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1.
World J Surg Oncol ; 19(1): 262, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34470640

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to investigate the correlation between miRNA-216b expression in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake by PET/CT and to explore the clinical application value of 18F-FDG PET/CT in miRNA-216b based on therapy for NSCLC. METHODS: Eighty patients with NSCLC and 40 healthy subjects were enrolled in our study. The SUVmax of the lesion area by PET/CT imaging was calculated. SUVmax represented the highest concentration of 18F-FDG in the lesion. The expression of miRNA-216b in the plasma and fiber bronchoscopic puncture of NSCLC patients was detected by RT qPCR. Then Pearson correlation analysis was used to analyze the correlation between miRNA-216b expression and 18F-FDG uptake in patients with different types of NSCLC. RESULTS: Compared with healthy subjects, SUVmax of early adenocarcinoma and advanced adenocarcinoma were increased. Compared with healthy subjects, SUVmax of early squamous and advanced squamous were increased. And the SUVmax content of advanced adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma was higher than that of early adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma. Compared with healthy subjects, the expression of miRNA-216b in the plasma of patients with early and advanced adenocarcinoma was reduced, and the expression of miRNA-216b in the plasma of patients with early and advanced squamous cell carcinoma was reduced. Compared with adjacent tissues, the expression of miRNA-216b in early adenocarcinoma tissues and advanced adenocarcinoma tissues was reduced, and the expression in early squamous cell carcinoma and advanced squamous cell carcinoma was reduced. Pearson correlation analysis showed a negative correlation between SUVmax and miRNA-216b (plasma and tissue) in patients with four types of NSCLC. CONCLUSION: miRNA-216b expression was negatively correlated with 18F-FDG uptake in NSCLC. miRNA-216b could be used for the classification and staging of non-small cell lung cancer. 18F-FDG PET/CT may be used to evaluate the therapeutic response in application of miRNA-216b-based cancer treatment.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas , Fluordesoxiglucose F18/farmacocinética , Neoplasias Pulmonares , MicroRNAs , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/diagnóstico por imagem , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , MicroRNAs/genética , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons combinada à Tomografia Computadorizada , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Prognóstico , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos
2.
Comput Math Methods Med ; 2021: 2448782, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34552658

RESUMO

In China, lung cancer is one of the leading causes of death among residents. Early diagnosis is of great significance for early interventional treatment and prolonging survival. PET/CT uses positron radiopharmaceuticals to observe the physiological and biochemical changes of the drug and its metabolites in the body and finally diagnoses the disease. 18F-FDG is a commonly used imaging agent, but its short isotopic half-life limits clinical high-throughput testing. This study retrospectively analyzed the imaging material of 100 lung cancer patients pathologically confirmed. Patients with lymph node metastasis were classified into the LM group (n = 30 cases), and those with no lymph node metastasis were classified into the NLM group (n = 70 cases). The results showed that MRI of superparamagnetic nanoferric oxide was better than diagnosis of lung cancer by the 18F-FDG PET/CT and had a high predictive power for lymph node metastasis. These turned out to be high-value lung cancer diagnosis of superparamagnetic nanoferric oxide MRI and high-capacity lymph node metastasis prediction of 18F-FDG PET/CT, which were worthy of implementation.

3.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 10(1): 1807-1818, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34402750

RESUMO

Male sex was repeatedly identified as a risk factor for death and intensive care admission. However, it is yet unclear whether sex hormones are associated with disease severity in COVID-19 patients. In this study, we analysed sex hormone levels (estradiol and testosterone) of male and female COVID-19 patients (n = 50) admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU) in comparison to control non-COVID-19 patients at the ICU (n = 42), non-COVID-19 patients with the most prevalent comorbidity (coronary heart diseases) present within the COVID-19 cohort (n = 39) and healthy individuals (n = 50). We detected significantly elevated estradiol levels in critically ill male COVID-19 patients compared to all control cohorts. Testosterone levels were significantly reduced in critically ill male COVID-19 patients compared to control cohorts. No statistically significant differences in sex hormone levels were detected in critically ill female COVID-19 patients, albeit similar trends towards elevated estradiol levels were observed. Linear regression analysis revealed that among a broad range of cytokines and chemokines analysed, IFN-γ levels are positively associated with estradiol levels in male and female COVID-19 patients. Furthermore, male COVID-19 patients with elevated estradiol levels were more likely to receive ECMO treatment. Thus, we herein identified that disturbance of sex hormone metabolism might present a hallmark in critically ill male COVID-19 patients.


Assuntos
COVID-19/mortalidade , COVID-19/patologia , Estradiol/sangue , Testosterona/sangue , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , COVID-19/sangue , Cuidados Críticos , Estado Terminal , Oxigenação por Membrana Extracorpórea , Feminino , Humanos , Hipogonadismo/patologia , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Interferon gama/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , SARS-CoV-2 , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Distribuição por Sexo
4.
Science ; 373(6557): 918-922, 2021 08 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34413236

RESUMO

Zoonotic avian influenza A virus (IAV) infections are rare. Sustained transmission of these IAVs between humans has not been observed, suggesting a role for host genes. We used whole-genome sequencing to compare avian IAV H7N9 patients with healthy controls and observed a strong association between H7N9 infection and rare, heterozygous single-nucleotide variants in the MX1 gene. MX1 codes for myxovirus resistance protein A (MxA), an interferon-induced antiviral guanosine triphosphatase known to control IAV infections in transgenic mice. Most of the MxA variants identified lost the ability to inhibit avian IAVs, including H7N9, in transfected human cell lines. Nearly all of the inactive MxA variants exerted a dominant-negative effect on the antiviral function of wild-type MxA, suggesting an MxA null phenotype in heterozygous carriers. Our study provides genetic evidence for a crucial role of the MX1-based antiviral defense in controlling zoonotic IAV infections in humans.


Assuntos
Subtipo H7N9 do Vírus da Influenza A , Influenza Humana/genética , Influenza Humana/virologia , Proteínas de Resistência a Myxovirus/genética , Doenças dos Trabalhadores Agrícolas/genética , Doenças dos Trabalhadores Agrícolas/virologia , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Variação Genética , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Subtipo H7N9 do Vírus da Influenza A/fisiologia , Vírus da Influenza A/fisiologia , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Proteínas de Resistência a Myxovirus/química , Proteínas de Resistência a Myxovirus/metabolismo , Aves Domésticas , Zoonoses Virais , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
5.
PLoS Biol ; 19(7): e3001330, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34314414

RESUMO

Insect cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) serve as important intersexual signaling chemicals and generally show variation between the sexes, but little is known about the generation of sexually dimorphic hydrocarbons (SDHCs) in insects. In this study, we report the molecular mechanism and biological significance that underlie the generation of SDHC in the German cockroach Blattella germanica. Sexually mature females possess more C29 CHCs, especially the contact sex pheromone precursor 3,11-DimeC29. RNA interference (RNAi) screen against the fatty acid elongase family members combined with heterologous expression of the genes in yeast revealed that both BgElo12 and BgElo24 were involved in hydrocarbon (HC) production, but BgElo24 is of wide catalytic activities and is able to provide substrates for BgElo12, and only the female-enriched BgElo12 is responsible for sustaining female-specific HC profile. Repressing BgElo12 masculinized the female CHC profile, decreased contact sex pheromone level, and consequently reduced the sexual attractiveness of female cockroaches. Moreover, the asymmetric expression of BgElo12 between the sexes is modulated by sex differentiation cascade. Specifically, male-specific BgDsx represses the transcription of BgElo12 in males, while BgTra is able to remove this effect in females. Our study reveals a novel molecular mechanism responsible for the formation of SDHCs and also provide evidences on shaping of the SDHCs by sexual selection, as females use them to generate high levels of contact sex pheromone.

6.
J Exp Bot ; 72(15): 5751-5765, 2021 07 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34195821

RESUMO

Due to their sessile nature, plants must respond to various environmental assaults in a coordinated manner. The endoplasmic reticulum is a central hub for plant responses to various stresses. We previously showed that Phytophthora utilizes effector PsAvh262-mediated binding immunoglobulin protein (BiP) accumulation for suppressing endoplasmic reticulum stress-triggered cell death. As a BiP binding partner, Bcl-2-associated athanogene 7 (BAG7) plays a crucial role in the maintenance of the unfolded protein response, but little is known about its role in plant immunity. In this work, we reveal a double-faced role of BAG7 in Arabidopsis-Phytophthora interaction in which it regulates endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated immunity oppositely in different cellular compartments. In detail, it acts as a susceptibility factor in the endoplasmic reticulum, but plays a resistance role in the nucleus against Phytophthora. Phytophthora infection triggers the endoplasmic reticulum-to-nucleus translocation of BAG7, the same as abiotic heat stress; however, this process can be prevented by PsAvh262-mediated BiP accumulation. Moreover, the immunoglobulin/albumin-binding domain in PsAvh262 is essential for both pathogen virulence and BiP accumulation. Taken together, our study uncovers a double-faced role of BAG7; Phytophthora advances its colonization in planta by utilizing an effector to detain BAG7 in the endoplasmic reticulum.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis , Arabidopsis , Phytophthora , Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático , Doenças das Plantas , Imunidade Vegetal/genética
7.
Food Funct ; 12(11): 5096-5108, 2021 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33960998

RESUMO

Scallop (Chlamys nobilis) causes an IgE-mediated food allergy; however, studies of the allergens in its musculus are not sufficiently comprehensive. In this context, the target protein was purified from scallops and confirmed to be the major allergen tropomyosin (TM) using proteomic technology and serological testing. Subsequently, seven potential IgE epitopes of TM were obtained using phage display technology with IgE enrichment from the serum of scallop-sensitized patients and identified via inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. A method for the Maillard reaction of TM and xylose was established, and Maillard-reacted TM (MR-TM) showed significantly decreased immunobinding activity and CD63 and CD203c expression in basophils compared with TM. Furthermore, shotgun proteomics analysis showed that eleven specific amino acids (K12, R15, K28, K76, R125, R127, K128, R133, R140, K146, and K189) of the six IgE epitopes of TM were modified after the Maillard reaction. Overall, the immunoactivity of MR-TM was reduced, which provides a theoretical reference for the development of hypoallergenic foods.

8.
Zhongguo Zhen Jiu ; 41(3): 279-82, 2021 Mar 12.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33798310

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To observe the influence of regulating menstruation and promoting pregnancy acupuncture therapy on negative emotions in patients with premature ovarian insufficiency (POI). METHODS: A total of 60 patients with POI were randomly divided into an acupuncture group and a western medication group, 30 cases in each group. The acupuncture group was treated with regulating menstruation and promoting pregnancy acupuncture therapy at Baihui (GV 20), Shenting (GV 24), Guanyuan (CV 4), Sanyinjiao (SP 6), Shenshu (BL 23), Ciliao (BL 32), etc. once a day, 5 times a week for 3 months. The western medication group was treated by oral administration of climen. The drug was given 1 tablet a day for 21 days and was stopped for 1 week as a course. The treatment was required 3 consecutive courses. The self-rating anxiety scale (SAS) score, modified Kupperman index (KI) score, agitated and depressive symptom scores in KI and serum level of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) before and after treatment were compared between the two groups. RESULTS: After treatment, the SAS scores, KI scores and serum levels of FSH in the two groups and the scores of agitated and depressive symptom in the acupuncture group were lower than those before treatment (P<0.05), and the acupuncture group was lower than the western medication group (P<0.05). CONCLUSION: Regulating menstruation and promoting pregnancy acupuncture therapy can effectively improve the negative emotions of patients with POI and reduce serum level of FSH .


Assuntos
Terapia por Acupuntura , Insuficiência Ovariana Primária , Pontos de Acupuntura , Feminino , Hormônio Foliculoestimulante , Humanos , Menstruação , Gravidez , Insuficiência Ovariana Primária/terapia
9.
J Phys Chem B ; 125(17): 4321-4329, 2021 05 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33890465

RESUMO

Aggregation-induced emission (AIE) polysiloxane has attracted growing attention in recent years due to its outstanding biocompatibility. However, polysiloxane usually requires high-energy UV light for excitation and exhibits monochromatic blue emission. Moreover, the experimental selection process of polysiloxane with designed features is time-consuming and laborious. So, in this paper, we developed a new molecular structure selection strategy using theoretical calculations instead of experiments, and a linear disulfide-containing polysiloxane (L1) is selected and synthesized. To our surprise, L1 can be excited by low-energy visible light (Ex = 508 nm and Em = 588 nm) and emit multicolor fluorescence under different excitation wavelengths. A further study of the luminescence mechanism was carried out through calculations about the quantum states of L1. Moreover, L1 shows multiple stimuli-responsiveness, such as redox, pH, metal ions, and solvent. This work provides an integrated route for the molecular design of macromolecular AIE luminogens with attractive fluorescence properties.

10.
Interdiscip Sci ; 13(2): 312-320, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33730356

RESUMO

Discovering relations of cross-type biomedical entities is crucial for biology research. A large amount of potential or indirect connected biological relations is hidden in millions of biomedical literatures and biological databases. The previous rules-based and deep learning approaches rely on plenty of manual annotations, which is laborious, time-consuming and unsatisfactory. It is necessary to be able to combine available annotated gene databases, chemical, genomic, clinical and other types of data repositories as domain knowledge to assist the extraction of biological entity relations from numerous literatures. Under this scenario, this paper proposes BioGraphSAGE model, a Siamese graph neural network with structured databases as domain knowledge to extract biological entity relations from literatures. Our model combines both biological semantic features and positional features to improve the recognition of relations between distant entities in the same literature. The experiment results show that BioGraphSAGE achieves the best F1 score among other relation extraction models on smaller annotated samples. Moreover, the proposed model can still maintain a F1 score of 0.526 without using annotated training samples.


Assuntos
Conhecimento , Redes Neurais de Computação , Mineração de Dados , Bases de Dados Factuais
11.
Insect Sci ; 2021 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33543834

RESUMO

Water retention is critical for physiological homeostasis and survival in terrestrial insects. While deposition of hydrocarbons on insect cuticles as a key measure for water conservation has been extensively investigated, we know little about other mechanisms for preventing water loss in insects. Here, we report two fatty acid synthetic genes that are independent of hydrocarbon production but crucial for water retention in the German cockroach Blattella germanica (L.). First, an integument enriched fatty acid elongase gene (BgElo1) was identified as a critical gene for desiccation resistance in B. germanica; however, knockdown of BgElo1 surprisingly failed to cause a decline in cuticular lipids. In addition, RNA interference (RNAi)-knockdown of an upstream fatty acid synthase gene (BgFas3) showed a similar phenotype, and transmission electron microscopy analysis revealed that BgFas3- or BgElo1-RNAi did not affect cuticle architecture. Bodyweight loss test showed that repression of BgFas3 and BgElo1 significantly increased the weight loss rate, but the difference disappeared when the respiration was closed by freeze killing the cockroaches. A water immersion test was performed, and we found that BgFas3- and BgElo1-RNAi made it difficult for cockroaches to recover from drowning, which was supported by the upregulation of hypoxia-related genes after a 10-h recovery from drowning. Moreover, a dyeing assay with water-soluble Eosin Y showed that this was caused by the entry of water into the respiratory system. Our research suggests that BgFas3 and BgElo1 are required for both inward and outward waterproofing of the respiratory system. This study benefits the understanding of water retention mechanisms in insects.

12.
Front Microbiol ; 11: 581511, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33101256

RESUMO

Phytophthora comprises a group of filamentous plant pathogens that cause serious crop diseases worldwide. It is widely known that a complex effector repertoire was secreted by Phytophthora pathogens to manipulate plant immunity and determine resistance and susceptibility. It is also recognized that Phytophthora pathogens may inhabit natural niches within complex environmental microbes, including bacteria. However, how Phytophthora pathogens interact with their cohabited microbes remains poorly understood. Here, we present such an intriguing case by using Phytophthora-bacteria interaction as a working system. We found that under co-culture laboratory conditions, several Phytophthora pathogens appeared to block the contact of an ecologically relevant bacterium, including Pseudomonas fluorescence and a model bacterium, Escherichia coli. We further observed that Phytophthora sojae utilizes a conserved Crinkler (CRN) effector protein, PsCRN63, to impair bacterial growth. Phytophthora capsici deploys another CRN effector, PcCRN173, to interfere with bacterial flagellum- and/or type IV pilus-mediated motility whereas a P. capsici-derived RxLR effector, PcAvh540, inhibits bacterial swimming motility, but not twitching motility and biofilm formation, suggesting functional diversification of effector-mediated Phytophthora-bacteria interactions. Thus, our studies provide a first case showing that the filamentous Phytophthora pathogens could deploy effectors to interfere with bacterial growth and motility, revealing an unprecedented effector-mediated inter-kingdom interaction between Phytophthora pathogens and bacterial species and thereby uncovering ecological significance of effector proteins in filamentous plant pathogens besides their canonical roles involving pathogen-plant interaction.

13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(16)2020 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32784451

RESUMO

Improving mitochondrial dysfunction and inhibiting apoptosis has always been regarded as a treatment strategy for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Isoforsythiaside (IFY), a phenylethanoid glycoside isolated from the dried fruit of Forsythia suspensa, displays antioxidant activity. This study examined the neuroprotective effects of IFY and its underlying mechanisms. In the L-glutamate (L-Glu)-induced apoptosis of HT22 cells, IFY increased cell viability, inhibited mitochondrial apoptosis, and reduced the intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), caspase-3, -8 and -9 after 3 h of pretreatment and 12-24 h of co-incubation. In the APPswe/PSEN1dE9 transgenic (APP/PS1) model, IFY reduced the anxiety of mice, improved their memory and cognitive ability, reduced the deposition of beta amyloid (Aß) plaques in the brain, restrained the phosphorylation of the tau protein to form neurofibrillary tangles, inhibited the level of 4-hydroxynonenal in the brain, and improved phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (AKT) signaling pathway-related mitochondrial apoptosis. In Aß1-42-induced U251 cells, IFY relieved the mitochondrial swelling, crest ruptures and increased their electron density after 3 h of pretreatment and 18-24 h of co-incubation. The improved cell viability and mitochondrial function after IFY incubation was blocked by the synthetic PI3K inhibitor LY294002. Taken together, these results suggest that IFY exerts a protective effect against AD by enhancing the expression levels of anti-apoptosis proteins and reducing the expression levels of pro-apoptosis proteins of B-cell lymphoma-2 (BCL-2) family members though activating the PI3K/AKT pathway.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/tratamento farmacológico , Doença de Alzheimer/metabolismo , Ácidos Cafeicos/uso terapêutico , Glucosídeos/uso terapêutico , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinase/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/metabolismo , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Comportamento Animal , Ácidos Cafeicos/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular , Cognição/efeitos dos fármacos , Citoproteção/efeitos dos fármacos , Glucosídeos/farmacologia , Ácido Glutâmico/farmacologia , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Camundongos , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Presenilina-1/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
14.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 11768, 2020 07 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32678187

RESUMO

The A(H7N9) virus strain that emerged in 2013 was associated with a high fatality rate and may become a long-term threat to public health. A(H7N9) disease incidence is disproportionate to viral exposure, suggesting that host genetic factors may significantly influence susceptibility to A(H7N9) infection. Human genome variation in conferring risk for A(H7N9) infection in Chinese populations was identified by a two-stage investigation involving 121 A(H7N9) patients and 187 healthy controls using next generation sequencing followed by functional analysis. As a result, a low frequency variant (rs189256251; P = 0.0303, OR = 3.45, 95% CI 1.05-11.35, chi-square test) and three HLA alleles (DQB1*06:01, DQA1*05:05 and C*12:02) were identified in A(H7N9) infected volunteers. In an A549 cell line carrying the rs189256251 variant CT genotype, A(H7N9) infection incidence was elevated 6.665-fold over control cells carrying the CC genotype. Serum levels of interferon alpha were significantly lower in patients with the CT genotype compared to the CC genotype (P = 0.01). The study findings of genetic predisposition to A(H7N9) in the Chinese population may be valuable in systematic investigations of A(H7N9) disease etiology.


Assuntos
Loci Gênicos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Subtipo H7N9 do Vírus da Influenza A , Influenza Humana/genética , Influenza Humana/virologia , Adulto , Alelos , Frequência do Gene , Genótipo , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/genética , Humanos , Masculino
15.
Biometrics ; 2020 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32700317

RESUMO

The pointwise mutual information statistic (PMI), which measures how often two words occur together in a document corpus, is a cornerstone of recently proposed popular natural language processing algorithms such as word2vec. PMI and word2vec reveal semantic relationships between words and can be helpful in a range of applications such as document indexing, topic analysis, or document categorization. We use probability theory to demonstrate the relationship between PMI and word2vec. We use the theoretical results to demonstrate how the PMI can be modeled and estimated in a simple and straight forward manner. We further describe how one can obtain standard error estimates that account for within-patient clustering that arises from patterns of repeated words within a patient's health record due to a unique health history. We then demonstrate the usefulness of PMI on the problem of predictive identification of disease from free text notes of electronic health records. Specifically, we use our methods to distinguish those with and without type 2 diabetes mellitus in electronic health record free text data using over 400 000 clinical notes from an academic medical center.

16.
Biomacromolecules ; 21(9): 3724-3735, 2020 09 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32692548

RESUMO

Fluorescent hyperbranched polysiloxane (HBPSi) has attracted increasing attention due to its good biocompatibility. However, its emission mechanism remains an open question. Unfortunately, the excitation spectra of HBPSi are rarely systematically investigated and show a narrow excitation band, which hinders the emission mechanism study. Herein, we synthesized a series of novel HBPSi containing l-glutamic acid (HBPSi-GA). Surprisingly, these polymers have four excitation peaks and two emission peaks, which are caused by the energy transfer from free functional groups to heterogeneous electron delocalizations in different clusters. Meanwhile, the fluorescence and biocompatibility of HBPSi-GA are significantly improved with increasing l-glutamic acid. Furthermore, HBPSi-GA exhibits dual stimuli-responsive fluorescence to temperature and Fe3+ as well as potential application in cell imaging. This research possesses important guidance to develop multiexcitation unconventional fluorescent polymers.


Assuntos
Polímeros , Siloxanas , Transferência de Energia , Fluorescência
17.
Insect Sci ; 2020 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32558147

RESUMO

Cuticular hydrocarbons form a barrier that protects terrestrial insects from water loss via the epicuticle. Lipophorin loads and transports lipids, including hydrocarbons, from one tissue to another. In some insects, the lipophorin receptor (LpR), which binds to lipophorin and accepts its lipid cargo, is essential for female fecundity because it mediates the incorporation of lipophorin by developing oocytes. However, it is unclear whether LpR is involved in the accumulation of cuticular hydrocarbons and its precise role in aphid reproduction remains unknown. We herein present the results of our molecular characterization, phylogenetic analysis, and functional annotation of the pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum) LpR gene (ApLpR). This gene was transcribed throughout the A. pisum life cycle, but especially during the embryonic stage and in the abdominal cuticle. Furthermore, we optimized the RHA interference (RNAi) parameters by determining the ideal dose and duration for gene silencing in the pea aphid. We observed that the RNAi-based ApLpR suppression significantly decreased the internal and cuticular hydrocarbon contents as well as adult fecundity. Additionally, a deficiency in cuticular hydrocarbons increased the susceptibility of aphids to desiccation stress, with decreased survival rates under simulated drought conditions. Moreover, ApLpR expression levels significantly increased in response to the desiccation treatment. These results confirm that ApLpR is involved in transporting hydrocarbons and protecting aphids from desiccation stress. Furthermore, this gene is vital for aphid reproduction. Therefore, the ApLpR gene of A. pisum may be a novel RNAi target relevant for insect pest management.

18.
Front Immunol ; 11: 697, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32431696

RESUMO

Influenza A virus pathogenesis may differ between men and women. The 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic resulted in more documented hospitalizations in women compared to men. In this study, we analyzed the impact of male sex hormones on pandemic 2009 H1N1 influenza A virus disease outcome. In a murine infection model, we could mimic the clinical findings with female mice undergoing severe and even fatal 2009 H1N1 influenza compared to male mice. Treatment of female mice with testosterone could rescue the majority of mice from lethal influenza. Improved disease outcome in testosterone treated female mice upon 2009 H1N1 influenza A virus infection did not affect virus titers in the lung compared to carrier-treated females. However, reduction in IL-1ß cytokine expression levels strongly correlated with reduced lung damage and improved influenza disease outcome in female mice upon testosterone treatment. In contrast, influenza disease outcome was not affected between castrated male mice and non-castrated controls. Here, influenza infection resulted in reduction of testosterone expression in male mice. These findings show that testosterone has protective functions on the influenza infection course. However, 2009 H1N1 influenza viruses seem to have evolved yet unknown mechanisms to reduce testosterone expression in males. These data will support future antiviral strategies to treat influenza taking sex-dependent immunopathologies into consideration.


Assuntos
Androgênios/administração & dosagem , Citocinas/metabolismo , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/imunologia , Pulmão/metabolismo , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/tratamento farmacológico , Substâncias Protetoras/administração & dosagem , Testosterona/administração & dosagem , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Pulmão/virologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/imunologia , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/virologia , Fatores Sexuais , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
Biomed Environ Sci ; 33(2): 103-113, 2020 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32131957

RESUMO

Objective: To recover broad-neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (BnAbs) from avian influenza A (H5N1) virus infection cases and investigate their genetic and functional features. Methods: We screened the Abs repertoires of expanded B cells circulating in the peripheral blood of H5N1 patients. The genetic basis, biological functions, and epitopes of the obtained BnAbs were assessed and modeled. Results: Two BnAbs, 2-12D5, and 3-37G7.1, were respectively obtained from two human H5N1 cases on days 12 and 21 after disease onset. Both Abs demonstrated cross-neutralizing and Ab-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) activity. Albeit derived from distinct Ab lineages, i.e., V H1-69-D2-15-J H4 (2-12D5) and V H1-2-D3-9-J H5 (3-32G7.1), the BnAbs were directed toward CR6261-like epitopes in the HA stem, and HA 2 I45 in the hydrophobic pocket was the critical residue for their binding. Signature motifs for binding with the HA stem, namely, IFY in V H1-69-encoded Abs and LXYFXW in D3-9-encoded Abs, were also observed in 2-12D5 and 3-32G7.1, respectively. Conclusions: Cross-reactive B cells of different germline origins could be activated and re-circulated by avian influenza virus. The HA stem epitopes targeted by the BnAbs, and the two Ab-encoding genes usage implied the VH1-69 and D3-9 are the ideal candidates triggered by influenza virus for vaccine development.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Anticorpos Amplamente Neutralizantes/imunologia , Hemaglutininas/imunologia , Virus da Influenza A Subtipo H5N1/imunologia , Influenza Humana/imunologia , Adulto , Reações Cruzadas , Epitopos/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Influenza Humana/virologia , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
20.
Mol Plant Pathol ; 21(4): 502-511, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31997517

RESUMO

EDS1 (Enhanced Disease Susceptibility 1) plays a crucial role in both effector-triggered immunity activation and plant basal defence. However, whether pathogen effectors can target EDS1 or an EDS1-related pathway to manipulate immunity is rarely reported. In this study, we identified a Phytophthora capsici Avirulence Homolog (Avh) RxLR (Arg-any amino acid-Leu-Arg) effector PcAvh103 that interacts with EDS1. We demonstrated that PcAvh103 can facilitate P. capsici infection and is required for pathogen virulence. Furthermore, genetic evidence showed that PcAvh103 contributes to virulence through targeting EDS1. Finally, PcAvh103 specifically interacts with the lipase domain of EDS1 and can promote the disassociation of EDS1-PAD4 (Phytoalexin Deficient 4) complex in planta. Together, our results revealed that the P. capsici RxLR effector PcAvh103 targets host EDS1 to suppress plant immunity, probably through disrupting the EDS1-PAD4 immune signalling pathway.


Assuntos
Phytophthora/patogenicidade , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Lipase/metabolismo , Phytophthora/imunologia , Phytophthora/metabolismo , Imunidade Vegetal , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia
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