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1.
Clin Epigenetics ; 12(1): 46, 2020 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32171335

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies using candidate gene and genome-wide approaches have identified epigenetic changes in DNA methylation (DNAm) associated with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). METHODS: In this study, we performed an EWAS of PTSD in a cohort of Veterans (n = 378 lifetime PTSD cases and 135 controls) from the Translational Research Center for TBI and Stress Disorders (TRACTS) cohort assessed using the Illumina EPIC Methylation BeadChip which assesses DNAm at more than 850,000 sites throughout the genome. Our model included covariates for ancestry, cell heterogeneity, sex, age, and a smoking score based on DNAm at 39 smoking-associated CpGs. We also examined in EPIC-based DNAm data generated from pre-frontal cortex (PFC) tissue from the National PTSD Brain Bank (n = 72). RESULTS: The analysis of blood samples yielded one genome-wide significant association with PTSD at cg19534438 in the gene G0S2 (p = 1.19 × 10-7, padj = 0.048). This association was replicated in an independent PGC-PTSD-EWAS consortium meta-analysis of military cohorts (p = 0.0024). We also observed association with the smoking-related locus cg05575921 in AHRR despite inclusion of a methylation-based smoking score covariate (p = 9.16 × 10-6), which replicates a previously observed PGC-PTSD-EWAS association (Smith et al. 2019), and yields evidence consistent with a smoking-independent effect. The top 100 EWAS loci were then examined in the PFC data. One of the blood-based PTSD loci, cg04130728 in CHST11, which was in the top 10 loci in blood, but which was not genome-wide significant, was significantly associated with PTSD in brain tissue (in blood p = 1.19 × 10-5, padj = 0.60, in brain, p = 0.00032 with the same direction of effect). Gene set enrichment analysis of the top 500 EWAS loci yielded several significant overlapping GO terms involved in pathogen response, including "Response to lipopolysaccharide" (p = 6.97 × 10-6, padj = 0.042). CONCLUSIONS: The cross replication observed in independent cohorts is evidence that DNA methylation in peripheral tissue can yield consistent and replicable PTSD associations, and our results also suggest that that some PTSD associations observed in peripheral tissue may mirror associations in the brain.

3.
Transl Psychiatry ; 10(1): 38, 2020 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32066696

RESUMO

Childhood maltreatment is highly prevalent and serves as a risk factor for mental and physical disorders. Self-reported childhood maltreatment appears heritable, but the specific genetic influences on this phenotype are largely unknown. The aims of this study were to (1) identify genetic variation associated with self-reported childhood maltreatment, (2) estimate SNP-based heritability (h2snp), (3) assess predictive value of polygenic risk scores (PRS) for childhood maltreatment, and (4) quantify genetic overlap of childhood maltreatment with mental and physical health-related phenotypes, and condition the top hits from our analyses when such overlap is present. Genome-wide association analysis for childhood maltreatment was undertaken, using a discovery sample from the UK Biobank (UKBB) (n = 124,000) and a replication sample from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium-posttraumatic stress disorder group (PGC-PTSD) (n = 26,290). h2snp for childhood maltreatment and genetic correlations with mental/physical health traits were calculated using linkage disequilibrium score regression. PRS was calculated using PRSice and mtCOJO was used to perform conditional analysis. Two genome-wide significant loci associated with childhood maltreatment (rs142346759, p = 4.35 × 10-8, FOXP1; rs10262462, p = 3.24 × 10-8, FOXP2) were identified in the discovery dataset but were not replicated in PGC-PTSD. h2snp for childhood maltreatment was ~6% and the PRS derived from the UKBB was significantly predictive of childhood maltreatment in PGC-PTSD (r2 = 0.0025; p = 1.8 × 10-15). The most significant genetic correlation of childhood maltreatment was with depressive symptoms (rg = 0.70, p = 4.65 × 10-40), although we show evidence that our top hits may be specific to childhood maltreatment. This is the first large-scale genetic study to identify specific variants associated with self-reported childhood maltreatment. Speculatively, FOXP genes might influence externalizing traits and so be relevant to childhood maltreatment. Alternatively, these variants may be associated with a greater likelihood of reporting maltreatment. A clearer understanding of the genetic relationships of childhood maltreatment, including particular abuse subtypes, with a range of phenotypes, may ultimately be useful in in developing targeted treatment and prevention strategies.

4.
Clin Epigenetics ; 12(1): 11, 2020 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31931860

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epigenetic mechanisms have been suggested to play a role in the development of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Here, blood-derived DNA methylation data (HumanMethylation450 BeadChip) collected prior to and following combat exposure in three cohorts of male military members were analyzed to assess whether DNA methylation profiles are associated with the development of PTSD. A total of 123 PTSD cases and 143 trauma-exposed controls were included in the analyses. The Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC) PTSD EWAS QC pipeline was used on all cohorts, and results were combined using a sample size weighted meta-analysis in a two-stage design. In stage one, we jointly analyzed data of two new cohorts (N = 126 and 78) for gene discovery, and sought to replicate significant findings in a third, previously published cohort (N = 62) to assess the robustness of our results. In stage 2, we aimed at maximizing power for gene discovery by combining all three cohorts in a meta-analysis. RESULTS: Stage 1 analyses identified four CpG sites in which, conditional on pre-deployment DNA methylation, post-deployment DNA methylation was significantly associated with PTSD status after epigenome-wide adjustment for multiple comparisons. The most significant (intergenic) CpG cg05656210 (p = 1.0 × 10-08) was located on 5q31 and significantly replicated in the third cohort. In addition, 19 differentially methylated regions (DMRs) were identified, but failed replication. Stage 2 analyses identified three epigenome-wide significant CpGs, the intergenic CpG cg05656210 and two additional CpGs located in MAD1L1 (cg12169700) and HEXDC (cg20756026). Interestingly, cg12169700 had an underlying single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) which was located within the same LD block as a recently identified PTSD-associated SNP in MAD1L1. Stage 2 analyses further identified 12 significant differential methylated regions (DMRs), 1 of which was located in MAD1L1 and 4 were situated in the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) region. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that the development of combat-related PTSD is associated with distinct methylation patterns in several genomic positions and regions. Our most prominent findings suggest the involvement of the immune system through the HLA region and HEXDC, and MAD1L1 which was previously associated with PTSD.

5.
J Head Trauma Rehabil ; 35(1): E1-E9, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31033749

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify amygdalar volumetric differences associated with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in individuals with comorbid mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) compared with those with mTBI-only and to examine the effects of intracranial volume (ICV) on amygdala volumetric measures. SETTING: Marine Corps Base and VA Healthcare System. PARTICIPANTS: A cohort of veterans and active-duty military personnel with combat-related mTBI (N = 89). DESIGN: Twenty-nine participants were identified with comorbid PTSD and mTBI. The remaining 60 formed the mTBI-only control group. Structural images of brains were obtained with a 1.5-T MRI scanner using a T1-weighted 3D-IR-FSPGR pulse sequence. Automatic segmentation was performed in Freesurfer. MAIN MEASURES: Amygdala volumes with/without normalizations to ICV. RESULTS: The comorbid mTBI/PTSD group had significantly larger amygdala volumes, when normalized to ICV, compared with the mTBI-only group. The right and left amygdala volumes after normalization to ICV were 0.122% ± 0.012% and 0.118% ± 0.011%, respectively, in the comorbid group compared with 0.115% ± 0.012% and 0.112% ± 0.009%, respectively, in the mTBI-only group (corrected P < .05). CONCLUSIONS: The ICV normalization analysis performed here may resolve previous literature discrepancies. This is an intriguing structural finding, given the role of the amygdala in the challenging neuroemotive symptoms witnessed in casualties of combat-related mTBI and PTSD.

6.
Cereb Cortex ; 30(1): 283-295, 2020 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31041986

RESUMO

Combat-related mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is a leading cause of sustained impairments in military service members and veterans. Recent animal studies show that GABA-ergic parvalbumin-positive interneurons are susceptible to brain injury, with damage causing abnormal increases in spontaneous gamma-band (30-80 Hz) activity. We investigated spontaneous gamma activity in individuals with mTBI using high-resolution resting-state magnetoencephalography source imaging. Participants included 25 symptomatic individuals with chronic combat-related blast mTBI and 35 healthy controls with similar combat experiences. Compared with controls, gamma activity was markedly elevated in mTBI participants throughout frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital cortices, whereas gamma activity was reduced in ventromedial prefrontal cortex. Across groups, greater gamma activity correlated with poorer performances on tests of executive functioning and visuospatial processing. Many neurocognitive associations, however, were partly driven by the higher incidence of mTBI participants with both higher gamma activity and poorer cognition, suggesting that expansive upregulation of gamma has negative repercussions for cognition particularly in mTBI. This is the first human study to demonstrate abnormal resting-state gamma activity in mTBI. These novel findings suggest the possibility that abnormal gamma activities may be a proxy for GABA-ergic interneuron dysfunction and a promising neuroimaging marker of insidious mild head injuries.

7.
Front Neurosci ; 13: 1005, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31680797

RESUMO

Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) disproportionately affects military service members and is very difficult to diagnose. To-date, there is currently no blood-based, diagnostic biomarker for mTBI cases with persistent post concussive symptoms. To examine the potential of neuronally-derived (NDE) and astrocytic-derived (ADE) exosome cargo proteins as biomarkers of chronic mTBI in younger adults, we examined plasma exosomes from a prospective longitudinal study of combat-related risk and resilience, marine resiliency study II (MRSII). After return from a combat-deployment participants were interviewed to assess TBI exposure while on deployment. Plasma exosomes from military service members with mTBI (mean age, 21.7 years, n = 19, avg. days since injury 151), and age-matched, controls (deployed service members who did not endorse a deployment-related TBI or a pre-deployment history of TBI; mean age, 21.95 years, n = 20) were precipitated and enriched against a neuronal adhesion protein, L1-CAM, and an astrocyte marker, glutamine aspartate transporter (GLAST) using magnetic beads to immunocapture the proteins and subsequently selected by fluorescent activated cell sorting (FACS). Extracted protein cargo from NDE and ADE preparations were quantified for protein levels implicated in TBI neuropathology by standard ELISAs and on the ultra-sensitive single molecule assay (Simoa) platform. Plasma NDE and ADE levels of Aß42 were significantly higher while plasma NDE and ADE levels of the postsynaptic protein, neurogranin (NRGN) were significantly lower in participants endorsing mTBI exposure compared to controls with no TBI history. Plasma NDE and ADE levels of Aß40, total tau, and neurofilament light (NFL), P-T181-tau, P-S396-tau were either undetectable or not significantly different between the two groups. In an effort to understand the pathogenetic potential of NDE and ADE cargo proteins, neuron-like cultures were treated with NDE and ADE preparations from TBI and non-TBI groups. Lastly, we determined that plasma NDE but not ADE cargo proteins from mTBI samples were found to be toxic to neuron-like recipient cells in vitro. These data support the presence of markers of neurodegeneration in NDEs of mTBI and suggest that these NDEs can be used as tools to identify pathogenic mechanisms of TBI.

8.
Eur J Psychotraumatol ; 10(1): 1679964, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31723377

RESUMO

Background: Insomnia is common in service members and associated with many mental and physical health problems. Recently, longitudinal data have been used to assess the impact of disturbed sleep on mental health outcomes. These studies have consistently shown relationships between sleep disturbance and development of mental illness. Objective: The present study examined the longitudinal relationship between sleep disturbance and PTSD symptomatology in a cohort of Marines and Navy Corpsmen deployed to Iraq and Afghanistan (n = 2,404) assessed prior to deployment, as well as at -3 and 6 months post-deployment. Additionally, we aimed to investigate the extent to which these relationships are moderated by combat-stress severity, and to what extent these findings are replicated in a second, separate cohort of Marines and Navy corpsmen (n = 938) assessed with identical measures prior to deployment and within 3 months of return. Method: The present study employed latent variable path models to examine the relationships between pre-deployment sleep disturbance and post-deployment re-experiencing symptoms. Initial cross-lagged path models were conducted on discovery and replication samples to validate the hypothesized predictive relationships. Follow up moderation path models were then conducted to include the effect of combat-stress severity on these relationships. Results: Initial cross-lagged models supported a significant relationship between pre-deployment sleep disturbance and future re-experiencing PTSD symptoms at all time points. Initial moderation models showed a small moderator effect of combat-stress severity, though the main predictive relationship between pre-deployment sleep disturbance and PTSD symptoms remained significant. The moderator effect was not significant in the replication sample. Conclusions: The results of this study support pre-deployment sleep disturbance as a risk factor for development of post-deployment PTSD symptoms. Interventions aimed at normalizing sleep may be important in preventive measures for PTSD.

9.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4558, 2019 10 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31594949

RESUMO

The risk of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) following trauma is heritable, but robust common variants have yet to be identified. In a multi-ethnic cohort including over 30,000 PTSD cases and 170,000 controls we conduct a genome-wide association study of PTSD. We demonstrate SNP-based heritability estimates of 5-20%, varying by sex. Three genome-wide significant loci are identified, 2 in European and 1 in African-ancestry analyses. Analyses stratified by sex implicate 3 additional loci in men. Along with other novel genes and non-coding RNAs, a Parkinson's disease gene involved in dopamine regulation, PARK2, is associated with PTSD. Finally, we demonstrate that polygenic risk for PTSD is significantly predictive of re-experiencing symptoms in the Million Veteran Program dataset, although specific loci did not replicate. These results demonstrate the role of genetic variation in the biology of risk for PTSD and highlight the necessity of conducting sex-stratified analyses and expanding GWAS beyond European ancestry populations.


Assuntos
Loci Gênicos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/genética , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/genética , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores Sexuais , Veteranos/estatística & dados numéricos
10.
Bioelectron Med ; 52019 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31435499

RESUMO

Well-established in the field of bioelectronic medicine, Spinal Cord Stimulation (SCS) offers an implantable, non-pharmacologic treatment for patients with intractable chronic pain conditions. Chronic pain is a widely heterogenous syndrome with regard to both pathophysiology and the resultant phenotype. Despite advances in our understanding of SCS-mediated antinociception, there still exists limited evidence clarifying the pathways recruited when patterned electric pulses are applied to the epidural space. The rapid clinical implementation of novel SCS methods including burst, high frequency and dorsal root ganglion SCS has provided the clinician with multiple options to treat refractory chronic pain. While compelling evidence for safety and efficacy exists in support of these novel paradigms, our understanding of their mechanisms of action (MOA) dramatically lags behind clinical data. In this review, we reconstruct the available basic science and clinical literature that offers support for mechanisms of both paresthesia spinal cord stimulation (P-SCS) and paresthesia-free spinal cord stimulation (PF-SCS). While P-SCS has been heavily examined since its inception, PF-SCS paradigms have recently been clinically approved with the support of limited preclinical research. Thus, wide knowledge gaps exist between their clinical efficacy and MOA. To close this gap, many rich investigative avenues for both P-SCS and PF-SCS are underway, which will further open the door for paradigm optimization, adjunctive therapies and new indications for SCS. As our understanding of these mechanisms evolves, clinicians will be empowered with the possibility of improving patient care using SCS to selectively target specific pathophysiological processes in chronic pain.

11.
Psychiatry Res ; 275: 287-295, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30953873

RESUMO

Veterans' spouses are at risk for mental distress and substance use. We examined long term psychological functioning in spouses from a national cohort of 1991 Gulf War era veterans. From clinical interviews, spouses of deployed veterans (n = 488) did not have a greater prevalence of post-war mental disorders compared to spouses of non-deployed veterans (n = 536); however, in couples that were living together since the war, there was an increased risk of anxiety disorders or any one disorder. On questionnaires, the impact varied but was most consistently observed in more severe depression and greater functional impairment in spouses of deployed compared to non-deployed veterans. If a veteran developed post-war anxious/depressive disorders or any one mental disorder, the matched spouse was more likely to develop post-war anxious/depressive disorders or any one mental disorder, respectively. Veteran combat exposure did not similarly increase the risk of spouse post-war mental disorders. Greater spouse self-reported symptomatology was observed in spouses of veterans with anxious/depressive disorders even when controlling for deployment. In summary, the war conferred greater risk for spouse mental disorders and distress for spouses of veterans with mental health disorders, with some increased risk for spouses of deployed veterans, especially in couples together since the war.


Assuntos
Guerra do Golfo , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Família Militar/psicologia , Cônjuges/psicologia , Veteranos/psicologia , Adulto , Transtornos de Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/psicologia , Estudos de Coortes , Depressão/epidemiologia , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Saúde Mental , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Doenças Profissionais/psicologia , Prevalência , Autorrelato , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
12.
Front Psychiatry ; 10: 118, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30914979

RESUMO

Early life stressors display a high universal prevalence and constitute a major public health problem. Prolonged psychoneurobiological alterations as sequelae of early life stress (ELS) could represent a developmental risk factor and mediate risk for disease, leading to higher physical and mental morbidity rates in later life. ELS could exert a programming effect on sensitive neuronal brain networks related to the stress response during critical periods of development and thus lead to enduring hyper- or hypo-activation of the stress system and altered glucocorticoid signaling. In addition, alterations in emotional and autonomic reactivity, circadian rhythm disruption, functional and structural changes in the brain, as well as immune and metabolic dysregulation have been lately identified as important risk factors for a chronically impaired homeostatic balance after ELS. Furthermore, human genetic background and epigenetic modifications through stress-related gene expression could interact with these alterations and explain inter-individual variation in vulnerability or resilience to stress. This narrative review presents relevant evidence from mainly human research on the ten most acknowledged neurobiological allostatic pathways exerting enduring adverse effects of ELS even decades later (hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, autonomic nervous system, immune system and inflammation, oxidative stress, cardiovascular system, gut microbiome, sleep and circadian system, genetics, epigenetics, structural, and functional brain correlates). Although most findings back a causal relation between ELS and psychobiological maladjustment in later life, the precise developmental trajectories and their temporal coincidence has not been elucidated as yet. Future studies should prospectively investigate putative mediators and their temporal sequence, while considering the potentially delayed time-frame for their phenotypical expression. Better screening strategies for ELS are needed for a better individual prevention and treatment.

13.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 5055, 2019 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30911067

RESUMO

The intra-renal dopamine (DA) system is highly expressed in the proximal tubule and contributes to Na+ and blood pressure homeostasis, as well as to the development of nephropathy. In the kidney, the enzyme DOPA Decarboxylase (DDC) originating from the circulation. We used a twin/family study design, followed by polymorphism association analysis at DDC locus to elucidate heritable influences on renal DA production. Dense single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping across the DDC locus on chromosome 7p12 was analyzed by re-sequencing guided by trait-associated genetic markers to discover the responsible genetic variation. We also characterized kinetics of the expressed DDC mutant enzyme. Systematic polymorphism screening across the 15-Exon DDC locus revealed a single coding variant in Exon-14 that was associated with DA excretion and multiple other renal traits indicating pleiotropy. When expressed and characterized in eukaryotic cells, the 462Gln variant displayed lower Vmax (maximal rate of product formation by an enzyme) (21.3 versus 44.9 nmol/min/mg) and lower Km (substrate concentration at which half-maximal product formation is achieved by an enzyme.)(36.2 versus 46.8 µM) than the wild-type (Arg462) allele. The highly heritable DA excretion trait is substantially influenced by a previously uncharacterized common coding variant (Arg462Gln) at the DDC gene that affects multiple renal tubular and glomerular traits, and predicts accelerated functional decline in chronic kidney disease.

14.
Aggress Behav ; 45(4): 417-426, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30835866

RESUMO

Hostility, anger, and aggression are conceptually related but unique constructs found to occur more often among veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) than among civilians or veterans without PTSD. However, the pathways between PTSD, depression, hostility, anger, and aggression have not been comprehensively characterized. Therefore, drawing on a sample of returning Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom combat veterans ( N = 175; 95% male; mean age 30 years), this study sought to examine the direct and indirect relationships among PTSD, depression, hostility, anger, and four types of aggression: verbal, and physical toward self, others, and objects. Functional modeling of direct effects was done using multiple least-squares regression and bootstrapped mediation analyses were carried out to test indirect effects. Results indicate that PTSD is not the overall direct contributor to different forms of aggression, supporting the mediating role of depression and trait anger. Depression symptoms explain part of the relationships between PTSD and verbal aggression, physical aggression toward objects, and physical aggression toward self and trait anger explains part of the relationships between PTSD and verbal aggression, physical aggression toward objects, and physical aggression toward others. Our findings support the importance of assessing for anger, depression, and different types of aggression among veterans presenting for PTSD treatment to develop individualized treatment plans that may benefit from early incorporation of interventions.

15.
PLoS One ; 14(2): e0201212, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30759089

RESUMO

The mechanisms by which noninvasive vagal nerve stimulation (nVNS) affect central and peripheral neural circuits that subserve pain and autonomic physiology are not clear, and thus remain an area of intense investigation. Effects of nVNS vs sham stimulation on subject responses to five noxious thermal stimuli (applied to left lower extremity), were measured in 30 healthy subjects (n = 15 sham and n = 15 nVNS), with fMRI and physiological galvanic skin response (GSR). With repeated noxious thermal stimuli a group × time analysis showed a significantly (p < .001) decreased response with nVNS in bilateral primary and secondary somatosensory cortices (SI and SII), left dorsoposterior insular cortex, bilateral paracentral lobule, bilateral medial dorsal thalamus, right anterior cingulate cortex, and right orbitofrontal cortex. A group × time × GSR analysis showed a significantly decreased response in the nVNS group (p < .0005) bilaterally in SI, lower and mid medullary brainstem, and inferior occipital cortex. Finally, nVNS treatment showed decreased activity in pronociceptive brainstem nuclei (e.g. the reticular nucleus and rostral ventromedial medulla) and key autonomic integration nuclei (e.g. the rostroventrolateral medulla, nucleus ambiguous, and dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus nerve). In aggregate, noninvasive vagal nerve stimulation reduced the physiological response to noxious thermal stimuli and impacted neural circuits important for pain processing and autonomic output.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Resposta Galvânica da Pele , Temperatura Alta , Manejo da Dor/métodos , Dor/fisiopatologia , Estimulação do Nervo Vago , Adolescente , Adulto , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Mapeamento Encefálico , Feminino , Resposta Galvânica da Pele/fisiologia , Temperatura Alta/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Extremidade Inferior , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Vias Neurais/diagnóstico por imagem , Vias Neurais/fisiopatologia , Dor/diagnóstico por imagem , Percepção da Dor/fisiologia , Projetos Piloto , Adulto Jovem
16.
Cereb Cortex ; 29(5): 1953-1968, 2019 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29668852

RESUMO

Combat-related mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is a leading cause of sustained cognitive impairment in military service members and Veterans. However, the mechanism of persistent cognitive deficits including working memory (WM) dysfunction is not fully understood in mTBI. Few studies of WM deficits in mTBI have taken advantage of the temporal and frequency resolution afforded by electromagnetic measurements. Using magnetoencephalography (MEG) and an N-back WM task, we investigated functional abnormalities in combat-related mTBI. Study participants included 25 symptomatic active-duty service members or Veterans with combat-related mTBI and 20 healthy controls with similar combat experiences. MEG source-magnitude images were obtained for alpha (8-12 Hz), beta (15-30 Hz), gamma (30-90 Hz), and low-frequency (1-7 Hz) bands. Compared with healthy combat controls, mTBI participants showed increased MEG signals across frequency bands in frontal pole (FP), ventromedial prefrontal cortex, orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), and anterior dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC), but decreased MEG signals in anterior cingulate cortex. Hyperactivations in FP, OFC, and anterior dlPFC were associated with slower reaction times. MEG activations in lateral FP also negatively correlated with performance on tests of letter sequencing, verbal fluency, and digit symbol coding. The profound hyperactivations from FP suggest that FP is particularly vulnerable to combat-related mTBI.

17.
Psychoneuroendocrinology ; 100: 237-245, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30390522

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acute and chronic stress can lead to a dysregulation of the immune response. Growing evidence suggests peripheral immune dysregulation and low-grade systemic inflammation in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), with numerous reports of elevated plasma interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels. However, only a few studies have assessed IL-6 levels in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Most of those have used single time-point measurements, and thus cannot take circadian level variability and CSF-plasma IL-6 correlations into account. METHODS: This study used time-matched, sequential 24-h plasma and CSF measurements to investigate the effects of combat stress and PTSD on physiologic levels and biorhythmicity of IL-6 in 35 male study volunteers, divided in 3 groups: (PTSD = 12, combat controls, CC = 12, and non-deployed healthy controls, HC = 11). RESULTS: Our findings show no differences in diurnal mean concentrations of plasma and CSF IL-6 across the three comparison groups. However, a significantly blunted circadian rhythm of plasma IL-6 across 24 h was observed in all combat-zone deployed participants, with or without PTSD, in comparison to HC. CSF IL-6 rhythmicity was unaffected by combat deployment or PTSD. CONCLUSIONS: Although no significant group differences in mean IL-6 concentration in either CSF or plasma over a 24-h timeframe was observed, we provide first evidence for a disrupted peripheral IL-6 circadian rhythm as a sequel of combat deployment, with this disruption occurring in both PTSD and CC groups. The plasma IL-6 circadian blunting remains to be replicated and its cause elucidated in future research.

18.
Neuropsychopharmacology ; 44(5): 876-882, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30470840

RESUMO

Increasing evidence indicates that, in addition to poverty, maternal depression, and other well-established factors, unpredictability of maternal and environmental signals early in life influences trajectories of brain development, determining risk for subsequent mental illness. However, whereas most risk factors for later vulnerability to mental illness are readily measured using existing, clinically available tools, there are no similar measures for assessing early-life unpredictability. Here we validate the Questionnaire of Unpredictability in Childhood (QUIC) and examine its associations with mental health in the context of other indicators of childhood adversity (e.g., traumatic life events, socioeconomic status, and parenting quality). The QUIC was initially validated through administration to a cohort of adult females (N = 116) and then further refined in two additional independent cohorts (male Veterans, N = 95, and male and female adolescents, N = 175). The QUIC demonstrated excellent internal (α = 0.89) and test-retest reliability (r = 92). Scores on the QUIC were positively correlated with other prospective indicators of exposures to unpredictable maternal inputs in infancy and childhood (unpredictable maternal mood and sensory signals), and accuracy of recall also was confirmed with prospective data. Importantly, the QUIC predicted symptoms of anxiety, depression, and anhedonia in the three study cohorts, and these effects persisted after adjusting for other previously established risk factors. The QUIC, a reliable and valid self-report assessment of exposure to unpredictability in the social, emotional, and physical domains during early life, is a brief, comprehensive, and promising instrument for predicting risk for mental illness.


Assuntos
Experiências Adversas da Infância , Anedonia , Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Depressão/diagnóstico , Comportamento Materno , Poder Familiar , Psicometria/instrumentação , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Trauma Psicológico/diagnóstico , Psicometria/normas , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Autorrelato , Classe Social , Veteranos
19.
Curr Top Behav Neurosci ; 38: 249-265, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29796839

RESUMO

Anhedonia, the reduced ability to experience pleasure, is a dimensional entity linked to multiple neuropsychiatric disorders, where it is associated with diminished treatment response, reduced global function, and increased suicidality. It has been suggested that anhedonia and the related disruption in reward processing may be critical precursors to development of psychiatric symptoms later in life. Here, we examine cross-species evidence supporting the hypothesis that early life experiences modulate development of reward processing, which if disrupted, result in anhedonia. Importantly, we find that anhedonia may confer risk for later neuropsychiatric disorders, especially posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Whereas childhood trauma has long been associated with increased anhedonia and increased subsequent risk for trauma-related disorders in adulthood, here we focus on an additional novel, emerging direct contributor to anhedonia in rodents and humans: fragmented, chaotic environmental signals ("FRAG") during critical periods of development. In rodents, recent data suggest that adolescent anhedonia may derive from aberrant pleasure/reward circuit maturation. In humans, recent longitudinal studies support that FRAG is associated with increased anhedonia in adolescence. Both human and rodent FRAG exposure also leads to aberrant hippocampal function. Prospective studies are underway to examine if anhedonia is also a marker of PTSD risk. These preliminary cross-species studies provide a critical construct for future examination of the etiology of trauma-related symptoms in adults and for and development of prophylactic and therapeutic interventions. In addition, longitudinal studies of reward circuit development with and without FRAG will be critical to test the mechanistic hypothesis that early life FRAG modifies reward circuitry with subsequent consequences for adolescent-emergent anhedonia and contributes to risk and resilience to trauma and stress in adulthood.


Assuntos
Anedonia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Adolescente , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Recompensa
20.
Biol Psychol ; 134: 72-79, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29471015

RESUMO

In order to decrease the risk of developing stress-related disorders after military deployment, biological vulnerability factors should be identified. Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is a peptide neurotransmitter that is associated with modulation of the stress response. Using the data of two longitudinal prospective cohort studies (N = 892 and N = 2427), plasma NPY (pNPY) was assessed as a possible susceptibility biomarker for the development of PTSD symptoms over time. Data collection started prior to deployment and follow-up assessments were completed up to two years after deployment. In pNPY levels, measured before and shortly after deployment, three distinct trajectories were identified. In both cohorts, these trajectories were not related to the level of reported PTSD symptoms over time and neither were pre-deployment pNPY levels. Whereas previous research suggested that high NPY levels might be a marker for resilience, the current findings suggest limited usefulness of peripherally measured NPY in the development of PTSD.


Assuntos
Distúrbios de Guerra/sangue , Neuropeptídeo Y/sangue , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/sangue , Adolescente , Adulto , Campanha Afegã de 2001- , Distúrbios de Guerra/psicologia , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Militares , Estudos Prospectivos , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Resiliência Psicológica , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
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