtos Biológicos/farmacologia , Citocinas/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Genótipo , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos Alveolares/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos Alveolares/virologia , Suínos
17.
18.
Vet Res ; 50(1): 61, 2019 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31506103

RESUMO

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a prevalent and endemic swine pathogen that causes significant economic losses in the global swine industry. Commercial vaccines provide limited protection against this virus, and no highly effective therapeutic drugs are yet available. In this study, we first screened a library of 386 natural products and found that xanthohumol (Xn), a prenylated flavonoid found in hops, displayed high anti-PRRSV activity by inhibiting PRRSV adsorption onto and internalization into cells. Transcriptome sequencing revealed that Xn treatment stimulates genes associated with the antioxidant response in the nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) signalling pathway. Xn causes increased expression of Nrf2, HMOX1, GCLC, GCLM, and NQO1 in Marc-145 cells. The action of Xn against PRRSV proliferation depends on Nrf2 in Marc-145 cells and porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs). This finding suggests that Xn significantly inhibits PRRSV proliferation and decreases viral-induced oxidative stress by activating the Nrf2-HMOX1 pathway. This information should be helpful for developing a novel prophylactic and therapeutic strategy against PRRSV infection.


Assuntos
Flavonoides/administração & dosagem , Humulus/química , Macrófagos Alveolares/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Vírus da Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Suína/efeitos dos fármacos , Propiofenonas/administração & dosagem , Replicação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Heme Oxigenase-1/genética , Heme Oxigenase-1/metabolismo , Macrófagos Alveolares/virologia , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/genética , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Extratos Vegetais/química , Vírus da Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Suína/fisiologia , Sus scrofa
19.
Biomed Environ Sci ; 32(8): 578-591, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31488234

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to explore how fermented barley extracts with Lactobacillus plantarum dy-1 (LFBE) affected the browning in adipocytes and obese rats. METHODS: In vitro, 3T3-L1 cells were induced by LFBE, raw barley extraction (RBE) and polyphenol compounds (PC) from LFBE to evaluate the adipocyte differentiation. In vivo, obese SD rats induced by high fat diet (HFD) were randomly divided into three groups treated with oral gavage: (a) normal control diet with distilled water, (b) HFD with distilled water, (c) HFD with 800 mg LFBE/kg body weight (bw). RESULTS: In vitro, LFBE and the PC in the extraction significantly inhibited adipogenesis and potentiated browning of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, rather than RBE. In vivo, we observed remarkable decreases in the body weight, serum lipid levels, white adipose tissue (WAT) weights and cell sizes of brown adipose tissues (BAT) in the LFBE group after 10 weeks. LFBE group could gain more mass of interscapular BAT (IBAT) and promote the dehydrogenase activity in the mitochondria. And LFBE may potentiate process of the IBAT thermogenesis and epididymis adipose tissue (EAT) browning via activating the uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1)-dependent mechanism to suppress the obesity. CONCLUSION: These results demonstrated that LFBE decreased obesity partly by increasing the BAT mass and the energy expenditure by activating BAT thermogenesis and WAT browning in a UCP1-dependent mechanism.


Assuntos
Adipócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fármacos Antiobesidade/metabolismo , Lactobacillus plantarum/química , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Probióticos/metabolismo , Proteína Desacopladora 1/metabolismo , Células 3T3 , Adipócitos/fisiologia , Tecido Adiposo Marrom/efeitos dos fármacos , Tecido Adiposo Marrom/fisiologia , Tecido Adiposo Branco/efeitos dos fármacos , Tecido Adiposo Branco/fisiologia , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Fármacos Antiobesidade/administração & dosagem , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Dieta , Fermentação , Hordeum/química , Masculino , Camundongos , Obesidade/genética , Extratos Vegetais/química , Probióticos/administração & dosagem , Distribuição Aleatória , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Proteína Desacopladora 1/genética
20.
PLoS One ; 14(9): e0222005, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31479491

RESUMO

The involvement of secretin (SCT) and its receptor (SCTR) in angiotensin II (ANGII)-mediated osmoregulation by forming SCTR/ angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) heteromer is well established. In this study, we demonstrated that SCTR/AT1R complex can mediate ANGII-induced aldosterone secretion/release through potentiating calcium mobilization. Through IHC and cAMP studies, we showed the presence of functional SCTR and AT1R in the primary zona glomerulosa (ZG) cells of C57BL/6N (C57), and functional AT1R and non-functional SCTR in SCTR knockout (SCTR-/-) mice. Calcium mobilization studies revealed the important role of SCTR on ANGII-mediated calcium mobilization in adrenal gland. The fluo4-AM loaded primary adrenal ZG cells from the C57 mice displayed a dose-dependent increase in intracellular calcium influx ([Ca2+]i) when exposed to ANGII but not from the SCTR-/- ZG cells. Synthetic SCTR transmembrane (TM) peptides STM-II/-IV were able to alter [Ca2+]i in C57 mice, but not the mice with mutated STM-II/-IV (STM-IIm/IVm) peptides. Through enzyme immunoassay (EIA), we measured the aldosterone release from primary ZG cells of both C57 and SCTR-/- mice by exposing them to ANGII (10nM). SCTR-/- ZG cells showed impaired ANGII-induced aldosterone secretion compared to the C57 mice. TM peptide, STM-II hindered the aldosterone secretion in ZG cells of C57 mice. These findings support the involvement of SCTR/AT1R heterodimer complex in aldosterone secretion/release through [Ca2+]i.

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