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1.
Health Qual Life Outcomes ; 19(1): 207, 2021 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34454527

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The effect of COVID-19 on Health-Care Professionals' mental health has received increased attention in the last year's literature. However, previous studies essentially evaluated psychopathological symptoms and not the presence of positive mental health. Therefore, the first objective of the present research is to evaluate health-care professionals' mental illness (i.e., anxiety and traumatic intensity) and positive mental health (i.e., well-being) using the Complete State Model of Health. Our second objective is to study the effect of Personal Protection Equipment availability on professionals' mental health. METHODS: Two-hundred and thirty-two health-care professionals working in Spain in the first line of COVID-19 patient care participated in the study. To measure anxiety, traumatic intensity and well-being participants completed the State Trait Anxiety Inventory, the Davidson Trauma Scale, and the Mental Health Continuum-Short Form. Pearson correlations were used to examine the relationships between all scales. In order to test the two continua model of mental health, we used parallel analysis and exploratory factor analysis. To analyze anxiety, traumatic intensity, and well-being differences between health-care professionals with and without Personal Protection Equipment availability we conducted different ANOVAS. To test our hypothesis regarding the moderating role of Personal Protection Equipment availability in the effect of mental illness on positive mental health, data were subjected to a hierarchical regression analysis. RESULTS: As in previous studies, health-care professionals showed high levels of anxiety and traumatic intensity. They also presented low levels of well-being indicators. According to our hypothesis, results of parallel analysis and exploratory factorial analysis indicated that the measures of mental illness and positive mental health loaded on separate but correlated factors. Finally, Personal Protection Equipment availability moderated the effects of state anxiety and traumatic intensity on professionals' well-being. CONCLUSIONS: Health-care professionals' mental illness and positive mental health reflect distinct continua, rather than the extreme ends of a single spectrum. Therefore, it is essential to measure both psychopathology and the presence of positive health to comprehensively evaluate professionals' mental health. Finally, our results indicated that Personal Protection Equipment availability is essential not only for professionals' physical health, but also for their mental health.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/psicologia , COVID-19/psicologia , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Equipamento de Proteção Individual/provisão & distribuição , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Equipamento de Proteção Individual/estatística & dados numéricos , SARS-CoV-2 , Espanha/epidemiologia
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360187

RESUMO

Few studies have analyzed emotional educational experiences through physical education interventions. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects on socio-emotional competencies of a physical education intervention (i.e., the MooN program) based on the instructional model known as the sports education model (SEM), compared to a physical education intervention based on the traditional model of direct instruction (TM-DI) in preadolescents. The sample consisted of 170 students between 10 and 13 years old (mean age: M = 10.76; standard deviation: SD = 0.73). Participants were randomly assigned to the experimental group (SEM; n = 87) and the active control group (TM-DI; n = 83). In the experimental group, the SEM-based intervention was applied, while in the active control group, an intervention based on the TM-DI was developed. A quasi-experimental design with repeated pre-test and post-test measures and an active control group was used. The self-efficacy inventory for multiple intelligences (IAMI-40) was used to assess the children's socio-emotional competencies. The child perfectionism inventory was applied to evaluate the self-demand perfectionist efforts. The results confirmed that the MooN program (SEM intervention) promoted significant improvements in socio-emotional competencies. These findings support the potential of this physical education instructional model as an emotional education pathway for the socio-emotional improvement of preadolescent students.


Assuntos
Lua , Educação Física e Treinamento , Adolescente , Criança , Emoções , Humanos , Autoeficácia , Estudantes
3.
Front Psychol ; 10: 2099, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31572275

RESUMO

Introduction: Pathological confidence in one's thoughts is a key mechanism of chronic paranoid thinking. For this reason, many of the current therapies focus on trying to reduce it. In fact, the way some antipsychotics (e.g., haloperidol) work seems to be through the induction of doubt. Because of the impact of these pathological thoughts on positive health, studying the well-being of people who experience paranoid thoughts is fundamental. The first objective of this research is to apply the Complete State Model of Health (CSMH) to a sample of patients characterized by the presence of paranoid thinking. Our second objective is to evaluate the impact of therapies based on reducing pathological confidence on patients' well-being. Methods: Sixty participants with SCID-5 confirmed DSM-5 diagnosis related with paranoid thinking and without mood symptoms were recruited. In order to test the existence of a two continua model of mental health (CSMH), we conducted a parallel analysis and an exploratory factor analysis. To test our hypothesis regarding the partially mediating role of doubt between paranoid thinking and patients' well-being, we conducted a biased corrected bootstrapping procedure. Results: As expected, two different unipolar dimensions emerged from the measures used to assess paranoid thinking and positive health (two continua model of mental health). When patients received metacognitive and pharmacological treatment, more paranoid thinking led to more doubt in all thoughts, which in turn affected well-being. The analyses carried out confirmed the partial mediating role of doubt. Conclusion: Despite the efficacy shown by both metacognitive therapies and antipsychotics, it seems that they not only reduce pathological confidence, but can also affect other thoughts not linked to delirium. This effect of generalization of doubt in all thoughts negatively affected patients' well-being and quality of life.

4.
Health Qual Life Outcomes ; 16(1): 96, 2018 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29764432

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The effect of indirect (versus direct) exposure to a traumatic event on the quality of life of terrorist attack victims has received considerable attention in the literature. However, more research is required to examine whether the symptoms and underlying processes caused by both types of exposure are equivalent. Our main hypothesis is that well-being plays a different role depending on indirect vs. direct trauma exposure. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, eighty direct victims of 11-M terrorist attacks (people who were traveling in trains where bombs were placed) and two-hundred indirect victims (individuals highly exposed to the 11-M terrorist attacks through communications media) voluntarily participated without compensation. To test our hypothesis regarding the mediating role of indirect exposure, we conducted a biased corrected bootstrapping procedure. To test our hypothesis regarding the moderating role of direct exposure, data were subjected to a hierarchical regression analysis. RESULTS: As predicted, for indirect trauma exposure, well-being mediated the relationship between post-traumatic dysfunctional cognitions and trauma symptoms. However, for direct trauma exposure, well-being moderated the relationship between post-traumatic dysfunctional cognitions and trauma symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: The results of our study indicate that the different role of well-being found between indirect (causal factor) and direct exposure (protective factor) should be taken into consideration in interventions designed to improve victims' health.


Assuntos
Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Meios de Comunicação de Massa , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/etiologia , Terrorismo/psicologia , Adulto , Bombas (Dispositivos Explosivos) , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ferrovias , Análise de Regressão , Espanha , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
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