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1.
Poult Sci ; 100(4): 100976, 2021 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33607317

RESUMO

Reproduction performance is one of the most important economic traits for the poultry industry. Intriguingly, apple pectic oligosaccharide (APO) could promote gastrointestinal function and immune function to improve performance; however, literature about APO on reproduction performance in breeders is limited. This study aimed to determine whether APO administration can improve reproduction performance and ovary function of broiler breeders with different egg laying rates. Two hundred and fifty six Arbor Acres broiler breeders (48-week-old) were used in a 2 × 2 factorial design with 2 egg laying rates (average [AR] and low [LR]) and 2 dietary levels of APO (0 and 200 mg/kg APO). Results showed that the LR breeders presented higher egg weight but lower egg laying rate, qualified egg rate, and feed efficiency than the AR breeders (P(laying) < 0.05). Also, the LR breeders had decreased serum Anti-Müllerian hormone, leptin, and antioxidant enzyme (superoxide dismutase, total antioxidant capacity) levels than the AR breeders (P(laying) ≤ 0.05). Dietary supplementation with APO improved egg weight, feed efficiency, as well as egg albumen quality (higher albumen height and Haugh unit) (P(APO) < 0.05), and decreased the concentration of pro-inflammatory cytokine levels (interleukin [IL]-1ß, IL-8) in serum (P(APO) ≤ 0.05). The apoptosis rate and pro-apoptosis-related gene expression (caspase 9 and Bax) in the ovary of LR breeders were higher, while the anti-apoptosis-related gene expression (Bcl-2, PCNA) was lower in LR compared with the AR breeders (P(laying) < 0.05). Dietary supplementation with APO decreased the caspase 9 and Bax expression in LR breeders (P(interaction) < 0.05), and increased the Bcl-2 and PCNA expression in the 2 breeders (P(APO) < 0.05). These findings indicate that breeders with a lower egg laying rate exhibit lower antioxidant capacity and high cell apoptosis in the ovary. Dietary supplementation with APO might improve albumen quality and antioxidant capacity, and decrease the inflammatory factors and ovary apoptosis-related genes expression to improve ovary function. Moreover, the effect of APO on decreasing ovarian pro-apoptosis-related gene expression was more pronounced in lower reproductive breeders.

2.
Poult Sci ; 100(2): 1109-1119, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33518070

RESUMO

The difference in microbiota was examined for breeders with different egg-laying rates, and the impact of dietary Enterococcus faecium (EF) was also determined in the present study. A total of 256 Arbor Acres broiler breeders (48-wk-old) were used in a 2 × 2 factorial design, which encompassed 2 egg-laying rate levels [average (average egg laying: AP, 80.45 ± 0.91%) and low (lower egg laying: LP, 70.61 ± 1.16%)] and 2 different dietary groups [control (no additive), 6 × 108 cfu/kg EF]. The results showed that the AP breeders presented a lower egg weight, feed conversion ratio, abdominal fat rate, and serum leptin level (P(laying) ≤ 0.05) as well as a higher egg-laying rate (P(laying) < 0.01) than the LP breeders. Dietary supplementation with EF improved the egg weight (P(EF) = 0.03) and had a higher concentration of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) in the serum (P(EF) = 0.04). The relative expression of Caspase 9, Bax, AMHR, BMP15, and GATA4 in the ovary of AP breeders was lower, whereas the FSHR and BMPR1B expression was higher than that measured in LP breeders (P(laying) ≤ 0.05). LP increased the abundance of Bacteroidetes (phylum), Firmicutes (phylum), Bacteroidia (class), Clostridia (class), Bacteroidales (order), Clostridiales (order), and Lachnospiraceae (family), whereas the AP promoted the enrichment of Proteobacteria (phylum) and Gammaproteobacteria (class) (P(laying) < 0.05). The genera Bacillus, Rhodanobacter, and Streptomyces were positively correlated with the egg-laying rate and BMPR1B expression (P < 0.05) but negatively correlated with the abdominal fat rate (P < 0.05) and Caspase 9 (P < 0.05). These findings indicate that the low reproductive performance breeders had lower microbiota diversity and higher Firmicutes, which triggers the energy storage that led to higher fat deposition. Besides, increases in the abdominal fat rate, leptin level, and apoptosis (Caspase 9, Bax) and reproduction-related gene (BMP15, AMHR, BMPR1B, and GATA4) expression would possibly be the potential mechanisms under which breeders have different reproductive performance. Dietary EF increased the egg weight and serum FSH level and decreased the Bacteroidetes (phylum) in low reproductive breeders.

3.
Poult Sci ; : 100938, 2021 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33518299

RESUMO

This study was conducted to explore whether dietary pectic oligosaccharide (POS) supplementation could improve gut health of broiler breeders with different egg-laying rates. A 2 × 2 factorial design was used in this study. Two hundred fifty-six Arbor Acres broiler breeders (48 wk of age), including 128 average egg-laying rate and 128 low egg-laying rate (LELR) birds, were randomly fed with the diets supplemented with or without 200 mg kg-1 of POS (n = 8). The trial lasted for 8 wk. Compared with average egg-laying rate broiler breeders, LELR broiler breeders had lower laying rate and qualified egg rate (P < 0.05), higher egg weight and feed conversion ratio (P < 0.05), higher malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in the jejunum (P < 0.05), higher IL-6 (P < 0.05) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) (P = 0.07) mRNA expressions in the jejunal mucosa, and lower microflora diversity in cecal digesta. Dietary POS supplementation increased egg weight of broiler breeders (P < 0.05), enhanced superoxide dismutase activity in the jejunum (P < 0.05), decreased MDA level in the jejunum (P < 0.05), upregulated zonula occluden 1 mRNA expression in the jejunal mucosa (P < 0.05), downregulated IL-6 and TNF-α mRNA expressions in the jejunal mucosa (P < 0.05), and regulated relative abundance of some microbiota (including the phylum and genus, P < 0.05). In addition, in LELR broiler breeders, POS administration enhanced villus height (P = 0.08) and ZO-2 mRNA expression (P = 0.09) in the jejunal mucosa, alleviated the increasing MDA level in the jejunum (P < 0.05) and IL-6 and TNF-α mRNA expressions in the jejunal mucosa (P < 0.05), and regulated relative abundance of some microbiota (including the phylum and genus, P < 0.05). These results suggest that supplementing POS in diets may elevate gut health via improvement of intestinal barrier function, antioxidant capacity, and microbiota composition in broiler breeders with different egg-laying rates.

4.
Poult Sci ; 100(1): 196-205, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33357682

RESUMO

This study was conducted to determine the effects of supplemental dietary benzoic acid on production performance, egg quality, intestinal morphology, and intestinal microbiota of laying hens. A total of seven hundred twenty 45-wk-old Lohman pink-shell laying hens were randomly allocated to 3 dietary treatments: control (CON), diet supplemented with 1,000 mg/kg benzoic acid (BA1), and 2,000 mg/kg benzoic acid (BA2). Each treatment included 10 replicates of 24 hens; laying hens were monitored for 16 wk. Overall, the results indicate that benzoic acid supplementation had no effect on laying rate, feed intake, feed conversion ratio, and breaking rate; however, a decrease in egg weight (P < 0.01) was observed in the BA2 group. Albumen height and Haugh unit (HU) were also linearly increased in the BA1 and BA2 groups (linear effect, P < 0.05). An increase in duodenum villus height (V) (quadratic effect, P = 0.041) and crypt depth (C) (linear effect, P = 0.012) was observed in the BA2 group, whereas an increased jejunum C and decreased V/C (quadratic effect, P < 0.05) in the BA1 group. Moreover, an increase in ileum V and C (quadratic effect, P < 0.05) was observed in the BA1 group. Microbial richness and diversity were reduced in the BA2 group (P < 0.01). An increase in the abundance of Clostridia (class), Clostridiales (order), Ruminococcaceae (family), and Lachnospiraceae (family) was noted in the BA1 group, whereas an enrichment of Bacteroides caecicola (species) was observed in the BA2 group. The HU positively correlated with genus Sphaerochaeta and Enorma (r = 0.56, 0.56; P < 0.05) but negatively correlated with Romboutsia, Subdoligranulum, Helicobacter, and Mucispirillum (r = -0.58, -0.49, -0.48; -0.70; P < 0.05). In conclusion, dietary supplementation with benzoic acid had no effect on production performance, but it significantly improved egg quality. In addition, 1,000 mg/kg benzoic acid positively modulated intestinal health by improving intestinal morphology and enriching microbial composition.

5.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2020: 2685310, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32831991

RESUMO

The storage and preparation of corn for animal feed inevitably lead to lipid and protein peroxidation. Granulosa cells play an important role in follicular development in the ovaries, and hen laying productivity is likely to be dependent on follicle health and number. We hypothesized that oxidized oil and protein induce apoptosis via oxidative stress in laying hen granulosa cells. A sample of 360 38-week-old Lohmann commercial laying hens was used in a 2 × 2 factorial design for 8 weeks. Dietary treatments included dietary oil (fresh corn oil (FO) or oxidized corn oil (OO)) and corn gluten meal (fresh corn gluten meal (FP) or oxidized corn gluten meal (OP)). Productivity, ovarian histology, granulosa cell apoptosis, and indicators of oxidative stress were evaluated in all groups. Both dietary OO and OP decreased egg production and the average daily feed intake (ADFI) of laying hens. Flow cytometry, TUNEL, and real-time PCR revealed that both dietary OO and OP induced granulosa cell apoptosis in prehierarchical and hierarchical follicles. Furthermore, dietary OO and OP caused oxidative stress in prehierarchical and hierarchical follicles, as indicated by the downregulation of antioxidant-related-gene expression. Moreover, forkhead box O1 (FoxO1), extracellular regulated protein kinase (ERK), and c-Jun NH2 kinase (JNK) are involved in potential apoptosis regulation pathways in the granulosa cells of laying hens fed OO and OP, as indicated by the upregulation of FoxO1 expression and downregulation of ERK/JNK expression. These results indicate that OO and OP induce granulosa cell apoptosis via oxidative stress, and the combined use of OO and OP aggravates the adverse effects of oxidative stress in laying hens.

6.
Animals (Basel) ; 10(8)2020 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32823578

RESUMO

This study was conducted to investigate the effects of broiler breeder dietary vitamin E and egg storage time on the egg characteristics, hatchability, and antioxidant status of the egg yolks and newly hatched chicks. A total of 512 71-week-old Ross 308 breeder hens were fed the same basic diets containing 6 or 100 mg/kg vitamin E for 12 weeks. During this time, a total of 1532, 1464, and 1316 eggs were independently collected at weeks 8, 10, and 12, respectively, and subsequently stored for 0 or 14 d before hatching. The outcomes from three trials showed that prolonged egg storage time (14 vs. 0 d) negatively affected (p < 0.05) the egg characteristics, hatchability traits, and the yolk total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) (p < 0.05). Chicks derived from the stored eggs exhibited higher malonaldehyde (MDA) and T-AOC in the serum and yolk sac (p < 0.05). Broiler breeder dietary vitamin E (100 vs. 6 mg/kg) increased (p < 0.05) the hatchability and the antioxidant status of the yolks as indicated by a higher α-tocopherol content and T-AOC and lower MDA level (p < 0.05). The supplementation of vitamin E also remarkably increased (p < 0.05) the total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD) activity (yolk sac, weeks 8 and 12) and T-AOC (serum, weeks 8, 10, and 12; yolk sac, weeks 8 and 12) and decreased (p < 0.05) the MDA content of chicks (yolk sac, week 10; serum, week 12). Interactions (p < 0.05) were found between the broiler breeder dietary vitamin E and egg storage time on the hatchability and antioxidant status of chick tissues. Broiler breeder dietary vitamin E (100 vs. 6 mg/kg) increased (p < 0.05) the hatchability and the T-AOC in the serum and liver of chicks, and decreased (p < 0.05) the early embryonic mortality and the MDA content in the yolk sacs of chicks derived from eggs stored for 14 d but not for 0 d. In conclusion, prolonged egg storage time (14 vs. 0 d) increased the embryonic mortality, decreased the hatchability, and impaired the antioxidant status of egg yolks and newly hatched chicks, while the addition of broiler breeder dietary vitamin E (100 vs. 6 mg/kg) could partly relieve these adverse impacts induced by long-term egg storage.

7.
Poult Sci ; 99(1): 430-440, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32416828

RESUMO

The tea polyphenol (TP) can improve the egg albumen quality in laying hens; however, our understanding of the molecular mechanisms and proteomic changes in the egg albumen remains limited. A total of 720 layers (35-wk-old) were allocated into 5 treatments with TP and were added at 0 (control), 200 (TP200), 400 (TP400), 600 (TP600), and 800 (TP800) mg/kg. It showed that 400 mg/kg TP increases albumen height and Haugh unit (quadratic effect, P < 0.01), while 400 mg/kg TP decreases gel strength, hardness, gumminess, and chewiness value in a quadratic manner (P = 0.01). Eggs from TP400-fed layers had highest reducing power and oxygen radical absorbance capacity, and lowest albumen malondialdehyde content (quadratic effect, P < 0.05). Through Tandem Mass Tag-based quantitative proteomics analysis, 258 proteins were identified and 31 differentially accumulated proteins in egg white affected by 400 mg/kg TP compared to control group, with 19 proteins upregulated and 12 proteins downregulated. A total of 11 binding proteins (A0A1D5PZE3, F1NTQ2, Q7SX63, F1NRV5, P24802, A0A1L1RM02, E1BTX1, A0A1L1RMF4, A0A1D5P1N3, A0A1L1RML6, A0A1L1RQF3), 9 immune response proteins (P10184, R4GI90, P01875, Q6IV20, Q64EU6, P02701, P08110, P0CB50, A0A1D5PQ63), and 3 cell redox homeostasis proteins (P0CB50, P20136, Q8JG64) were changed in albumen of laying hens fed TP400. The differentially expressed proteins mainly involved in pyruvate metabolism, cysteine and methionine metabolism, glutathione metabolism, glycolysis, and protein processing in endoplasmic reticulum pathway. The result gathered in this study suggested that the improving mechanism of TP on albumen quality may act through regulating binding mediation, immune function, and antioxidant activity-related proteins.

8.
Poult Sci ; 99(5): 2608-2615, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32359596

RESUMO

This study was conducted to determine the effects of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25-OH-D3) on performance, egg quality, tibia quality, and serum hormones concentration in laying hens reared under high stocking density. A total of 800 45-week-old Lohmann laying hens were randomly allotted into a 2 × 2 factorial design with 2 levels of dietary 25-OH-D3 levels (0 and 69 µg/kg) and 2 rates of stocking densities [506 (low density) and 338 (high density) cm2/hen]. Laying hens were monitored for 16 wk. High stocking density decreased laying rate, egg weight, and feed intake compared with low stocking density (P < 0.01) during 1 to 8 wk and 1 to 16 wk. Overall, high stocking density increased eggshell lightness value and decreased shell redness and yellowness value, strength, thickness, and relative weight compared with low stocking density (P < 0.05). Dietary supplementation with 25-OH-D3 reduced the value of the eggshell lightness and increased its yellowness and eggshells weight (P ≤ 0.05). The increase in eggshell thickness was more pronounced when 25-OH-D3 was supplemented to layers under high stocking density (interaction, P < 0.05). Layers under high stocking density had lower ash content and calcium content in the tibia than layers under low stocking density (P = 0.04); dietary 25-OH-D3 increased tibia strength compared with no addition (P = 0.05). Layers under high stocking density had higher serum concentrations of 25-OH-D3, corticosterone (CORT), lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and osteocalcin (OC; P < 0.05), lower content of parathyroid hormone (PTH) compared with layers under low stocking density (P < 0.01). Dietary 25-OH-D3 increased serum concentration of 25-OH-D3, carbonic anhydrase (CA), and calcitonin (CT) (P < 0.01) and reduced corticosterone, lipopolysaccharide and osteocalcin concentration (P ≤ 0.05). The increase effect in PTH was more pronounced when 25-OH-D3 was supplemented to layers under high stocking density (interaction, P = 0.05). Overall, the results gathered in this study indicate that high stocking density result in reducing production performance, shell color and quality, and tibia health, whereas dietary 25-OH-D3 was able to maintain tibia health and to mitigate the negative impact of high stocking density on productive performance.


Assuntos
Calcifediol/metabolismo , Galinhas/fisiologia , Óvulo/química , Tíbia/química , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Calcifediol/administração & dosagem , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Feminino , Densidade Demográfica , Distribuição Aleatória
9.
Microorganisms ; 8(5)2020 May 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32443502

RESUMO

Growing concern for public health and food safety has prompted a special interest in developing nutritional strategies for removing waterborne and foodborne pathogens, including Salmonella. Strong links between manganese (Mn) and intestinal barrier or immune function hint that dietary Mn supplementation is likely to be a promising approach to limit the loads of pathogens in broilers. Here, we provide evidence that Salmonella Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium, 4 × 108 CFUs) challenge-induced intestinal injury along with systemic Mn redistribution in broilers. Further examining of the effect of dietary Mn treatments (a basal diet plus additional 0, 40, or 100 mg Mn/kg for corresponding to Mn-deficient, control, or Mn-surfeit diet, respectively) on intestinal barrier and inflammation status of broilers infected with S. Typhimurium revealed that birds fed the control and Mn-surfeit diets exhibited improved intestinal tight junctions and microbiota composition. Even without Salmonella infection, dietary Mn deficiency alone increased intestinal permeability by impairing intestinal tight junctions. In addition, when fed the control and Mn-surfeit diets, birds showed decreased Salmonella burdens in cecal content and spleen, with a concomitant increase in inflammatory cytokine levels in spleen. Furthermore, the dietary Mn-supplementation-mediated induction of cytokine production was probably associated with the nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB)/hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) pathway, as judged by the enhanced manganese superoxide dismutase activity and the increased H2O2 level in mitochondria, together with the increased mRNA level of NF-κB in spleen. Ingenuity-pathway analysis indicated that acute-phase response pathways, T helper type 1 pathway, and dendritic cell maturation were significantly activated by the dietary Mn supplementation. Our data suggest that dietary Mn supplementation could enhance intestinal barrier and splenic inflammatory response to fight against Salmonella infection in broilers.

10.
J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl) ; 104(5): 1384-1391, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32342530

RESUMO

This research aims to evaluate the effects of maternal vitamin E (VE) dietary supplementation on the egg characteristics, hatchability and antioxidant status of the embryo and newly hatched chicks of prolonged storage eggs. A total of 576 75-week-old Ross 308 breeder hens were randomly allocated into three dietary VE treatments (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) with 6 replicates of 32 hens, for a 12-week feeding trial. At week 12, a total of 710 eggs were collected over a 5-day period, and eggs per treatment were attributed into 5 replicates and stored for 14 days until incubation. The egg yolk, trunk and head of 7-day-old embryo and the serum, liver, brain and yolk sac of newly hatched chicks were sampled for the evaluation of antioxidant status. Results showed that as maternal dietary VE levels increased, yolk α-tocopherol concentration increased (p < .05). Compared with 100 mg/kg VE, the use of 200 and 400 mg/kg VE increased the hatchability of set/fertile eggs and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) of liver and serum in chicks (p < .05), and decreased both the early embryonic mortality and the malondialdehyde (MDA) content of trunk and head in 7-day-old embryos (p < .05); moreover, 400 mg/kg VE increased the yolk T-AOC (p < .05) and decreased yolk and brain MDA content of chicks (p < .05). Brain T-AOC of chicks in 200 mg/kg VE group was improved compared to that of chicks in 100 mg/kg VE group (p < .05). In conclusion, maternal dietary VE at 200 or 400 mg/kg could increase hatchability by decreasing early embryonic mortality and increasing the antioxidant status of egg yolk, embryo and newly hatched chicks as breeder egg storage was prolonged to 14-18 days. The suitable VE level for the broiler breeder diet was 200 mg/kg as breeder egg storage was prolonged.

11.
Poult Sci ; 99(3): 1705-1716, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32115038

RESUMO

Vanadium (V) is an ultratrace metal with the insulin-tropic properties and is often researched as the diabetes drug. However, in animals, V has been reported to have toxic effects on the development, immunity, oxidation-reduction equilibrium, gastrointestinal function, and so forth. Especially in poultry, supplementation of more than 10 mg of V/kg in the layer diets has been shown to adversely affect the egg production and egg quality. In this study, we supplemented 0 mg of V/kg, 5 mg of V/kg, and 10 mg of V/kg in the layer diets for 35 D and examined the quantitative proteomics of albumen for finding the possible target signaling pathway and mechanism of V action and made the preliminary verification. In contrast to the control group, V resulted in a significant drop in the albumen height, and in oviduct ampulla, the activity of total antioxidant capacity and glutathione peroxidase significantly decreased (P = 0.01, P = 0.02), the content of malonic dialdehyde significantly increased (P = 0.01), and the apoptosis rate significantly increased in the 5-mg V/kg and 10-mg V/kg treatment groups (P < 0.01). V affected 36 differentially accumulated proteins in albumen, with 23 proteins upregulated and 13 proteins downregulated. The expressions of innate protein albumen lysozyme (Q6LEL2), vitellogenin-2 (P02845), and the F1NWD0 protein in albumen belonged to the P53 family were significantly reduced, in contrast to the control (P < 0.05), and the expression of riboflavin-binding protein (P02752) was significantly improved (P < 0.05). The Hippo signaling pathway-fly, which is suitable for the key protein P53 as the most significantly affected network, might be important for discriminating V.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Clara de Ovo/análise , Proteoma , Vanádio/efeitos adversos , Animais , Galinhas , Dieta/veterinária , Proteínas do Ovo/química , Feminino , Oviductos , Transdução de Sinais
12.
J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl) ; 104(4): 1067-1074, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31953905

RESUMO

A study was conducted to investigate the effects of oregano essential oil (EO) on growth performance, nutrients utilization, intestinal morphology, intestinal barrier-related gene expression and antioxidant capability in meat ducks. A total of 360 1-day-old ducks were divided into three groups (12 replicates pens per diet of 10 ducks in each pen): negative control (no essential oil or antibiotic), positive control (antibiotic: 500 mg/kg aureomycin of diet) and oregano EO (100 mg/kg of diet). The experiment was carried out for 35 days. Ducks were given feed and water ad libitum. Ducks fed EO supplement showed similar body weight and feed to gain ratio to antibiotic fed ducks. EO supplementation significantly increased (p < .05) feed intake (day 1-35), jejunal villus height (VH) to crypt depth (CD) ratio, serum superoxide dismutase activities (SOD) and jejunal total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) of ducks compared to controls. Ducks fed diets supplemented with oregano EO also had decreased (p < .05) jejunal CD, serum and hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration, and the mRNA expression of jejunal zonula occludens-3 (ZO-3) and secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) genes in comparison to the control group. Compared to the antibiotic supplementation group, the mRNA expression of claudin1 (CLND1) and CLND2 significantly increased (p < .05), but the mRNA expression of ZO-3 and mucin 2 markedly decreased (p < .05) in the jejunum of ducks in oregano EO supplementation group. These results suggest that oregano EO improves the antioxidant capacity and intestinal defence and structural measures and may aide in helping to maintain enteric health in production without growth-promoting antibiotics.

13.
Biol Trace Elem Res ; 198(1): 231-242, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31933278

RESUMO

Dietary iron (Fe) influences manganese (Mn) utilization in chickens fed with inorganic Mn-supplemented diet. This study aimed to determine if dietary Fe levels affect Mn utilization in broilers fed with organic Mn-supplemented diet. Nine hundred 8-day-old broilers were randomly assigned to 1 of 6 treatments in a 3 (Fe level) × 2 (Mn source) factorial arrangement after feeding Mn- and Fe-unsupplemented diets for 7 days. The broilers were fed the basal diets (approximately 28 mg Mn/kg and 60 mg Fe/kg) supplemented with 0, 80, or 160 mg/kg Fe (L-Fe, M-Fe, or H-Fe), and 100 mg/kg Mn from Mn sulfate (MnSO4) or manganese-lysine chelate (MnLys) for 35 days. The H-Fe diet decreased (P < 0.05) body weight gain and feed intake as compared with L-Fe and M-Fe diets regardless of dietary Mn sources. Dietary Fe levels did not influence (P > 0.10) serum Mn concentration in MnLys-treated broilers, but serum Mn concentration decreased (P < 0.05) with dietary Fe increasing in MnSO4-treated broilers. The Mn concentration in the duodenum and tibia decreased (P < 0.05) with increasing dietary Fe levels regardless of dietary Mn sources, and MnLys increased (P < 0.04) these indices as compared with MnSO4. Dietary Fe levels did not significantly influence (P > 0.11) Mn concentration and activity and mRNA abundance of manganese-containing superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) in the heart of MnLys-treaded broilers, but the H-Fe diet decreased (P < 0.05) these indices in MnSO4-treated broilers as compared with M-Fe and L-Fe diets. The L-Fe diet increased (P < 0.001) duodenal divalent metal transporter 1 mRNA abundance when compared with the M-Fe and H-Fe diets on day 42, regardless of dietary Mn sources. The M-Fe and H-Fe diets decreased (P < 0.001) duodenal ferroportin 1 (FPN1) mRNA level when compared with the L-Fe diet in MnSO4-treated broilers, while dietary Fe levels did not significantly influence (P > 0.40) duodenal FPN1 mRNA abundance in MnLys-treated broilers. These results indicated dietary Fe levels decreased Mn utilization in MnSO4-treated broilers, but did not influence Mn utilization in MnLys-treated broilers evaluated by Mn concentrations in the serum and heart, and the activity and mRNA expression of heart MnSOD.

14.
Br J Nutr ; 123(2): 172-181, 2020 01 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31495347

RESUMO

Resistant starch (RS) was recently approved to exert a powerful influence on gut health, but the effect of RS on the caecal barrier function in meat ducks has not been well defined. Thus, the effect of raw potato starch (RPS), a widely adopted RS material, on microbial composition and barrier function of caecum for meat ducks was determined. A total of 360 Cherry Valley male ducks of 1-d-old were randomly divided and fed diets with 0 (control), 12, or 24 % RPS for 35 d. Diets supplemented with RPS significantly elevated villus height and villus height:crypt depth ratio in the caecum. The 16S rRNA sequence analysis indicated that the diet with 12 % RPS had a higher relative abundance of Firmicutes and the butyrate-producing bacteria Faecalibacterium, Subdoligranulum, and Erysipelatoclostridium were enriched in all diets. Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium were significantly increased in the 24 % RPS diet v. the control diet. When compared with the control diet, the diet with 12 % RPS was also found to notably increase acetate, propionate and butyrate contents and up-regulated barrier-related genes including claudin-1, zonula occludens-1, mucin-2 and proglucagon in the caecum. Furthermore, the addition of 12 % RPS significantly reduced plasma TNF-α, IL-1ß and endotoxin concentrations. These data revealed that diets supplemented with 12 % RPS partially improved caecal barrier function in meat ducks by enhancing intestinal morphology and barrier markers expression, modulating the microbiota composition and attenuating inflammatory markers.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Ceco/microbiologia , Patos/metabolismo , Patos/microbiologia , Amido/administração & dosagem , Animais , Ceco/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Mucosa Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Masculino , Carne , Microbiota/efeitos dos fármacos , RNA Ribossômico 16S/metabolismo , Solanum tuberosum
15.
Biol Trace Elem Res ; 194(2): 514-524, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31230207

RESUMO

To investigate the effects of dietary iron (Fe) levels on manganese (Mn) utilization, 900 8-day-old broilers were randomly assigned to 1 of 6 treatments in a 3 (Fe level) × 2 (Mn level) factorial arrangement after feeding Mn- and Fe-unsupplemented diet for 7 days. The broilers were then fed with basal corn-soybean meal diets (approximately 28 mg Mn/kg and 60 mg Fe/kg) added with 0, 80, or 160 mg/kg Fe (L-Fe, M-Fe, or H-Fe), and 0 or 100 mg/kg Mn for 35 days. Body weight gain was lower for H-Fe broilers than that for L-Fe and M-Fe broilers. On day 42, H-Fe broilers had lower serum Mn concentration as compared with L-Fe and M-Fe broilers, and tibia Mn concentration decreased as dietary Fe increased. In Mn-supplemented broilers, liver Mn was lower in L-Fe and H-Fe treatments than that in M-Fe treatment. H-Fe treatment decreased Mn concentration and manganese-containing superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) activity in the heart when compared with L-Fe and M-Fe treatments. Dietary Fe did not significantly influence Mn concentrations in the liver and heart, and heart MnSOD activity in Mn-unsupplemented broilers. In the duodenum, L-Fe treatment decreased divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1) mRNA abundance when compared with M-Fe and H-Fe treatments, and ferroportin 1 (FPN1) mRNA level was higher in M-Fe treatment than that in L-Fe and H-Fe treatments. These results suggested H-Fe diet decreased Mn status in broilers evaluated by Mn concentrations in serum and heart, and heart MnSOD activity. Dietary Fe influenced Mn absorption possibly through effects on duodenal DMT1 and FPN1 expression.

16.
Biol Trace Elem Res ; 196(1): 243-251, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31641975

RESUMO

Salmonella challenge leads to systemic responses that induce the hypozincaemia in mice, which is considered a vital strategy against Salmonella invasion. However, it is not yet known if this phenomenon occurs in broilers. To investigate the change in zinc homeostasis of broilers against Salmonella challenge, 1-day-old male broilers were fed with the basal diet for 7 days. Afterwards, broilers were orally inoculated with either 0 or 0.5 × 108 CFU Salmonella Typhimurium (ST). The serum and selected tissues of Salmonella-challenged and non-challenged broilers were collected at 1, 3 and 7 days post-challenge for zinc homeostasis analysis. Our results showed that Salmonella challenge results in hypozincaemia (serum zinc decrease and liver zinc increase) via modulating the systemic zinc homeostasis of broilers. A profound, zinc transporter-mediated zinc absorption and redistribution affecting zinc homeostasis provided a mechanistic explanation for this phenomenon. In addition, we found that the zinc importers Zip5, Zip10, Zip11, Zip12, Zip13 and Zip14 were mainly downregulated in Salmonella-challenged broilers to reduce zinc absorption in the duodenum, while the Zip14 mRNA expression was upregulated to redistribute zinc into the liver. Collectively, these findings reveal that broilers counteract Salmonella infection via modulating their systemic zinc homeostasis.

17.
Food Funct ; 11(1): 534-543, 2020 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31845690

RESUMO

It has been shown that supplementation of layers' diets with epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) can improve egg albumen quality, but the underlying mechanisms behind this response are unclear. In this study, we investigate the effect of EGCG on egg antioxidative activity, free amino acid and fatty acid profiles, and the underlying relationship between the EGCG and oxidant-sensitive mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway in laying hens. 288 hens (35-weeks-old) were fed 0 and 165 mg kg-1 of EGCG diets over 8 weeks. EGCG led to an increase in the albumen height, Haugh unit, and activity of glutathione S-transferase (GST) and a reduction in MDA content in plasma (P < 0.05). Egg white tryptophan and yolk carotenoid content was also increased by EGCG (P < 0.05). Eggs from EGCG fed layers had higher total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), reducing power (RP), and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), and lower albumen and yolk MDA content (P < 0.05). Also, liver gene and protein expression of P-38MAPK, nuclear factor erythroid 2-related 2 (Nrf2) and hemeoxygenase 1 (HO-1) was up-regulated by EGCG. Our findings suggest that dietary EGCG increased the antioxidant activity of eggs and regulated the MAPK/Nrf2 signaling pathway.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/análise , Catequina/análogos & derivados , Galinhas/metabolismo , Ovos/análise , Polifenóis/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Catequina/metabolismo , Galinhas/genética , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Feminino , Glutationa Transferase/genética , Glutationa Transferase/metabolismo , Heme Oxigenase-1/genética , Heme Oxigenase-1/metabolismo , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/genética , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo
18.
Poult Sci ; : 100803, 2020 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33516464

RESUMO

Ammonia (NH3) at a high concentration has been recognized as a highly poisonous pollutant affecting both air and water quality. NH3, as a stimulus, exerts negative impact on broiler growth and production, but the molecular mechanisms are not clear yet. This study was designed to evaluate the effects of dietary supplementation of Bupleurum falcatum L saikosaponins (SP) on the growth and ileum health status in broilers exposed to NH3. Day-old Arbor Acers broilers (n = 480) were randomly allocated into 1 of 4 treatments. The main factors were dietary SP supplementation (0 or 80 mg/kg of diet) and NH3 challenge (with or without 70 ± 5 ppm NH3). The data of growth, intestinal morphology, and mRNA expression related to ileal function were collected from broilers exposed to NH3 for 7 d. Results showed that NH3 remarkably suppressed growth performance and intestinal development as well as induced biological injuries in the ileum of broilers, resulting from oxidative stress, mucous barrier damage, and immune dysfunction as well as upregulated apoptosis. These negative effects of NH3 were alleviated by the SP supplement. In conclusion, dietary supplementation of SP may be helpful in alleviating the detrimental effects of NH3 on the ileum development in broilers.

19.
Antioxidants (Basel) ; 8(10)2019 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31652580

RESUMO

High dietary levels of molybdenum (MO) can negatively affect productive performances and health status of laying hens, while tea polyphenol (TP) can mitigate the negative impact of high MO exposure. However, our understanding of the changes induced by TP on MO challenged layers performances and oxidative status, and on the microbiota, remains limited. The aim of the present study was to better understand host (performances and redox balance) and microbiota responses in MO-challenged layers with dietary TP. In this study, 200 Lohmann laying hens (65-week-old) were randomly allocated in a 2 × 2 factorial design to receive a diet with or without MO (0 or 100 mg/kg), and supplemented with either 0 or 600 mg/kg TP. The results indicate that 100 mg/kg MO decreased egg production (p = 0.03), while dietary TP increased egg production in MO challenged layers (p < 0.01). Egg yolk color was decreased by high MO (p < 0.01), while dietary TP had no effect on yolk color (p > 0.05). Serum alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and malonaldehyde (MDA) concentration were increased by high MO, while total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), xanthine oxidase (XOD) activity, glutathione s-transferase (GSH-ST), and glutathione concentration in serum were decreased (p < 0.05). Dietary TP was able to reverse the increasing effect of MO on ALT and AST (p < 0.05). High MO resulted in higher MO levels in serum, liver, kidney, and egg, but it decreased Cu and Se content in serum, liver, and egg (p < 0.05). The Fe concentration in liver, kidney, and eggs was significantly lower in MO supplementation groups (p < 0.05). High MO levels in the diet led to lower Firmicutes and higher Proteobacteria abundance, whereas dietary TP alone and/or in high MO treatment increased the Firmicutes abundance and the Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio at phylum level. High MO increased the abundance of Proteobacteria (phylum), Deltaproteobacteria (class), Mytococcales (order), and Nanocystaceae (family), whereas dietary TP promoted the enrichment of Lactobacillus agilis (species). Dietary TP also enhanced the enrichment of Bacilli (class), Lactobacillates (order), Lactobacillus (family), and Lactobacillus gasseri (species). Microbiota analysis revealed differentially enriched microbial compositions in the cecum caused by MO and TP, which might be responsible for the protective effect of dietary TP during a MO challenge.

20.
Anim Nutr ; 5(3): 307-313, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31528734

RESUMO

The objective of this paper was to evaluate the effect of vanadium (V) in high-fat diets sourced from egg yolk on body weight gain, feed intake, blood characteristics and antioxidative status of Wistar rats. A total of 72 female Wistar rats were allocated according to a 2 × 4 factorial design throughout a 5-wk trial, including 2 levels of dietary fat (normal and high; ether extract 40.3 and 301.2 g/kg; fat sourced from egg yolk) and 4 levels of dietary V (0, 3, 15 and 30 mg/kg). Vanadium decreased (P ≤ 0.05) body weight gain (V at 30mg/kg during wk 1 and 2; V at 15 and 30 mg/kg during the overall phase), feed intake (V at 30 mg/kg during wk 3 and the overall phase; V at 15 and 30 mg/kg during wk 4), but increased the relative weight of liver (V at 30 mg/kg, P ≤ 0.05). Moreover, increasing dietary V significantly increased (P ≤ 0.05) plasma aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and malondialdehyde levels and decreased triglyceride level, and V at 30 mg/kg in high-fat treatment had the highest or lowest values (interaction, P ≤ 0.05). Under the same dietary V dose, V residual content in liver (dietary V at 15 and 30 mg/kg) and kidney (dietary V at 15 mg/kg) was higher in high-fat diet treatment compared with normal-fat diet treatment (P ≤ 0.05). In conclusion, it is suggested that V could decrease the body weight together with the feed intake, and the high fat could enhance oxidative stress induced by V of Wistar rats.

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