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1.
Int J Biol Sci ; 17(4): 926-941, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33867819

RESUMO

Objectives: The roles of innate immunity including macrophages in radiation-induced abscopal effect (RIAE) are ambiguous. In this study, we evaluated the role of macrophage in RIAE and the interaction of cytokines in tumor microenvironment after irradiation. Materials and Methods: Transplanted tumor of breast cancer cells in BalB/C mice, severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice and non-obese diabetic (NOD)-SCID mice were irradiated with fractionation doses to observe anti-tumor abscopal effect. The underlying mechanism of RIAE was investigated by treating the mice with TNF-α inhibitor or macrophage depletion drug and analyzing the alteration of macrophage distribution in tumors. A co-culture system of breast cancer cells and macrophages was applied to disclose the signaling factors and related pathways involved in the RIAE. Results: The growth of nonirradiated tumor was effectively suppressed in mice with normal or infused macrophages but not in mice with insufficiency/depletion of macrophage or TNF-α inhibition, where M1-macrophage was mainly involved. Investigation of the bystander signaling factors in vitro demonstrated that HMGB1 released from irradiated breast cancer cells promoted bystander macrophages to secret TNF-α through TLR-4 pathway and further inhibited the proliferation and migration of non-irradiated cancer cells by PI3K-p110γ suppression. Conclusions: HMGB1 and TNF-α contributes to M1-macrophages facilitated systemic anti-tumor abscopal response triggered by radiotherapy in breast cancer, indicating that the combination of immunotherapy and radiotherapy may has important implication in enhancing the efficiency of tumor treatment.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33800254

RESUMO

This study examined the inter-model agreement between the Fitbit Flex (FF) and FF2 in estimating sedentary behavior (SED) and physical activity (PA) during a free-living condition. 33 healthy adults wore the FF and FF2 on non-dominant wrist for 14 consecutive days. After excluding sleep and non-wear time, data from the FF and FF2 was converted to the time spent (min/day) in SED and PA using a proprietary algorithm. Pearson's correlation was used to evaluate the association between the estimates from FF and FF2. Mean absolute percent errors (MAPE) were used to examine differences and measurement agreement in SED and PA estimates between FF and FF2. Bland-Altman (BA) plots were used to examine systematic bias between two devices. Equivalence testing was conducted to examine the equivalence between the FF and FF2. The FF2 had strong correlations with the FF in estimating SED and PA times. Compared to the FF, the FF2 yielded similar SED and PA estimates along with relatively low measurement discords and did not have significant systematic biases for SED and Moderate-to-vigorous PA estimates. Our findings suggest that researchers may choose FF2 as a measurement of SED and PA when FF is not available in the market during the longitudinal PA research.


Assuntos
Acelerometria , Comportamento Sedentário , Adulto , Exercício Físico , Monitores de Aptidão Física , Humanos , Sono
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33893113

RESUMO

Deciphering the molecular mechanisms underlying insect resistance to Cry toxins produced by Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is pivotal for the sustainable utilization of Bt biopesticides and transgenic Bt crops. Previously, we identified that MAPK-mediated reduced expression of the PxABCB1 gene is associated with Bt Cry1Ac resistance in the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.). However, the underlying transcriptional regulation mechanism remains enigmatic. Herein, the PxABCB1 promoter in Cry1Ac-susceptible and Cry1Ac-resistant P. xylostella strains was cloned and analyzed and found to contain a putative Jun binding site (JBS). A dual-luciferase reporter assay and yeast one-hybrid assay (Y1H) demonstrated that the transcription factor PxJun repressed PxABCB1 expression by interacting with this JBS. The expression levels of PxJun were increased in the midguts of all resistant strains compared to the susceptible strain. Silencing of PxJun expression significantly elevated PxABCB1 expression and Cry1Ac susceptibility in the resistant NIL-R strain, and silencing of PxMAP4K4 expression decreased PxJun expression and also increased PxABCB1 expression. These results indicate that MAPK-activated PxJun suppresses PxABCB1 expression to confer Cry1Ac resistance in P. xylostella, deepening our understanding of the transcriptional regulation of midgut Cry receptor genes and the molecular basis of insect resistance to Bt Cry toxins.ImportanceThe transcriptional regulation mechanisms underlying reduced expression of Bt toxin receptor genes in Bt-resistant insects remain elusive. This study unveils that a transcription factor PxJun activated by the MAPK signaling pathway represses PxABCB1 expression and confers Cry1Ac resistance in P. xylostella Our results provide new insights into the transcriptional regulation mechanisms of midgut Cry receptor genes and deepen our understanding of the molecular basis of insect resistance to Bt Cry toxins. To our knowledge, this study identified the first transcription factor that can be involved in the transcriptional regulation mechanisms of midgut Cry receptor genes in Bt-resistant insects.

4.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 215: 112108, 2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33799132

RESUMO

Fluoride which is widespread in our environment and food due to its geological origin and industrial pollution has been identified as a developmental neurotoxicant. Gut-brain axis provides new insight into brain-derived injury. We previously found the psychoactive effects of a probiotic strain, Lactobacillus johnsonii BS15 against fluoride-induced memory dysfunction in mice by modulating the gut-brain axis. In this study, we aimed to detect the link between the reconstruction of gut microbiota and gut-brain axis through which probiotic alleviate fluoride-induced memory impairment. We also added an hour of water avoidance stress (WAS) before behavioral tests and sampling, aiming to demonstrate the preventive effects of the probiotic on fluoride-induced memory impairment after psychological stress. Mice were given fluoridated drinking water (sodium fluoride 100 ppm, corresponding to 37.8 ± 2.4 ppm F¯) for 70 days and administered with PBS or a probiotic strain, Lactobacillus johnsonii BS15 for 28 days prior to and throughout a 70 day exposure to sodium fluoride. Results showed that fluoride increases the hyperactivity of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and reduces the exploration ratio in novel object recognition (NOR) test and the spontaneous exploration during the T-maze test in mice following WAS, which were significantly improved by the probiotic. 16S rRNA sequencing showed a significant separation in ileal microbiota between the fluoride-treated mice and control mice. Lactobacillus was the main targeting bacteria and significantly reduced in fluoride-treated mice. BS15 reconstructed the fluoride-post microbiota and increased the relative abundance of Lactobacillus. D-lactate content and diamine oxidase (DAO) activity, two biomarkers of gut permeability were reduced in the serum of probiotic-inoculated mice. ZO-1, an intestinal tight junction protein was reduced by fluoride in mRNA, and its protein levels were increased by the probiotic treatment. Moreover, the hippocampus which is essential to learning and memory, down-regulated mRNA level of both the myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG), and protein levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), including the improvement of cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) by BS15 in fluoride-exposed mice after WAS. Via spearman correlation analysis, Lactobacillus displayed significantly positive associations with the behavioral tests, levels of nerve development related factors, and intestinal tight junction proteins ZO-1, and negative association with TNF-α of the hippocampus, highlighting regulatory effects of gut bacteria on memory potential and gut barrier. These results suggested the psychoactive effects of BS15 on fluoride-induced memory dysfunction after psychological stress. In addition, there may be some correlations between fluoride-induced memory dysfunction and reconstruction of gut microbiota. AVAILABILITY OF DATA AND MATERIALS: 16S rRNA sequencing reads have uploaded to NCBI. The accession code of 16S rRNA sequencing reads in the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) BioProject database: PRJNA660154.


Assuntos
Fluoretos/metabolismo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Probióticos/farmacologia , Animais , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/metabolismo , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário/metabolismo , Lactobacillus/metabolismo , Masculino , Memória , Transtornos da Memória/induzido quimicamente , Camundongos , Microbiota , Sistema Hipófise-Suprarrenal/metabolismo , RNA Ribossômico 16S/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Proteína da Zônula de Oclusão-1/metabolismo
5.
J Exp Bot ; 2021 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33831218

RESUMO

Leaf angle (LA) and leaf orientation value (LOV) are critical agronomic traits for maize plant architecture. Many genes related to plant architecture have been identified in maize, but the functions of NF-Y members in regulating plant architecture have not been reported before. Here, we identified a regulator of maize plant architecture, ZmNF-YC13. ZmNF-YC13 was highly expressed in the leaf base zone of maize plants. ZmNF-YC13 overexpression plants showed upright leaves with narrow LA and larger LOV, while ZmNF-YC13 knockout plants had larger LA and smaller LOV, compared with wild-type plants. The changes in plant architecture were due to the changes of the expression levels of cytochrome P450 family members. ZmNF-YC13 can interact with two ZmNF-YBs (ZmNF-YB9 and ZmNF-YB10) of the LEC1 subfamily, and further recruit ZmNF-YA3 to form two NF-Y complexes. The two complexes can both activate the promoters of the transcriptional repressors (ZmWRKY76 and ZmBT2) and the promoters of PLA cluster gene can be repressed by ZmWRKY76 and ZmBT2 in maize protoplasts. We propose that ZmNF-YC13 functions as a transcriptional regulator and, together with ZmNF-YBs and ZmNF-YA3, affects plant architecture by regulating the expression of ZmWRKY76 and ZmBT2, which repress the expression of PLA clustered cytochrome P450 family members.

6.
Sci Total Environ ; 784: 147080, 2021 Apr 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33905926

RESUMO

Rare and endangered plants (REPs) act as key indicators for species habitat priorities, and can thus be critical in global biodiversity protection work. Human activities and climate change pose great threats to REPs, so protection should be a top priority. In this study, we used the maximum entropy model (Maxent) to identify current and future (2050) potential habitats of REPs in the Xishuangbanna tropical area of China. We compared potential habitats with existing protected areas (PAs) in gap analysis, and used a transfer matrix to quantify changes in potential habitats. By comparing the potential distribution obtained with existing land use and land cover, we analyzed the impact of human-dominated land use changes on potential habitats of REPs and identified the main habitat patch types of REPs. The results showed that the current potential habitat area of hotspots is 2989.85 km2, which will be reduced to 247.93 km2 by 2050, accounting for 15.60% and 1.29% of the total research area, respectively. Analysis of land use and land cover showed that rubber plantation was the human-dominated land use posing the greatest threat to potential habitats of REPs, occupying 23.40% and 21.62% of current and future potential habitats, respectively. Monsoon evergreen broad-leaved forest was identified as the main habitat patch type for REPs in Xishuangbanna and occupied the highest proportion of potential habitat area. Gap analysis showed that only 35.85% of habitat hotspots are currently included in existing PAs and that this will decrease to 32.26% by 2050. This emphasizes the importance of protecting current and future potential habitats of REPs in a dynamic conservation approach that can adapt to changes in future climate and human activities.

7.
Oncol Rep ; 45(6)2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33907835

RESUMO

Golgi phosphoprotein 3 (GOLPH3) has been demonstrated to promote tumor progression in various gastrointestinal malignancies. However, its effects in gallbladder carcinoma (GBC) remain unknown. In the present study, the expression levels of GOLPH3 and nucleotide­binding domain leucine­rich repeat and pyrin domain containing receptor 3 (NLRP3) in human GBC tissues were detected by immunohistochemistry, and the clinical data and survival of these patients were analyzed. Next, whether GOLPH3 could affect tumor proliferation via regulation of the NLRP3 inflammasome was investigated in vitro. The results demonstrated that GOLPH3 could promote GBC cell proliferation, and that it regulated protein expression levels of NLRP3, as well as Caspase­1 P10. Conversely, knockdown of NLRP3 reversed the effects of GOLPH3 overexpression on GBC cell proliferation. GOLPH3 and NLRP3 expression levels were found to be upregulated in GBC tissues and their expression was positively correlated. The expression of GOLPH3 and NLRP3 was associated with the expression of the proliferative marker Ki­67 in tissues, and associated with poor survival, tumor stage, degree of differentiation, depth of invasion, carbohydrate antigen 19­9 and C­reactive protein levels in patients with GBC. In summary, these results indicate that GOLPH3 promotes GBC cell proliferation via a NLRP3/Caspase­1 pathway. GOLPH3 and NLRP3 participate in the process of human GBC growth and may serve as a potential therapeutic targets.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33801038

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to apply compositional data analysis (CoDA) for the analysis of segmented school step counts and associate the school step count composition to body mass index (BMI) z-scores in a sample of children. Participants were 855 (51.8% female) children recruited from the fourth and fifth grades from four schools following a 7-h school schedule. Using piezoelectric pedometers, step count data were collected during physical education, recess, lunch, and during academic class time. A multi-level mixed effects model associated the step count composition with BMI z-scores. Compositional isotemporal substitution determined changes in BMI z-scores per reallocation of steps between pairs of school segments. A higher percentage of steps accrued during physical education (b = -0.34, 95%CI: -0.65--0.03, p = 0.036) and recess (b = -0.47, 95%CI: -0.83--0.11, p = 0.012), relative to other segments, was associated with lower BMI z-scores. Specifically, a 5% to 15% reallocation of steps accrued during lunchtime to either physical education or recess was associated with lower BMI z-scores, ranging from -0.07 to -0.25 standard deviation units. Focusing school-based promotion of physical activity during physical education and recess may have greater relative importance if targeted outcomes are weight-related.


Assuntos
Análise de Dados , Exercício Físico , Peso Corporal , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Educação Física e Treinamento , Instituições Acadêmicas
9.
Theranostics ; 11(12): 5742-5758, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33897879

RESUMO

Rationale: Radiotherapy has become a mainstay for tumor management, and more than 50% of patients with thoracic tumor need to be treated with radiotherapy. However, the potential adverse effects of thoracic radiotherapy on the reproductive system remain elusive. Methods: Western blot analysis, immunofluorescence assay and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis were performed to investigate the integrity of blood-testis barrier (BTB) in male mice after hypofractionated irradiation (IR) on the right thorax. RNA sequencing, co-immunoprecipitation (IP), Duolink PLA and inhibitor experiments were carried out to demonstrate the molecular mechanisms of the BTB dynamics changes and the subsequent reproductive effect. Results: It was found that the hypofractionated IR on right thorax evoked ultrastructural destruction in distant testes, and thus caused radiation-induced abscopal reproductive effect (RIARE) in male mice. Mechanistically, thoracic IR induced significant nuclear translocation of Rac Family Small GTPase 1 (Rac1) in abscopal Sertoli cells, which closely correlated with the activation of TNF-α/p38 mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. Of note, YWHAZ, a critical polarity protein, was found to be co-localized with Rac1 in Sertoli cells, and this interaction was indispensable for thoracic IR-induced Rac1 nuclear translocation and subsequent degradation of BTB-associated proteins. Conclusions: Our findings imply for the first time that YWHAZ-mediated Rac1 nuclear translocation plays central roles in RIARE, and TNF-α/p38 MAPK/Rac1 axis can be employed as a therapeutic target against RIARE for young male patients receiving hypofractionated radiotherapy.

10.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 13(8): 11610-11628, 2021 Apr 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33885378

RESUMO

Chronic angiotensin II (Ang II) stimulation induces vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) senescence, and circRNAs and members of the ILF3 family are implicated in cellular senescence, but the mechanism underlying regulation of circRNAs and ILF3 by Ang II in VSMCs remains poorly understood. Here, a model of Ang II-induced VSMC senescence and the renal artery of hypertensive patients were used to investigate the roles and mechanisms of circACTA2 and ILF3 in VSMC senescence. We show that circACTA2 expression was elevated in Ang II-stimulated VSMCs and in the vascular walls of hypertensive patients. circACTA2 knockdown largely abrogated Ang II-induced VSMC senescence as shown by decreased p21 expression and increased CDK4 expression as well as by decreased SA ß-gal-positive cells. Oligo pull-down and RIP assays revealed that both circACTA2 and CDK4 mRNA could bind with ILF3, and Ang II facilitated circACTA2 association with ILF3 and attenuated ILF3 interaction with CDK4 mRNA. Mechanistically, increased circACTA2 by Ang II reduced ILF3 association with CDK4 mRNA by competing with CDK4 mRNA to bind to ILF3, which decreases CDK4 mRNA stability and protein expression, thus leading to Ang II-induced VSMC senescence. Targeting the circACTA2-ILF3-CDK4 axis may provide a novel therapeutic strategy for VSMC senescence-associated cardiovascular diseases.

11.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 182: 639-647, 2021 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33857508

RESUMO

The present work aimed to assemble a simple, portable and economical L-junction microfluidic device to realize the adjustment and tunability of homogeneous round-shaped particles synthesis. In this study, we synthesize two kind of microparticles, including magnetic alginate microparticles (MAM) and chitosan-coated magnetic alginate (CMAM) used for controlling the drug release under a mild condition. Comparing to the traditional method, the MAM synthesized via this microfluidic approach has uniform size distribution, adjustable diameter as well as tunable magnetism. By exploring the amoxicillin as model drug, the MAM displays excellent pH-sensitive release, the effect of particle size on the drug release rate was investigated as well. The results show the smaller particles (220 µm) show a faster release rate than the bigger materials (1000 µm) due to their larger specific area, providing more frequency to interact with the reaction solution. The positive polyelectrolyte, chitosan, coated on the magnetic alginate surface endows CMAM time extension in drug release by two times, successfully achieving drug controlled and sustained release via the kinetics analysis. In summary, this microfluidic approach provides a convenient and efficient fluidic design for the well-controlled synthesis of micro-and nanoscale particles, which is a potential choice used for controlled and sustained drug release.

12.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 596: 288-296, 2021 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33839354

RESUMO

Piezocatalysis, converting mechanical vibration into chemical energy, is an emerging technology to address environmental issues. In this work, we propose an efficient method to significantly improve the piezocatalytic activity by morphology engineering rather than composition design. The catalytic property in BaTiO3 nanocrystallites with diverse morphologies is investigated by dye degradation and hydrogen production under ultrasonic vibration. The BaTiO3 nanosheets exhibit an excellent piezocatalytic activity with a degradation rate of 0.1279 min-1 for Rhodamine B, far beyond those in previous piezocatalytic literature and even comparable to excellent photocatalysts, and also a high hydrogen production rate of 92 µmol g-1 h-1. Compared with nanowires and nanoparticles, the 2D morphology greatly enhances the piezocatalytic activity in nanosheets owing to much larger piezoelectric potential. This proves that the piezocatalytic property is dominated by the morphology-dependent piezoelectricity, rather than specific surface area as other catalysis. Dominated by bending vibrating mode, the piezocatalytic activity reaches a maximum at the piezoelectric resonating frequency, and it increases with the ultrasonic power. Moreover, it has good reusability and wide versatility for catalytic degradation. This work gives an in-depth understanding of piezocatalytic mechanism and provides a way to develop high performance and eco-friendly piezocatalysts.

13.
Dis Esophagus ; 2021 Apr 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33870425

RESUMO

Currently, the reports on esophageal endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) assisted by traction with a snare are rare. Because a snare is a commonly used endoscopic accessory and is easily available, its application in mucosal traction is worth exploring. The present study aims to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of snare-endoclip traction-assisted ESD for esophageal intraepithelial neoplasia. Cases of esophageal intraepithelial neoplasia resected using ESD in the Digestive Endoscopy Center of Guangzhou Nanfang Hospital, China from June 2013 to March 2019 were retrospectively analyzed. The procedure of snare-endoclip traction-assisted ESD was compared with nontraction-assisted ESD by using a propensity score matching analysis. Operation time, en bloc and R0 resection, intra- and postoperative complications, and surgery-related costs were mainly evaluated. Overall, 99 cases of esophageal intraepithelial neoplasia under tissue biopsy were included in the present study. Further, 22 exact matched pairs were obtained. There were no differences in en bloc and R0 resection rates, intra- and postoperative complications, and costs of disposable surgical accessories between the traction group and the nontraction group. However, median operation time showed a significant difference: traction group, 50.0 min (range, 20-100 min); nontraction group, 70.0 min (range, 35-133 min), P=0.012. In conclusion, snare-endoclip traction-assisted ESD for esophageal intraepithelial neoplasia was safe and shortened operation time in the study, thereby improving the efficiency of ESD. Despite the additional use of a snare and endoclips for traction, the total costs of endoscopic accessories seemed not to be increased.

14.
J Cell Mol Med ; 25(9): 4408-4419, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33793066

RESUMO

Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf2) is an important regulator of cellular antioxidant defence. We previously showed that SFN prevented Ang II-induced cardiac damage via activation of Nrf2. However, the underlying mechanism of SFN's persistent cardiac protection remains unclear. This study aimed to explore the potential of SFN in activating cardiac Nrf2 through epigenetic mechanisms. Wild-type mice were injected subcutaneously with Ang II, with or without SFN. Administration of chronic Ang II-induced cardiac inflammatory factor expression, oxidative damage, fibrosis and cardiac remodelling and dysfunction, all of which were effectively improved by SFN treatment, coupled with an up-regulation of Nrf2 and downstream genes. Bisulfite genome sequencing and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) were performed to detect the methylation level of the first 15 CpGs and histone H3 acetylation (Ac-H3) status in the Nrf2 promoter region, respectively. The results showed that SFN reduced Ang II-induced CpG hypermethylation and promoted Ac-H3 accumulation in the Nrf2 promoter region, accompanied by the inhibition of global DNMT and HDAC activity, and a decreased protein expression of key DNMT and HDAC enzymes. Taken together, SFN exerts its cardioprotective effect through epigenetic modification of Nrf2, which may partially contribute to long-term activation of cardiac Nrf2.

15.
Cell Death Dis ; 12(4): 402, 2021 Apr 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33854044

RESUMO

Caspase-11, a cytosolic lipopolysaccharide (LPS) receptor, mediates lethal immune responses and coagulopathy in sepsis, a leading cause of death worldwide with limited therapeutic options. We previously showed that over-activation of caspase-11 is driven by hepatocyte-released high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), which delivers extracellular LPS into the cytosol of host cells during sepsis. Using a phenotypic screening strategy with recombinant HMGB1 and peritoneal macrophages, we discovered that FeTPPS, a small molecule selectively inhibits HMGB1-mediated caspase-11 activation. The physical interaction between FeTPPS and HMGB1 disrupts the HMGB1-LPS binding and decreases the capacity of HMGB1 to induce lysosomal rupture, leading to the diminished cytosolic delivery of LPS. Treatment of FeTPPS significantly attenuates HMGB1- and caspase-11-mediated immune responses, organ damage, and lethality in endotoxemia and bacterial sepsis. These findings shed light on the development of HMGB1-targeting therapeutics for lethal immune disorders and might open a new avenue to treat sepsis.

16.
Genes (Basel) ; 12(4)2021 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33918244

RESUMO

Terpenoids are a wide variety of natural products and terpene synthase (TPS) plays a key role in the biosynthesis of terpenoids. Mentha plants are rich in essential oils, whose main components are terpenoids, and their biosynthetic pathways have been basically elucidated. However, there is a lack of systematic identification and study of TPS in Mentha plants. In this work, we genome-widely identified and analyzed the TPS gene family in Mentha longifolia, a model plant for functional genomic research in the genus Mentha. A total of 63 TPS genes were identified in the M. longifolia genome sequence assembly, which could be divided into six subfamilies. The TPS-b subfamily had the largest number of genes, which might be related to the abundant monoterpenoids in Mentha plants. The TPS-e subfamily had 18 members and showed a significant species-specific expansion compared with other sequenced Lamiaceae plant species. The 63 TPS genes could be mapped to nine scaffolds of the M. longifolia genome sequence assembly and the distribution of these genes is uneven. Tandem duplicates and fragment duplicates contributed greatly to the increase in the number of TPS genes in M. longifolia. The conserved motifs (RR(X)8W, NSE/DTE, RXR, and DDXXD) were analyzed in M. longifolia TPSs, and significant differentiation was found between different subfamilies. Adaptive evolution analysis showed that M. longifolia TPSs were subjected to purifying selection after the species-specific expansion, and some amino acid residues under positive selection were identified. Furthermore, we also cloned and analyzed the catalytic activity of a single terpene synthase, MlongTPS29, which belongs to the TPS-b subfamily. MlongTPS29 could encode a limonene synthase and catalyze the biosynthesis of limonene, an important precursor of essential oils from the genus Mentha. This study provides useful information for the biosynthesis of terpenoids in the genus Mentha.

17.
Water Res ; 197: 117094, 2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33836297

RESUMO

To reveal the role of ferrate self-decomposition and the fates of intermediate iron species [Fe(V)/Fe(IV) species] during ferrate oxidation, the reaction between ferrate and methyl phenyl sulfoxide (PMSO) at pH 7.0 was investigated as a model system in this study. Interestingly, the apparent second-order rate constants (kapp) between ferrate and PMSO was found to increase with ferrate dosage in the condition of excess ferrate in borate buffer. This ferrate dosage effect was diminished greatly in the condition of excess PMSO where ferrate self-decomposition was lessened largely, or counterbalanced by adding a strong complexing ligand (e.g. pyrophosphate) to sequester Fe(V) oxidation, demonstrating that the Fe(V) species derived from ferrate self-decomposition plays an important role in PMSO oxidation. A mechanistic kinetics model involving the ferrate self-decomposition and PMSO oxidation by Fe(VI), Fe(V) and Fe(IV) species was then developed and validated. The modeling results show that up to 99% of the PMSO oxidation was contributed by the ferrate self-decomposition resultant Fe(V) species in borate buffer, revealing that ferrate self-decomposition is also a self-activation process. The direct Fe(VI) oxidation of PMSO was impervious to presence of phosphate or Fe(III), while the Fe(V) oxidation pathway was strongly inhibited by phosphate complexation or enhanced with Fe(III). Similar ferrate dosage effect and its counterbalance by pyrophosphate as well as the Fe(III) enhancement were also observed in ferrate oxidation of micropollutants like carbamazepine, diclofenac and sulfamethoxazole, implying the general role of Fe(V) and promising Fe(III) enhancement during ferrate oxidation of micropollutants.


Assuntos
Poluentes Químicos da Água , Purificação da Água , Compostos Férricos , Ferro , Cinética , Oxirredução , Sulfóxidos , Água
18.
Nano Lett ; 2021 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33769812

RESUMO

The controllable synthesis of metal-based nanoclusters for heterogeneous catalytic reactions has received considerable attention. Nevertheless, manufacturing these architectures, while avoiding aggregation and retaining surface activity, remains challenging. Herein, for the first time we designed NiCoFe-Prussian blue analogue (PBA) nanocages as a support for in situ dispersion and anchoring of polymetallic phosphide nanoparticles (pMP-NPs). Benefiting from the porous surfaces and the synergistic effects between pMP-NPs and the cyano groups in PBA, the NiCoFe-P-NP@NiCoFe-PBA nanocages exhibit a significantly enhanced catalytic activity for oxygen evolution reaction (OER) with an overpotential of 223 mV at 10 mA cm-2 and a Tafel slope of 78 mV dec-1, outperforming the NiCoFe-PBA nanocubes, NiCoFe-P nanocages, NiFe-P-NP@NiFe-PBA nanocubes, and CoFe-P-NP@CoFe-PBA nanoboxes. This work not only offers the synthesis strategy of in situ anchoring pMP-NPs on PBA nanocages but also provides a new insight into optimized Gibbs free energy of OER by regulating electron transfer from metallic phosphides to PBA substrate.

19.
J Pers Soc Psychol ; 120(4): 837-860, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33764120

RESUMO

It is widely assumed that experiences of awe transform the meaning of daily stresses. Across six studies we tested whether and how the experience of awe is associated with reduced daily stress levels in the moment and, in so doing, leads to elevated life satisfaction. We first documented that individuals who tend to experience greater awe on a daily basis (Study 1) or who report higher levels of trait-like awe (Study 2) report lower levels of daily stress, even after controlling for other positive emotions. In follow-up experiments, after primed with awe (compared with amusement, joy, and pride), individuals reported lower levels of daily stress (Studies 3 and 5) and exhibited lower levels of sympathetic autonomic arousal when talking about their daily stresses (Study 4). Finally, in a naturalistic study, participants who took in an awe-inspiring view at the top of a 200-foot tower reported reduced levels of daily stress and central everyday concerns (Study 6). Mediation analyses revealed that (a) the association between awe and reduced daily stress can be explained by an appraisal of vastness vis-à-vis the self and (b) that the relationship between awe and decreased daily stress levels helps explain awe's positive influence upon life satisfaction. Overall, these findings suggest that experiencing awe can put daily stressors into perspective in the moment and, in so doing, increase well-being. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).

20.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0248895, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33730075

RESUMO

Personality traits have been found to be related to a variety of health outcomes. The aim of this study was to examine how personality traits were associated with adjustment to the COVID pandemic in college students. The sample included 484 first-year university students (76% female) attending a northeastern university who completed the Big Five Inventory (BFI) personality assessment at the beginning of a semester that was disrupted by the COVID pandemic. Using a phone-based app, students completed daily ratings of mood, perceived stress levels, and engagement in a number of health promotion activities (exercise, mindfulness, adequate sleep, etc.) throughout the semester both before and after the onset of the pandemic (e.g., a within-person longitudinal design). Results, as expected, showed that mood and wellness indices generally declined during the COVID period, although stress levels actually decreased. Further, irrespective of COVID, improved mood, less perceived stress and greater participation in health promotion activities were significantly associated with a number of personality traits including neuroticism (lower), extraversion (higher), agreeableness (higher), and conscientiousness (higher). Of primary interest, mixed-effects models were used to test how major personality traits interacted with any changes in daily ratings from the pre-COVID to COVID period. Significant interactions terms were found suggesting differential impacts of the COVID epidemic for students with low versus high levels of particular traits. Higher levels of extraversion, for example, were found to be related to decreases in mood as the pandemic progressed in contrast to those with lower extraversion, for whom there was a slight increase in mood over time. These data support the conclusion that personality traits are related to mental health and can play a role in a person's ability to cope with major stressful events. Different traits may also be more adaptive to different types of stressors.

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