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1.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 14(36): 41555-41570, 2022 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36037310

RESUMO

In this study, Ti-doped ZnO films with flower-rod-like nanostructures were synthesized by the successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method for enhanced NO gas-sensing applications. The stoichiometric ratio of Ti in the host ZnO lattice was confirmed by atomic absorption and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopies. All of the synthesized films exhibited a pure wurtzite hexagonal structure that seemed to deteriorate at high Ti doping contents as was manifested by the measured X-ray diffraction patterns. Scanning electron microscopy images of ZnO revealed the coexistence of porous flower- and rod-like structures, which became finer, denser, and more compact with Ti doping. By UV-vis measurements, the transmittance of the synthesized pure ZnO thin film in the visible region (∼75%) increased by about 10% with Ti doping, and the energy band gap seemed to decrease up to some limit of Ti content. Among the fabricated sensors (based on pure ZnO, 1% Ti-doped, 3% Ti-doped, and 5% Ti-doped ZnO films), the best sensing performance was observed for the 1% Ti-doped ZnO film. At first, this was associated with its high density of oxygen vacancies present on the surface of the film and ionized oxygen vacancies present in the ZnO lattice (confirmed, respectively, by X-ray photoelectron and photoluminescence spectroscopies). Nonetheless, this may also be due to its increased crystallinity (confirmed by X-ray diffraction and photoluminescence spectroscopy), high area-to-volume ratio (confirmed by scanning electron microscopy images), high specific surface area (confirmed by Brunauer-Emmett-Teller measurements) as well as high mobility and carrier concentration (confirmed by Hall measurements). The sensor was highly selective to NO gas and showed notable stability as well as very short response and recovery times, which makes it eligible for the early detection of any indoor or outdoor NO gas leakages.

2.
Nanomaterials (Basel) ; 12(13)2022 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35808024

RESUMO

The microbatteries field is an important direction of energy storage systems, requiring the careful miniaturization of existing materials while maintaining their properties. Over recent decades, LiCoO2 has attracted considerable attention as cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries due to its promising electrochemical properties for high-performance batteries. In this work, the thin films of LiCoO2 were obtained by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering of the corresponding target. In order to obtain the desired crystal structure, the parameters such as annealing time, temperature, and heating rate were varied and found to influence the rhombohedral phase formation. The electrochemical performances of the prepared thin films were examined as a function of annealing time, temperature, and heating rate. The LiCoO2 thin film cathode annealed at 550 °C for 1 h 20 min demonstrated the best cycling performance with a discharge specific capacity of around 135 mAh g-1 and volumetric capacity of 50 µAh cm-2µm-1 with a 77% retention at 0.5 C rate.

3.
Nanomaterials (Basel) ; 12(10)2022 May 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35630955

RESUMO

Zinc oxide (ZnO) is a well-known semiconductor material due to its excellent electrical, mechanical, and unique optical properties. ZnO nanoparticles are widely used for the industrial-scale manufacture of microelectronic and optoelectronic devices, including metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) gas sensors, light-emitting diodes, transistors, capacitors, and solar cells. This study proposes optimization of synthesis parameters of nanosized ZnO by the electrospinning technique. A Box-Behnken design (BB) has been applied using response surface methodology (RSM) to optimize the selected electrospinning and sintering conditions. The effects of the applied voltage, tip-to-collector distance, and annealing temperature on the size of ZnO particles were successfully investigated. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images confirm the formation of polyvinylpyrrolidone-zinc acetate (PVP-ZnAc) fibers and nanostructured ZnO after annealing. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns indicate a pure phase of the hexagonal structure of ZnO with high crystallinity. Minimal-sized ZnO nanoparticles were synthesized at a constant applied potential of 16 kV, with a distance between collector and nozzle of 12 cm, flow rate of 1 mL/h, and calcination temperature of 600 °C. The results suggest that nanosized ZnO with precise control of size and morphology can be fabricated by varying electrospinning conditions, precursor solution concentration, and sintering temperature.

4.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 851, 2022 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35039553

RESUMO

Zinc oxide (ZnO) is one of the most promising metal oxide semiconductor materials, particularly for optical and gas sensing applications. The influence of thickness and solvent on various features of ZnO thin films deposited at ambient temperature and barometric pressure by the sequential ionic layer adsorption and reaction method (SILAR) was carefully studied in this work. Ethanol and distilled water (DW) were alternatively used as a solvent for preparation of ZnO precursor solution. Superficial morphology, crystallite structure, optical and electrical characteristics of the thin films of various thickness are examined applying X-ray diffraction (XRD) system, scanning electron microscopy, the atomic force microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, photoluminescence spectroscopy, Hall effect measurement analysis and UV response study. XRD analysis confirmed that thin films fabricated using ethanol or DW precursor solvents are hexagonal wurtzite ZnO with a preferred growth orientation (002). Furthermore, it was found that thin films made using ethanol are as highly crystalline as thin films made using DW. ZnO thin films prepared using aqueous solutions possess high optical band gaps. However, films prepared with ethanol solvent have low resistivity (10-2 Ω cm) and high electron mobility (750 cm2/Vs). The ethanol solvent-based SILAR method opens opportunities to synthase high quality ZnO thin films for various potential applications.

5.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 19287, 2021 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34588481

RESUMO

Investigation of the physical properties of carbon nanowall (CNW) films is carried out in correlation with the growth time. The structural, electronic, optical and electrical properties of CNW films are investigated using electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy, UV-Vis spectroscopy, Hall Effect measurement system, Four Point Probing system, and thermoelectric measurements. Shorter growth time results in thinner CNW films with a densely spaced labyrinth structure, while a longer growth time results in thicker CNW films with a petal structure. These changes in morphology further lead to changes in the structural, optical, and electrical properties of the CNW.

6.
Nanotechnology ; 32(45)2021 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34320472

RESUMO

Both the sluggish redox kinetics and severe polysulfide shuttling behavior hinders the commercialization of lithium-sulfur (Li-S) battery. To solve these obstacles, we design a cobalt sulfide nanoparticle-embedded flexible carbon nanofiber membrane (denoted as CoS2@NCF) as sulfiphilic functional interlayer materials. The hierarchically porous structure of carbon nanofiber is conducive to immobilizing sulfur species and facilitating lithium-ion penetration. Moreover, electrocatalytic CoS2nanoparticles can significantly enhance the catalytic effect, achieving favorable adsorption-diffusion-conversion interface of polysulfide. Combined with these synergistic features, the assembled Li-S cell with CoS2@NCF interlayer exhibited a great discharge capacity of 950.9 mAh g-1with prolonged cycle lifespan at 1 C (maintained 648.1 mAh g-1over 500 cycles). This multifunctional interlayer material used in this contribution provides an advanced route for developing high-energy-density Li-S battery.

7.
Nanoscale Res Lett ; 16(1): 122, 2021 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34328566

RESUMO

Harvesting abundant mechanical energy has been considered one of the promising technologies for developing autonomous self-powered active sensors, power units, and Internet-of-Things devices. Among various energy harvesting technologies, the triboelectric harvesters based on contact electrification have recently attracted much attention because of their advantages such as high performance, light weight, and simple design. Since the first triboelectric energy-harvesting device was reported, the continuous investigations for improving the output power have been carried out. This review article covers various methods proposed for the performance enhancement of triboelectric nanogenerators (TENGs), such as a triboelectric material selection, surface modification through the introduction of micro-/nano-patterns, and surface chemical functionalization, injecting charges, and their trapping. The main purpose of this work is to highlight and summarize recent advancements towards enhancing the TENG technology performance through implementing different approaches along with their potential applications. This paper presents a comprehensive review of the TENG technology and its factors affecting the output power as material selection, surface physical and chemical modification, charge injection, and trapping techniques.

8.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 602: 563-572, 2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34147749

RESUMO

Although high-capacity germanium (Ge) has been regarded as the promising anode material for lithium ion batteries (LIBs), its actual performance is far from expectation because of low electrical conductivity and rapid capacity decay during cycling. In this work, Sn modified nanoporous Ge materials with different Ge/Sn atomic ratios in precursors were synthesized by a simple melt-spinning and dealloying strategy. As the anodes of LIBs, Sn modified nanoporous Ge materials display improved cycling stability compared with Sn-free nanoporous Ge, revealing a potential role of Sn in improving electrochemical properties of Ge-based anodes. In particular, Sn modified nanoporous Ge with Ge/Sn atomic ratio of 3:1 presents the best Li storage performance among measured electrodes, delivering a reversible capacity of 974 mA h g-1 after 500 cycles at 200 mA g-1. It is found that the introduction of appropriate amount of Sn can not only regulate the nanoporous structure of Ge to better alleviate volume expansion, but also improves the conductivity and activity of the electrode material. This improvement is demonstrated by density functional theory calculations. The study uncovers a route to improve Li storage properties by rationally modify Ge-based anodes with Sn, which may facilitate the development of high-performance LIBs.

9.
Nanoscale Res Lett ; 16(1): 105, 2021 Jun 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34117941

RESUMO

In recent years, the development of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) with high energy density has become one of the important research directions to fulfill the needs of electric vehicles and smart grid technologies. Nowadays, traditional LIBs have reached their limits in terms of capacity, cycle life, and stability, necessitating their further improvement and development of alternative materials with remarkably enhanced properties. A nitrogen-containing carbon nanotube (N-CNT) host for bimetallic sulfide (NiCo2S4) is proposed in this study as an anode with attractive electrochemical performance for LIBs. The prepared NiCo2S4/N-CNT nanocomposite exhibited improved cycling stability, rate performance, and an excellent reversible capacity of 623.0 mAh g-1 after 100 cycles at 0.1 A g-1 and maintained a high capacity and cycling stability at 0.5 A g-1. The excellent electrochemical performance of the composite can be attributed to the unique porous structure, which can effectively enhance the diffusivity of Li ions while mitigating the volume expansion during the charge-discharge processes.

10.
Materials (Basel) ; 14(7)2021 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33810339

RESUMO

Conductive and flexible CuS films with unique hierarchical nanocrystalline branches directly grown on three-dimensional (3D) porous Cu foam were fabricated using an easy and facile solution processing method without a binder and conductive agent for the first time. The synthesis procedure is quick and does not require complex routes. The structure and morphology of the as-deposited CuS/Cu films were characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and transmission electron spectroscopy, respectively. Pure crystalline hexagonal structured CuS without impurities were obtained for the most saturated S solution. Electrochemical testing of CuS/Cu foam electrodes showed a reasonable capacity of 450 mAh·g-1 at 0.1 C and excellent cyclability, which might be attributed to the unique 3D structure of the current collector and hierarchical nanocrystalline branches that provide fast diffusion and a large surface area.

11.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 595: 51-58, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33813224

RESUMO

Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries have drawn a lot of attention owing to the high theoretical capacity of 1675 mAh g-1, environmental friendliness and relative abundance of sulfur. Nevertheless, the severe dissolution and migration of lithium polysulfides (LiPSs) and poor conductivity of sulfur greatly hinder the practical application of Li-S batteries. In this work, Fe-Ni-P@nitrogen-doped carbon (named as Fe-Ni-P@NC) derived from Fe-Ni Prussian blue analog (Fe-Ni PBA) was used as highly efficient sulfur host for Li-S batteries. The Fe-Ni-P particles not only enhance the adsorption of LiPSs but also effectively promote the conversion of LiPSs. In addition, the CN- of PBAs can readily generate nitrogen-doped carbon during pyrolysis, which can improve the conductivity of composites. Due to these advantages, Li-S batteries using S@Fe-Ni-P@NC composites cathodes exhibited good electrochemical performance with outstanding rate capability and stable cycling over 500 cycles with a lower capacity fading rate of 0.08% per cycle at 1 C.

12.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 592: 103-115, 2021 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33647559

RESUMO

Due to huge volume expansion and poor electrical conductivity, the commercial application of the promising Germanium (Ge) anode is restrained in lithium ion battery (LIB) field. Generally, conductive metals can improve the electron mobility in Ge. In that way, whether active materials or conductive metals account for a higher proportion in the anode is controversial in this field and needs to be clarified urgently. Herein, three Ge-based anodes with different ratios in conductive Ag are fabricated by a facile melt spinning and one-step dealloying method. It is found that Ag nanoparticles embedded three-dimensional nanoporous Ge (Ag/np-Ge) electrode with high active material ratio exhibits the best cycling stability among tested samples, delivering a high capacity of 953 mAh g-1 after 100 cycles at a current density of 100 mA g-1 and an excellent reversible capacity of 522 mAh g-1 after 200 cycles even at the high current density of 1000 mA g-1. The enhanced cycling stability can be attributed to the synergistic effect of nanoporous network-like structure and embedded Ag nanoparticles. A dramatical increase in electrical conductivity and activity of Ge by doping of Ag is confirmed by density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The work provides us an idea to rationally design the three-dimensional structure of active materials assisting with a proper ratio of conductive metals, which may promote the development of promising Ge anodes for LIBs with excellent cycling stability.

13.
Nanotechnology ; 32(7): 075403, 2021 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33096535

RESUMO

Advanced design and fabrication of high performance sulfur cathodes with improved conductivity and chemical adsorption towards lithium polysulfides (LiPS) are crucial for further development of Li-S batteries. Hence, we designed a TiO2/Co3O4-CNTs composite derived from Ti-MOF (MIL-125) as the host matrix for sulfur cathode. The polar nature of metal oxides (TiO2, Co3O4) creates the adsorptive sites in the composite and leads to an efficient chemical capture of LiPS. The CNTs ensure the contact between S/Li2S and the host material with high conductivity, enhanced charge transfer and fast electrochemical kinetics. At the same time, the CNTs strengthen the stability of the electrode material. Consequently, the as-prepared TiO2/Co3O4-CNTs composite showed excellent electrochemical performance. The cell with S-TiO2/Co3O4-CNTs delivers an initial specific capacity of 1270 mAh g-1 at 0.2 C and high rate performance with a capacity of 603 mAh g-1 at 3 C.

14.
Nanomaterials (Basel) ; 12(1)2021 Dec 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35009974

RESUMO

New porous activated carbons with a high surface area as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) were synthesized by a one-step, sustainable, and environmentally friendly method. Four chemical activators-H2SO4, H3PO4, KOH, and ZnCl2-have been investigated as facilitators of the formation of the porous structure of activated carbon (AC) from an agar precursor. The study of the materials by Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) methods revealed its highly porous meso- and macro-structure. Among the used chemical activators, the AC prepared with the addition of KOH demonstrated the best electrochemical performance upon its reaction with lithium metal. The initial discharge capacity reached 931 mAh g-1 and a reversible capacity of 320 mAh g-1 was maintained over 100 cycles at 0.1 C. High rate cycling tests up to 10 C demonstrated stable cycling performance of the AC from agar.

15.
Polymers (Basel) ; 13(1)2020 Dec 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33374640

RESUMO

Conventional carbonate-based liquid electrolytes have safety issues related to their high flammability and easy leakage. Therefore, it is essential to develop alternative electrolytes for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). As a potential candidate, solid-polymer electrolytes (SPEs) offer enhanced safety characteristics, while to be widely applied their performance still has to be improved. Here, we have prepared a series of UV-photocrosslinked flexible SPEs comprising poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA), trimethylolpropane ethoxylate triacrylate (ETPTA), and lithium bis(trifluoromethane sulfonyl)imide (LiTFSI) salt, with the addition of polydimethylsiloxane with acrylated terminal groups (acryl-PDMS) to diminish the crystallinity of the poly(ethylene glycol) chain. Polysiloxanes have gained interest for the fabrication of SPEs due to their unique features, such as decrement of glass transition temperature (Tg), and the ability to improve flexibility and facilitate lithium-ion transport. Freestanding, transparent SPEs with excellent flexibility and mechanical properties were achieved without any supporting backbone, despite the high content of lithium salt, which was enabled by their networked structure, the presence of polar functional groups, and their amorphous structure. The highest ionic conductivity for the developed cross-linked SPEs was 1.75 × 10-6 S cm-1 at room temperature and 1.07 × 10-4 S cm-1 at 80 °C. The SPEs demonstrated stable Li plating/stripping ability and excellent compatibility toward metallic lithium, and exhibited high electrochemical stability in a wide range of potentials, which enables application in high-voltage lithium-ion batteries.

16.
Nanomaterials (Basel) ; 10(11)2020 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33207623

RESUMO

A three-dimensionally ordered macroporous ZnO (3DOM ZnO) framework was synthesized by a template method to serve as a sulfur host for lithium-sulfur batteries. The unique 3DOM structure along with an increased active surface area promotes faster and better electrolyte penetration accelerating ion/mass transfer. Moreover, ZnO as a polar metal oxide has a strong adsorption capacity for polysulfides, which makes the 3DOM ZnO framework an ideal immobilization agent and catalyst to inhibit the polysulfides shuttle effect and promote the redox reactions kinetics. As a result of the stated advantages, the S/3DOM ZnO composite delivered a high initial capacity of 1110 mAh g-1 and maintained a capacity of 991 mAh g-1 after 100 cycles at 0.2 C as a cathode in a lithium-sulfur battery. Even at a high C-rate of 3 C, the S/3DOM ZnO composite still provided a high capacity of 651 mAh g-1, as well as a high areal capacity (4.47 mAh cm-2) under high loading (5 mg cm-2).

17.
Nanomaterials (Basel) ; 10(10)2020 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33050363

RESUMO

Low dimensional Si-based materials are very promising anode candidates for the next-generation lithium-ion batteries. However, to satisfy the ever-increasing demand in more powerful energy storage devices, electrodes based on Si materials should display high-power accompanied with low volume change upon operation. Thus far, there were no reports on the Si-based materials which satisfy the stated requirements. Hence, here, we report on modified onion-structured Si nanoparticles (SiNPs) co-coated with Li4Ti5O12 (LTO) and cyclized polyacrylonitrile (cPAN) to bring the synergistic effect enhancing the conductivity, tolerance to volume change and stable performance. Obtained results suggest that the nanoparticles were conformally coated with both materials simultaneously and the thicknesses of the films were in a range of a few nanometers. Electrochemical tests show that the modified SiNPs deliver a high initial capacity of 2443 mAh g-1 and stable capacity retention over 50 cycles with 95% Coulombic efficiency.

18.
Sensors (Basel) ; 20(18)2020 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32932744

RESUMO

With the increase of interest in the application of piezoelectric polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) in nanogenerators (NGs), sensors, and microdevices, the most efficient and suitable methods of their synthesis are being pursued. Electrospinning is an effective method to prepare higher content ß-phase PVDF nanofiber films without additional high voltage poling or mechanical stretching, and thus, it is considered an economically viable and relatively simple method. This work discusses the parameters affecting the preparation of the desired phase of the PVDF film with a higher electrical output. The design and selection of optimum preparation conditions such as solution concentration, solvents, the molecular weight of PVDF, and others lead to electrical properties and performance enhancement in the NG, sensor, and other applications. Additionally, the effect of the nanoparticle additives that showed efficient improvements in the PVDF films was discussed as well. For instance, additives of BaTiO3, carbon nanotubes, graphene, nanoclays, and others are summarized to show their contributions to the higher piezo response in the electrospun PVDF. The recently reported applications of electrospun PVDF films are also analyzed in this review paper.

19.
Nanomaterials (Basel) ; 10(4)2020 Apr 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32295192

RESUMO

Light weight carbon nanofibers (CNF) fabricated by a simple electrospinning method and used as a 3D structured current collector for a sulfur cathode. Along with a light weight, this 3D current collector allowed us to accommodate a higher amount of sulfur composite, which led to a remarkable increase of the electrode capacity from 200 to 500 mAh per 1 g of the electrode including the mass of the current collector. Varying the electrospinning solution concentration enabled obtaining carbonized nanofibers of uniform structure and controllable diameter from several hundred nanometers to several micrometers. The electrochemical performance of the cathode deposited on carbonized PAN nanofibers at 800 °C was investigated. An initial specific capacity of 1620 mAh g-1 was achieved with a carbonized PAN nanofiber (cPAN) current collector. It exhibited stable cycling over 100 cycles maintaining a reversible capacity of 1104 mAh g-1 at the 100th cycle, while the same composite on the Al foil delivered only 872 mAh g-1. At the same time, 3D structured CNFs with a highly developed surface have a very low areal density of 0.85 mg cm-2 (thickness of ~25 µm), which is lower for almost ten times than the commercial Al current collector with the same thickness (7.33 mg cm-2).

20.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 12(11): 12763-12773, 2020 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32043867

RESUMO

Over the past decade, lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries have been thought of as promising alternatives for the new generation of battery systems. Although the Li-S batteries possess high-theoretical energy density (2600 Wh kg-1) and capacity (1675 mAh g-1), the problems of poor electron and ion conduction, volumetric expansion, and sulfur immobilization greatly impede the wide applicability of Li-S batteries. Herein, a defect-rich multishelled Co3O4 microsphere structure doped with Fe was synthesized via a one-step hydrothermal method and subsequent thermal treatment. The unique multishelled structure provides multiple spatial confinements for lithium polysulfides trapping and buffering the volume variation during cycling. Moreover, the rich oxygen defect designed by controlled Fe doping can provide numerous catalytic sites for polysulfide redox reactions. Attributed to the synergistic effect of structural design and oxygen-defect fabrication, the sulfur composite electrode delivers a notable cycle performance, presenting a much lower capacity fading of 0.017% per cycle over 1000 cycles at 1 C and an excellent rate capability of 571.3 mAh g-1 at 5 C. This work proposes a potential approach for designing a transition metal oxide-based multishelled hollow structure combined with oxygen defect, which also offers a new perspective on high-performance Li-S batteries.

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