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1.
Health Res Policy Syst ; 18(1): 45, 2020 May 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32398136

RESUMO

Effective efforts to strengthen health systems need diverse, multi-stakeholder networks working together on complex or 'wicked' problems such as prevention and control of chronic diseases, solutions to which go beyond the role and capability of one organisation. The contextual complexities inherent in 'wicked' problems mean that solutions warrant a systems approach that encompasses innovation and new ways of thinking about, facilitating and implementing collective decision-making processes and change practices.Innovation platforms are a mechanism for facilitating communication and collaboration among diverse stakeholders, promoting joint action and stimulating innovation. Developmental evaluation is an approach that is increasingly being used to evaluate innovative and emergent programmes and projects, as it enables evaluators to provide real-time feedback so that evaluation findings can be used to guide development and adaptations. Developmental evaluation emphasises learning and adaptation, and aligns well with the implementation of innovation platforms that have continuous reflection, learning and adaptation as a specific design principle.Here, we outline our rationale for applying a developmental evaluation to enhance the formation, functioning and outcomes of an innovation platform aimed at accelerating and strengthening large-scale quality improvement efforts in Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander primary healthcare. We provide examples to explain how the developmental evaluation findings were used for adaptation of the innovation platform and assess to what extent our application of developmental evaluation was consistent with, and reflective of, its essential principles.Our evaluation aligned strongly with the principles of developmental evaluation, and the approach we took was well suited to situations with a developmental purpose, innovation niche and complexity such as innovation platforms. As a result, along with the increasing interest in multi-stakeholder platforms (e.g. innovation platforms) and the inherent challenges with evaluating these complex networks, we anticipate our use of this approach being of interest globally.

2.
Aust Health Rev ; 44(2): 212-221, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32241338

RESUMO

Objective This study investigated the delivery of guideline-recommended services for the management of acute rheumatic fever (ARF) and rheumatic heart disease (RHD) in Australian primary healthcare centres participating in the Audit and Best Practice for Chronic Disease (ABCD) National Research Partnership project. Methods ARF and RHD clinical audit data were collected from 63 Aboriginal centres in four Australian jurisdictions using the ABCD ARF/RHD audit tool. Records of up to 30 patients treated for ARF and/or RHD were analysed per centre from the most recent audit conducted between 2009 and 2014. The main outcome measure was a quality of ARF and RHD care composite indicator consisting of nine best-practice service items. Results Of 1081 patients, most were Indigenous (96%), female (61%), from the Northern Territory and Queensland (97%) and <25 years of age (49%). The composite indicator was highest in the 0-14 year age group (77% vs 65-67% in other age groups). Timely injections and provision of client education are important specific areas for improvement. Multiple regression showed age >15 years to be a significant negative factor for several care indicators, particularly for the delivery of long-acting antibiotic injections and specialist services in the 15-24 year age group. Conclusions The results suggest that timely injection and patient education are priorities for managing ARF and RHD, particularly focusing on child-to-adult transition care. What is known about the topic? The burden of rheumatic fever and RHD in some Aboriginal communities is among the highest documented globally. Guideline-adherent RHD prevention and management in primary health care (PHC) settings are critically important to reduce this burden. Continuous quality improvement (CQI) is a proven strategy to improve guideline adherence, using audit cycles and proactive engagement of PHC end users with their own data. Previously, such CQI strategies using a systems approach were shown to improve delivery of ARF and RHD care in six Aboriginal health services (three government and three community controlled). What does this paper add? This paper focuses on the variation across age groups in the quality of ARF and/or RHD care according to nine quality of care indicators across 63 PHC centres serving the Aboriginal population in the Northern Territory, Queensland, South Australia and Western Australia. These new findings provide insight into difference in quality of care by life stage, indicating particular areas for improvement of the management of ARF and RHD at the PHC level, and can act as a baseline for monitoring of care quality for ARF and RHD into the future. What are the implications for practitioners? Management plans and innovative strategies or systems for improving adherence need to be developed as a matter of urgency. PHC professionals need to closely monitor adherence to secondary prophylaxis at both the clinic and individual level. RHD priority status needs to be assigned and recorded as a tool to guide management. Systems strengthening needs to particularly target child-to-adult transition care. Practitioners are urged to keep a quick link to the RHDAustralia website to access resources and guidelines pertaining to ARF and RHD (https://www.rhdaustralia.org.au/arf-rhd-guideline, accessed 3 October 2019). CQI strategies can assist PHC centres to improve the care they provide to patients.

3.
Can J Public Health ; 111(1): 21-30, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31741307

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: In 2014-2015, over 400 social housing units were constructed in selected communities in Nunavik and Nunavut, two Inuit regions in northern Canada where housing shortages and poor quality housing are endemic and undermine population health. This paper presents results from a before-and-after study examining the effects of rehousing, i.e., relocating to a newly constructed or pre-existing social housing unit, on psychosocial health and asthma-related symptoms for Inuit adults. METHODS: Baseline data were collected 1-6 months before, and follow-up data 15-18 months after rehousing. Of the 289 participants at baseline, 186 were rehoused. Of the 169 participants eligible at follow-up, 102 completed the study. Self-reported health measures included psychological distress, perceived stress in daily life, perceived control over one's life, and asthma-related symptoms. Data are analyzed using multilevel models for longitudinal data. RESULTS: After adjusting for age, sex, and region of residence, participants reported significantly lower levels of psychological distress and perceived stress in daily life, and improved sense of control over their lives 15 to 18 months after rehousing. Participants were also significantly less likely to report asthma-related symptoms at follow-up. CONCLUSION: Significant positive health impacts are observed for adults who relocated to newly constructed or pre-existing social housing units. Increasing investments to redress the housing situation across Inuit Nunangat is required, not only to improve living conditions but also to improve the health and well-being of the population.

4.
Cancer Nurs ; 43(2): 105-114, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30543569

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Disparity in outcomes between Indigenous and non-Indigenous people after cancer diagnosis is multifactorial, including lower cancer screening participation, later diagnosis, reduced access and uptake of cancer treatment, higher rate of comorbidities, and barriers accessing the health system. Little is known about cancer survivorship experiences. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to explore Indigenous Australian cancer survivor's perspectives of cancer survivorship. METHODS: Indigenous people who completed cancer treatment 6 months to 5 years before fieldwork were recruited from a tertiary hospital and remote primary health service for this qualitative study. Data collection was guided by yarning methods, a culturally appropriate method emphasizing storytelling. Data were interpreted using a social constructionist framework. RESULTS: Thirteen women and 6 men were interviewed. Participants' past experiences contributed to their specific identity as survivors. Participants described factors affecting a positive transition from cancer patient to cancer survivor and the importance of ongoing family support in helping to manage survivorship. Finally, participants described a range of community support they received and provided to others and how this improved their cancer survivorship. CONCLUSION: Although a range of experiences are presented, this study provides evidence that the survivorship perspectives of Indigenous cancer survivors may be, in part, shared by non-Indigenous cancer survivors. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: Acknowledging Indigenous cancer survivors' past experiences and how these influence their overall well-being is important for providing patient-centered and culturally appropriate care. Nurses and other healthcare professionals may use this knowledge to foster a range of coping strategies to assist Indigenous cancer survivors to live well.

5.
Intern Med J ; 50(1): 38-47, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31081226

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cancer care involves many different healthcare providers. Delayed or inaccurate communication between specialists and general practitioners (GP) may negatively affect care. AIM: To describe the pattern and variation of communication between primary healthcare (PHC) services and hospitals and specialists in relation to the patient's cancer care. METHODS: A retrospective audit of clinical records of Indigenous Australians diagnosed with cancer during 2010-2016 identified through 10 PHC services in Queensland is described. Poisson regression was used to model the dichotomous outcome availability of hospital discharge summary versus not. RESULTS: A total of 138 patient records was audited; 115 of those patients visited the PHC service for cancer-related care after cancer diagnosis; 40.0% visited the service before a discharge summary was available, and 36.5% of the patients had no discharge summary in their medical notes. While most discharge summaries noted important information about the patient's cancer, 42.4% lacked details regarding the discharge medications regimen. CONCLUSIONS: Deficits in communication and information transfer between specialists and GP may adversely affect patient care. Indigenous Australians are a relatively disadvantaged group that experience poor health outcomes and relatively poor access to care. The low proportion of discharge summaries noting discharge medication regimen is of concern among Indigenous Australians with cancer who have high comorbidity burden and low health literacy. Our findings provide an insight into some of the factors associated with quality of cancer care, and may provide guidance for focus areas for further research and improvement efforts.

6.
Support Care Cancer ; 28(1): 317-327, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31049670

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The role of general practitioners in cancer care has expanded in recent years. However, little is known about utilization of primary health care (PHC) services by patients with cancer, particularly among socio-economically disadvantaged groups. We describe utilization of PHC services by patients with cancer, and the nature of the care provided. The study focuses on a disadvantaged group in Australia, namely Indigenous Australians. METHODS: A retrospective audit of clinical records in ten PHC services in Queensland, Australia. Demographic and clinical data of Indigenous Australians diagnosed with cancer during 2010-2016 were abstracted from patient's medical records at the PHC services. The rates of cancer-related visits were calculated using person years at risk as a denominator. RESULTS: A total of 138 patients' records were audited. During 12 months following the cancer diagnosis, patients visited the PHC service on average 5.95 times per year. Frequency of visits were relatively high in remote areas and among socioeconomic disadvantaged patients (IRR = 1.87, 95%CI 1.61-2.17; IRR = 1.79, 95%CI 1.45-2.21, respectively). Over 80% of visits were for seeking attention for symptoms, wound care, and emotional or social support. Patients who did not undergo surgery, had greater comorbidity, received chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy, and male gender had significantly greater rate of visits than their counterparts. CONCLUSION: The frequency of utilization of PHC services, especially by patients with comorbidities, and the range of reasons for attendance highlights the important role of PHC services in providing cancer care. The reliance on PHC services, particularly by patients in remote and disadvantaged communities, has important implications for appropriate resourcing and support for services in these locations.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde do Indígena/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias/terapia , Grupo com Ancestrais Oceânicos , Médicos de Atenção Primária/estatística & dados numéricos , Padrões de Prática Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Atenção Primária à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Austrália/epidemiologia , Auditoria Clínica , Feminino , Clínicos Gerais/normas , Clínicos Gerais/estatística & dados numéricos , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/normas , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviços de Saúde do Indígena/normas , Humanos , Povos Indígenas/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/etnologia , Grupo com Ancestrais Oceânicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Padrões de Prática Médica/normas , Atenção Primária à Saúde/normas , Queensland/epidemiologia , Encaminhamento e Consulta/normas , Encaminhamento e Consulta/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31569670

RESUMO

Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women have significantly higher cervical cancer incidence and mortality than other Australian women. In this study, we assessed the documented delivery of cervical screening for women attending Indigenous Primary Health Care (PHC) centres across Australia and identified service-level factors associated with between-centre variation in screening coverage. We analysed 3801 clinical audit records for PHC clients aged 20-64 years from 135 Indigenous PHC centres participating in the Audit for Best Practice in Chronic Disease (ABCD) continuous quality improvement (CQI) program across five Australian states/territories during 2005 to 2014. Multilevel logistic regression models were used to identify service-level factors associated with screening, while accounting for differences in client-level factors. There was substantial variation in the proportion of clients who had a documented cervical screen in the previous two years across the participating PHC centres (median 50%, interquartile range (IQR): 29-67%), persisting over years and audit cycle. Centre-level factors explained 40% of the variation; client-level factors did not reduce the between-centre variation. Screening coverage was associated with longer time enrolled in the CQI program and very remote location. Indigenous PHC centres play an important role in providing cervical screening to Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women. Thus, their leadership is essential to ensure that Australia's public health commitment to the elimination of cervical cancer includes Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women. A sustained commitment to CQI may improve PHC centres delivery of cervical screening; however, factors that may impact on service delivery, such as organisational, geographical and environmental factors, warrant further investigation.


Assuntos
Detecção Precoce de Câncer/normas , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviços de Saúde do Indígena/normas , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupo com Ancestrais Oceânicos , Atenção Primária à Saúde/normas , Adulto , Austrália/epidemiologia , Auditoria Clínica , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Serviços de Saúde do Indígena/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Atenção Primária à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Melhoria de Qualidade , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/etnologia , Adulto Jovem
8.
BMJ Open ; 9(7): e032173, 2019 07 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31292187

RESUMO

Australian Indigenous smoking rates are highest in remote communities but likely vary between communities; few studies have assessed community features in relation to Indigenous smoking rates. DESIGN AND OBJECTIVE: This ecological study evaluated the associations between smoking rates, and community sociodemographic and climatic characteristics for a large sample of remote Indigenous communities. SETTING AND SAMPLE: Records (n=2689) from an audit of community health centres in the Northern Territory and Queensland were used to estimate smoking rates dichotomised at the median for 70 predominantly Indigenous remote communities. Community characteristics were similarly dichotomised. METHODS: Cross-tabulations were used to calculate the odds of a community classified as high for a sociodemographic or climatic factor also being high for smoking rate. Additional cross-tabulations, stratified by sociodemographic, region (coastal or central) and geographic connectivity levels, were performed to assess potential confounding. RESULTS: Community smoking rates ranged from 25% to 96% (median 60.2%). Moderately strong relationships were observed between community smoking rate and population size (OR 6.25,(95% CI 2.18 to 17.95)), education level (OR 3.67 (1.35-10.01)), income (2.86 (11.07-7.67)) and heat (2.86 (1.07-7.67)). CONCLUSIONS: Smoking rates in Australian remote Indigenous communities are universally high. Smoking rates are associated with greater community-level socioeconomic status and size, most likely reflecting greater means of accessing tobacco with mass of smokers sufficient to sustain a normative influence. Severe heat was also associated with high smoking rates suggesting such a stressor might support smoking as a coping mechanism. Community sociodemographic and climatic factors bear consideration as context-level correlates of community smoking rates.

9.
Health Res Policy Syst ; 17(1): 70, 2019 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31324251

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Developmental evaluation is a growing area of evaluation practice, advocated for informing the adaptive development of change initiatives in complex social environments. The utilisation focus, complexity perspective and systems thinking of developmental evaluation suggest suitability for evaluating knowledge translation initiatives in primary healthcare. However, there are few examples in the literature to guide its use in these contexts and in Indigenous settings. In this paper, we reflect on our experience of using developmental evaluation to implement a large-scale knowledge translation research project in Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander primary healthcare. Drawing on principles of knowledge translation and key features of developmental evaluation, we debate the key benefits and challenges of applying this approach to engage diverse stakeholders in using aggregated quality improvement data to identify and address persistent gaps in care delivery. DISCUSSION: The developmental evaluation enabled the team to respond to stakeholder feedback and apply learning in real-time to successfully refine theory-informed research and engagement processes, tailor the presentation of findings to stakeholders and context, and support the project's dissemination and knowledge co-production aim. It thereby contributed to the production of robust, useable research findings for informing policy and system change. The use of developmental evaluation appeared to positively influence stakeholders' use of the project reports and their responses to the findings. Challenges included managing a high volume of evaluation data and multiple evaluation purposes, balancing facilitative sense-making processes and change with task-focused project management, and lack of experience in using this evaluation approach. Use of an embedded evaluator with facilitation skills and background knowledge of the project helped to overcome these challenges, as did similarities observed between features of developmental evaluation and continuous quality improvement. CONCLUSION: Our experience of developmental evaluation confirmed our expectations of the potential value of this approach for strengthening improvement interventions and implementation research, and particularly for adapting healthcare innovations in Indigenous settings. In our project, developmental evaluation successfully encompassed evaluation, project adaptation, capacity development and knowledge translation. Further work is warranted to apply this approach more widely to improve primary healthcare initiatives and outcomes, and to evaluate implementation research.


Assuntos
Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde/organização & administração , Serviços de Saúde do Indígena/organização & administração , Grupo com Ancestrais Oceânicos , Atenção Primária à Saúde/organização & administração , Melhoria de Qualidade/organização & administração , Pesquisa Médica Translacional/organização & administração , Humanos , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde
10.
BMC Pediatr ; 19(1): 178, 2019 06 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31164108

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anemia rates are over 60% in disadvantaged children yet there is little information about the quality of anemia care for disadvantaged children. METHODS: Our primary objective was to assess the burden and quality of anemia care for disadvantaged children and to determine how this varied by age and geographic location. We implemented a cross-sectional study using clinical audit data from 2287 Indigenous children aged 6-59 months attending 109 primary health care centers between 2012 and 2014. Data were analysed using multivariable regression models. RESULTS: Children aged 6-11 months (164, 41.9%) were less likely to receive anemia care than children aged 12-59 months (963, 56.5%) (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 0.48, CI 0.35, 0.65). Proportion of children receiving anemia care ranged from 10.2% (92) (advice about 'food security') to 72.8% (728) (nutrition advice). 70.2% of children had a hemoglobin measurement in the last 12 months. Non-remote area families (115, 38.2) were less likely to receive anemia care compared to remote families (1012, 56.4%) (aOR 0.34, CI 0.15, 0.74). 57% (111) aged 6-11 months were diagnosed with anemia compared to 42.8% (163) aged 12-23 months and 22.4% (201) aged 24-59 months. 49% (48.5%, 219) of children with anemia received follow up. CONCLUSIONS: The burden of anemia and quality of care for disadvantaged Indigenous children was concerning across all remote and urban locations assessed in this study. Improved services are needed for children aged 6-11 months, who are particularly at risk.

11.
BMJ Open ; 9(5): e026679, 2019 05 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31061040

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To examine barriers and facilitators to sustaining a sexual health continuous quality improvement (CQI) programme in clinics serving remote Aboriginal communities in Australia. DESIGN: Qualitative study. SETTING: Primary health care services serving remote Aboriginal communities in the Northern Territory, Australia. PARTICIPANTS: Seven of the 11 regional sexual health coordinators responsible for supporting the Northern Territory Government Remote Sexual Health Program. METHODS: Semi-structured in-depth interviews conducted in person or by telephone; data were analysed using an inductive and deductive thematic approach. RESULTS: Despite uniform availability of CQI tools and activities, sexual health CQI implementation varied across the Northern Territory. Participant narratives identified five factors enhancing the uptake and sustainability of sexual health CQI. At clinic level, these included adaptation of existing CQI tools for use in specific clinic contexts and risk environments (eg, a syphilis outbreak), local ownership of CQI processes and management support for CQI. At a regional level, factors included the positive framing of CQI as a tool to identify and act on areas for improvement, and regional facilitation of clinic level CQI activities. Three barriers were identified, including the significant workload associated with acute and chronic care in Aboriginal primary care services, high staff turnover and lack of Aboriginal staff. Considerations affecting the future sustainability of sexual health CQI included the need to reduce the burden on clinics from multiple CQI programmes, the contribution of regional sexual health coordinators and support structures, and access to and use of high-quality information systems. CONCLUSIONS: This study contributes to the growing evidence on how CQI approaches may improve sexual health in remote Australian Aboriginal communities. Enhancing sustainability of sexual health CQI in this context will require ongoing regional facilitation, efforts to build local ownership of CQI processes and management of competing demands on health service staff.

12.
BMJ Open ; 9(5): e027568, 2019 05 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31129590

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Improving the quality of primary care is an important strategy to improve health outcomes. However, responses to continuous quality improvement (CQI) initiatives are variable, likely due in part to a mismatch between interventions and context. This project aimed to understand the successful implementation of CQI initiatives in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health services in Australia through exploring the strategies used by 'high-improving' Indigenous primary healthcare (PHC) services. DESIGN, SETTINGS AND PARTICIPANTS: This strengths-based participatory observational study used a multiple case study method with six Indigenous PHC services in northern Australia that had improved their performance in CQI audits. Interviews with healthcare providers, service users and managers (n=134), documentary review and non-participant observation were used to explore implementation of CQI and the enablers of quality improvement in these contexts. RESULTS: Services approached the implementation of CQI differently according to their contexts. Common themes previously reported included CQI systems, teamwork, collaboration, a stable workforce and community engagement. Novel themes included embeddedness in the local historical and cultural contexts, two-way learning about CQI and the community 'driving' health improvement. These novel themes were implicit in the descriptions of stakeholders about why the services were improving. Embeddedness in the local historical and cultural context resulted in 'two-way' learning between communities and health system personnel. CONCLUSIONS: Practical interventions to strengthen responses to CQI in Indigenous PHC services require recruitment and support of an appropriate and well prepared workforce, training in leadership and joint decision-making, regional CQI collaboratives and workable mechanisms for genuine community engagement. A 'toolkit' of strategies for service support might address each of these components, although strategies need to be implemented through a two-way learning process and adapted to the historical and cultural community context. Such approaches have the potential to assist health service personnel strengthen the PHC provided to Indigenous communities.

13.
Qual Health Res ; 29(13): 1904-1915, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31014184

RESUMO

Drawing from Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander perspectives, we conceptualize the association between community participation and continuous quality improvement (CQI) processes in Indigenous primary health care (PHC) services. Indigenous experiences of community participation were drawn from our study identifying contextual factors affecting CQI processes in high-improving PHC services. Using case study design, we collected quantitative and qualitative data at the micro-, meso-, and macro-health system level in 2014 and 2015 in six services in northern Australia. Analyzing qualitative data, we found community participation was an important contextual factor in five of the six services. Embedded in cultural foundations, cultural rules, and expectations, community participation involved interacting elements of trusting relationships in metaphorically safe spaces, and reciprocated learning about each other's perspectives. Foregrounding Indigenous perspectives on community participation might assist more effective participatory processes in Indigenous PHC including in CQI processes.


Assuntos
Participação da Comunidade/métodos , Serviços de Saúde do Indígena/organização & administração , Grupo com Ancestrais Oceânicos , Atenção Primária à Saúde/organização & administração , Melhoria de Qualidade/organização & administração , Austrália , Competência Cultural , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/organização & administração , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde/organização & administração , Serviços de Saúde do Indígena/normas , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Atenção Primária à Saúde/normas
14.
Implement Sci ; 14(1): 31, 2019 03 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30890160

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: People in close contact with tuberculosis should have screening and appropriate management, as an opportunity for active case detection and prevention. However, implementation of tuberculosis contact screening and management is limited in high-burden settings. Behaviour change is needed across three levels of the healthcare system-policymakers, healthcare providers, and patients. To bridge the wide policy-practice gap, this study draws on the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research, the Behaviour Change Wheel, and the RE-AIM model (Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation, Maintenance) to respectively understand barriers, implement change, and evaluate process and outcome. METHODS: This methods paper describes a mixed-methods intervention study in Eastern Indonesia. Quantitative data will be collected during baseline, intervention, and sustainability periods and analyzed using time series analysis. The primary outcome is the number of individuals completing tuberculosis preventive therapy by the end of the two-year intervention phase. Of an estimated 10,000 contacts during this period, we anticipate that a minimum of 416 will be found to have active TB or will complete preventive therapy. Qualitative data (semi-structured interviews, focus group discussions, and observations) will be collected from consenting healthcare providers, patients, and contacts. Activities to promote policy implementation include healthcare provider training, quarterly continuous quality improvement workshops, a social media discussion forum, and promotional materials. The Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research will be used to identify reasons for limited policy implementation at baseline. The Behaviour Change Wheel will be used to ensure that a suitable range of activities are implemented to facilitate change. The RE-AIM model will be used as the evaluation framework. DISCUSSION: Use of theoretical frameworks in combination can ensure a comprehensive understanding of, and robust response to, health policy underimplementation. The selected frameworks are highly applicable to this pragmatic intervention study, in a setting where End TB Strategy targets will not be met without substantial behavior change within health systems. Continuous quality improvement cycles will provide a way to engage staff and stakeholders in understanding local data to motivate behavior change. If successful, up to 500 people could be prevented from developing complications of tuberculosis through early case-finding or receiving preventive therapy over a two-year period. STUDY REGISTRATION: Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Register 375803 .


Assuntos
Lacunas da Prática Profissional , Tuberculose/prevenção & controle , Pessoal Administrativo , Adulto , Busca de Comunicante , Estudos Controlados Antes e Depois , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Coleta de Dados/métodos , Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração , Diagnóstico Precoce , Doenças Endêmicas , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Pessoal de Saúde/normas , Política de Saúde , Humanos , Indonésia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Números Necessários para Tratar , Ensaios Clínicos Pragmáticos como Assunto , Tamanho da Amostra , Tuberculose/epidemiologia
15.
Aust J Prim Health ; 25(1): 1-5, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30636669

RESUMO

The launch of the third edition of the National guide to preventive health assessment for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people in March 2018 heralds a renewed commitment to improving the delivery of preventive care, and should reinvigorate discussions on the effectiveness of Indigenous-specific health assessments and how best to implement them. A substantial body of evidence on adherence to guideline-recommended care has been generated through a research-based continuous quality improvement (CQI) initiative conducted between 2010 and 2014. The research, which involved clinical audits of more than 17000 client records and 119 systems assessments relating to preventive care in 137 Indigenous primary healthcare centres across Australia, shows that a structured CQI program can improve the delivery of preventive health assessments and use of evidence-based guidelines. However, program implementation has also seen the emergence of new challenges. This paper reflects on four major lessons from this collaborative program of applied research that will lead to more effective delivery of preventive care.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde do Indígena/normas , Serviços Preventivos de Saúde/métodos , Atenção Primária à Saúde/métodos , Melhoria de Qualidade/normas , Austrália , Auditoria Clínica , Humanos , Grupo com Ancestrais Oceânicos , Serviços Preventivos de Saúde/normas
16.
Health Res Policy Syst ; 16(1): 117, 2018 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30497480

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Participatory research approaches improve the use of evidence in policy, programmes and practice. Few studies have addressed ways to scale up participatory research for wider system improvement or the intensity of effort required. We used the integrated Promoting Action on Research Implementation in Health Services (i-PARIHS) framework to analyse implementation of an interactive dissemination process engaging stakeholders with continuous quality improvement (CQI) data from Australian Indigenous primary healthcare centres. This paper reports lessons learnt about scaling knowledge translation research, facilitating engagement at a system level and applying the i-PARIHS framework to a system-level intervention. METHODS: Drawing on a developmental evaluation of our dissemination process, we conducted a post-hoc analysis of data from project records and interviews with 30 stakeholders working in Indigenous health in different roles, organisation types and settings in one Australian jurisdiction and with national participants. Content-analysed data were mapped onto the i-PARIHS framework constructs to examine factors contributing to the success (or otherwise) of the process. RESULTS: The dissemination process achieved wide reach, with stakeholders using aggregated CQI data to identify system-wide priority evidence-practice gaps, barriers and strategies for improvement across the scope of care. Innovation characteristics influencing success were credible data, online dissemination and recruitment through established networks, research goals aligned with stakeholders' interest in knowledge-sharing and motivation to improve care, and iterative phases of reporting and feedback. The policy environment and infrastructure for CQI, as well as manager support, influenced participation. Stakeholders who actively facilitated organisational- and local-level engagement were important for connecting others with the data and with the externally located research team. Developmental evaluation was facilitative in that it supported real-time adaptation and tailoring to stakeholders and context. CONCLUSIONS: A participatory research process was successfully implemented at scale without intense facilitation efforts. These findings broaden the notion of facilitation and support the utility of the i-PARIHS framework for planning participatory knowledge translation research at a system level. Researchers planning similar interventions should work through established networks and identify organisational- or local-level facilitators within the research design. Further research exploring facilitation in system-level interventions and the use of interactive dissemination processes in other settings is needed.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Participativa Baseada na Comunidade , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde , Serviços de Saúde do Indígena , Disseminação de Informação , Grupo com Ancestrais Oceânicos , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Pesquisa Médica Translacional , Atitude , Austrália , Assistência à Saúde , Retroalimentação , Instalações de Saúde , Humanos , Internet , Motivação , Melhoria de Qualidade , Participação dos Interessados , Inquéritos e Questionários
17.
Front Public Health ; 6: 182, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29988543

RESUMO

Background: The ABCD National Research Partnership was formed in mid-2010 as a collaboration to harness the expertise, experiences and resources of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander community-controlled peak bodies, government and research organisations to improve the quality of Indigenous primary health care. The aim of this study was to apply social network methods to assess collaboration and functioning of the Partnership at two time-points. Methods: A social network analysis (SNA) survey was conducted in early 2013, with a follow-up survey in mid-2014. In the two survey rounds, online surveys were emailed to one senior person of the organisation participating in the Partnership (2013: 14 organisations; 2014: 11 organisations). The surveys collected data on respondent perceptions of the Partnership as well as social network relationship data. Social network methods were used to apply standardised metrics to assess how well the partnership was functioning as a collaborative three years into its operation, and in its fourth year. Results: Most respondents rated the Partnership as successful in progressing toward its goals. Network density and centrality scores show a well-connected partnership spanning different organisational types and states/territories (Northern Territory, Queensland, Western Australia, South Australia, and Far-West New South Wales). High centrality scores reflect high connectivity between key hubs in the network, contributing toward the shared goal of improved Indigenous primary health care. Network diagrams show key structural positions by organisational type, the frequency and intensity of interactions and the strengths and potential vulnerabilities in the partnership network, with comparisons at two time points for the partnership. Conclusions: The study found that the Partnership was effective in securing collaboration across its partners. Partners' contribution of resources reflected their active involvement. There was a high level of agreement on the achievement of the key goals of the Partnership, showing shared sense-making amongst partners. SNA tools assisted with monitoring the network over time to develop strategies supporting connections between partners for sustaining collaborative learning. Study findings identify successful approaches for a research partnership to improve quality of care in Indigenous primary health care and provide encouragement for wider applications for research partnerships and collaborations in Australia and internationally.

18.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 7(14)2018 07 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30018165

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Health system strengthening is needed to improve delivery of secondary prophylaxis against rheumatic heart disease. METHODS AND RESULTS: We undertook a stepped-wedge, randomized trial in northern Australia. Five pairs of Indigenous community clinics entered the study at 3-month steps. Study phases comprised a 12 month baseline phase, 3 month transition phase, 12 month intensive phase and a 3- to 12-month maintenance phase. Clinics received a multicomponent intervention supporting activities to improve penicillin delivery, aligned with the chronic care model, with continuous quality-improvement feedback on adherence. The primary outcome was the proportion receiving ≥80% of scheduled penicillin injections. Secondary outcomes included "days at risk" of acute rheumatic fever recurrence related to late penicillin and acute rheumatic fever recurrence rates. Overall, 304 patients requiring prophylaxis were eligible. The proportion receiving ≥80% of scheduled injections during baseline was 141 of 304 (46%)-higher than anticipated. No effect attributable to the study was evident: in the intensive phase, 126 of 304 (41%) received ≥80% of scheduled injections (odds ratio compared with baseline: 0.78; 95% confidence interval, 0.54-1.11). There was modest improvement in the maintenance phase among high-adhering patients (43% received ≥90% of injections versus 30% [baseline] and 28% [intensive], P<0.001). Also, the proportion of days at risk in the whole cohort decreased in the maintenance phase (0.28 versus 0.32 [baseline] and 0.34 [intensive], P=0.001). Acute rheumatic fever recurrence rates did not differ between study sites during the intensive phase and the whole jurisdiction (3.0 versus 3.5 recurrences per 100 patient-years, P=0.65). CONCLUSIONS: This strategy did not improve adherence to rheumatic heart disease secondary prophylaxis within the study time frame. Longer term primary care strengthening strategies are needed. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: www.anzctr.org.au. Unique identifier: ACTRN12613000223730.


Assuntos
Cooperação do Paciente , Penicilina G Benzatina/administração & dosagem , Melhoria de Qualidade , Cardiopatia Reumática/prevenção & controle , Prevenção Secundária/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Injeções , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Northern Territory/epidemiologia , Prognóstico , Recidiva , Cardiopatia Reumática/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
19.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 7(14)2018 07 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30018166

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rheumatic heart disease is a high-burden condition in Australian Aboriginal communities. We evaluated a stepped-wedge, community, randomized trial at 10 Aboriginal communities from 2013 to 2015. A multifaceted intervention was implemented using quality improvement and chronic care model approaches to improve delivery of penicillin prophylaxis for rheumatic heart disease. The trial did not improve penicillin adherence. This mixed-methods evaluation, designed a priori, aimed to determine the association between methodological approaches and outcomes. METHODS AND RESULTS: An evaluation framework was developed to measure the success of project implementation and of the underlying program theory. The program theory posited that penicillin delivery would be improved through activities implemented at clinics that addressed elements of the chronic care model. Qualitative data were derived from interviews with health-center staff, informants, and clients; participant observation; and project officer reports. Quantitative data comprised numbers and types of "action items," which were developed by participating clinic staff with project officers to improve delivery of penicillin injections. Interview data from 121 health-center staff, 22 informants, and 72 clients revealed barriers to achieving the trial's aims, including project-level factors (short trial duration), implementation factors (types of activities implemented), and contextual factors (high staff turnover and the complex sociocultural environment). Insufficient actions were implemented addressing "self-management support" and "community linkage" streams of the chronic care model. Increased momentum was evident in later stages of the study. CONCLUSIONS: The program theory underpinning the study was sound. The limited impact made by the study on adherence was attributable to complex implementation challenges.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais Oceânicos/etnologia , Cooperação do Paciente , Penicilinas/farmacologia , Melhoria de Qualidade/tendências , Cardiopatia Reumática/prevenção & controle , Prevenção Secundária/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Northern Territory/epidemiologia , Cardiopatia Reumática/etnologia , Adulto Jovem
20.
Aust J Prim Health ; 2018 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30056828

RESUMO

Integration of public health and primary healthcare (PHC) is a hallmark of comprehensive PHC to reduce inequitable rates of preventable diseases in communities at risk. In the context of a syphilis outbreak among Indigenous people in Northern Australia, the association between PHC clinic factors and syphilis testing performance (STP) was examined to produce empirical insights for service managers. Data from the Audit and Best Practice for Chronic Disease National Program (2012-14) were analysed to examine associations between clinic factors and STP (proportion of clients ≥15 years who were tested for or offered a test for syphilis in the prior 24 months). Univariate analyses were conducted for 77 clinics and a subset of 67 remote clinics. Multivariate linear regression models were used to determine independent predictors of STP. Syphilis testing performance across PHC clinics ranged from 0 to 93.8% (median 46.5%). In univariate analysis, Delivery system design, which refers to clinic infrastructure, staffing profile and allocation of roles and responsibilities, was significantly associated with higher STP in all clinics (P=0.004) and in the subset of remote clinics (P=0.008). Syphilis testing performance was higher in the Northern Territory compared to other states, in remote clinics and clinics serving smaller populations. In multivariate analysis, Delivery system design and jurisdiction remained associated with STP. To better realise the potential of comprehensive PHC, service managers should focus on PHC delivery system design to enhance the current syphilis outbreak response.

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