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Cancer Med ; 2020 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31991061


BACKGROUND: Defects in DNA damage repair (DDR) system may lead to genomic instability and manifest as increased immunogenicity. DDR deficiency is prevalent in ovarian cancer (OvCa); however, the association of DDR mutation with immune profiles in OvCa remains largely unknown. This knowledge will provide an essential basis to the rational design of biomarker-guided immune combination therapy of OvCa in the future. METHODS: Whole-exome sequencing data of 587 OvCa from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) were used to determine the expression profiles of 47 immune-related genes and the abundance of tumor-infiltrating immune cells. A Chinese OvCa cohort (n = 220) tested by next-generation sequencing (NGS) was used to validate the association between DDR status and tumor mutation burden (TMB). RESULTS: A total of 19.3% in TCGA cohort and 25.9% in Chinese cohort harbored at least one DDR somatic mutation. DDR deficiency exhibited a distinct immune profile with significant higher expression levels of PTPRCAP, CCL5, IFI16, LAG3, IL15RA, and GBP1 in OvCa in the TCGA cohort. Different DDR pathway deficiency displayed various immune profiles. Increased levels of Th1 cells, TMB, and neoantigen were also observed in DDR-deficient tumors. CONCLUSIONS: DDR deficiency was associated with specific immune signatures in OvCa. Our findings emphasize the urgent need for biomarker-guided rational immune combination therapy to maximize the OvCa patients who could benefit from immunotherapy.

J Thorac Oncol ; 2019 Dec 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31843683


INTRODUCTION: Blood-based tumor mutational burden (bTMB) has been studied to identify patients with NSCLC who would benefit from anti-programmed cell death protein 1 (anti-PD-1) or anti-programmed death ligand 1 (anti-PD-L1) therapies. However, it failed to predict overall survival (OS) benefits, which warrants further exploration. METHODS: Three independent cohorts of patients with NSCLC treated with immunotherapy were used in this study. A new bTMB algorithm was first developed in the two independent cohorts (POPLAR, N = 211, and OAK, N = 462) and further validated in the third National Cancer Center (NCC) cohort (N = 64). RESULTS: bTMB-H (bTMB ≥ cutoff point) was not associated with favorable OS after immunotherapy regardless of the cutoff points in either the POPLAR and OAK or the NCC cohorts (p > 0.05) owing to its correlation with the amount of circulating tumor DNA, which was associated with poor OS. In the POPLAR and OAK cohorts, with allele frequency (AF) adjustment, a high AF bTMB (HAF-bTMB, mutation counts with an AF > 5%) was strongly correlated with the amount of circulating tumor DNA (Pearson r = 0.65), whereas a low AF bTMB (LAF-bTMB, mutation counts with an AF ≤ 5%) was not (Pearson r = 0.09). LAF-bTMB-H was associated with favorable OS (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.70, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.52-0.95, p = 0.02), progression-free survival (PFS; HR = 0.62, 95% CI: 0.47-0.80, p < 0.001), and objective response rate (ORR) (p < 0.001) after immunotherapy but not chemotherapy, with a cutoff point of 12 trained in the POPLAR cohort and validated in the OAK cohort. The LAF-bTMB algorithm was further validated in the NCC cohort in which LAF-bTMB-H was associated with OS (HR = 0.20, 95% CI: 0.05-0.84, p = 0.02), PFS (HR = 0.30, 95% CI: 0.13-0.70, p = 0.003), and ORR (p = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: We developed and validated a new LAF-bTMB algorithm as a feasible predictor of OS, PFS, and ORR after anti-PD-(L)1 therapies in patients with NSCLC, which needs to be prospectively validated.

JAMA Oncol ; 2019 Dec 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31876895


Importance: Immune checkpoint inhibitors of programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) and its ligand (PD-L1) have led to a paradigm shift in cancer treatment. Understanding the clinical efficacy and safety profile of these drugs is necessary for treatment strategy in clinical practice. Objective: To assess the differences between anti-PD-1 and anti-PD-L1 regarding efficacy and safety shown in randomized clinical trials across various tumor types. Data Sources: Systematic searches of PubMed, Cochrane CENTRAL, and Embase were conducted from January 1, 2000, to March 1, 2019. In addition, abstracts and presentations from all major conference proceedings were reviewed. Study Selection: All randomized clinical trials that compared anti-PD-1 and anti-PD-L1 with standard treatment in patients with cancer were selected as candidates. Retrospective studies, single-arm phase 1/2 studies, and trials comparing anti-PD-1 and anti-PD-L1 with other immunotherapies were excluded. Studies of anti-PD-1 and anti-PD-L1 therapy were screened and paired by the matching of clinical characteristics as mirror groups. Data Extraction and Synthesis: Three investigators independently extracted data from each study following the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses) guideline. Trial names, first author, year of publication, study design, National Clinical Trial identifier number, blinding status, study phase, pathologic characteristics, number of patients, patients' age and sex distribution, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Performance Status, lines of treatment, study drugs, biomarker status, follow-up time, incidence of adverse events, and hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% CIs for overall survival and progression-free survival were extracted. A random-effects model was applied for data analysis. Main Outcomes and Measures: Differences in OS between anti-PD-1 and anti-PD-L1 across different cancer types were assessed. An effect size was derived from each mirror group and then pooled across all groups using a random-effects model. Results: Nineteen randomized clinical trials involving 11 379 patients were included in the meta-analysis. Overall, anti-PD-1 exhibited superior overall survival (HR, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.65-0.86; P < .001) and progression-free survival (HR, 0.73; 95% CI, 0.56-0.96; P = .02) compared with anti-PD-L1. No significant difference was observed in their safety profiles. Sensitivity analysis presented consistency in the overall estimates across these analyses. Consistent results were observed through frequentist and bayesian approaches with the same studies. Conclusions and Relevance: Comprehensive analysis suggests that anti-PD-1 exhibited favorable survival outcomes and a safety profile comparable to that of anti-PD-L1, which may provide a useful guide for clinicians.

JAMA Oncol ; 5(5): 696-702, 2019 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30816954


Importance: Tumor mutational burden (TMB), as measured by whole-exome sequencing (WES) or a cancer gene panel (CGP), is associated with immunotherapy responses. However, whether TMB estimated by circulating tumor DNA in blood (bTMB) is associated with clinical outcomes of immunotherapy remains to be explored. Objectives: To explore the optimal gene panel size and algorithm to design a CGP for TMB estimation, evaluate the panel reliability, and further validate the feasibility of bTMB as a clinical actionable biomarker for immunotherapy. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this cohort study, a CGP named NCC-GP150 was designed and virtually validated using The Cancer Genome Atlas database. The correlation between bTMB estimated by NCC-GP150 and tissue TMB (tTMB) measured by WES was evaluated in matched blood and tissue samples from 48 patients with advanced NSCLC. An independent cohort of 50 patients with advanced NSCLC was used to identify the utility of bTMB estimated by NCC-GP150 in distinguishing patients who would benefit from anti-programmed cell death 1 (anti-PD-1) and anti-programmed cell death ligand 1 (anti-PD-L1) therapy. The study was performed from July 19, 2016, to April 20, 2018. Main Outcomes and Measures: Assessment of the Spearman correlation coefficient between bTMB estimated by NCC-GP150 and tTMB calculated by WES. Evaluation of the association of bTMB level with progression-free survival and response to anti-PD-1 and anti-PD-L1 therapy. Results: This study used 2 independent cohorts of patients with NSCLC (cohort 1: 48 patients; mean [SD] age, 60 [13] years; 15 [31.2%] female; cohort 2: 50 patients; mean [SD] age, 58 [8] years; 15 [30.0%] female). A CGP, including 150 genes, demonstrated stable correlations with WES for TMB estimation (median r2 = 0.91; interquartile range, 0.89-0.92), especially when synonymous mutations were included (median r2 = 0.92; interquartile range, 0.91-0.93), whereas TMB estimated by the NCC-GP150 panel found higher correlations with TMB estimated by WES than most of the randomly sampled 150-gene panels. Blood TMB estimated by NCC-GP150 correlated well with the matched tTMB calculated by WES (Spearman correlation = 0.62). In the anti-PD-1 and anti-PD-L1 treatment cohort, a bTMB of 6 or higher was associated with superior progression-free survival (hazard ratio, 0.39; 95% CI, 0.18-0.84; log-rank P = .01) and objective response rates (bTMB ≥6: 39.3%; 95% CI, 23.9%-56.5%; bTMB <6: 9.1%; 95% CI, 1.6%-25.9%; P = .02). Conclusions and Relevance: The findings suggest that established NCC-GP150 with an optimized gene panel size and algorithm is feasible for bTMB estimation, which may serve as a potential biomarker of clinical benefit in patients with NSCLC treated with anti-PD-1 and anti-PD-L1 agents.