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2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32029909

RESUMO

Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is currently the standard of care for many malignant and nonmalignant blood diseases. As several treatment-emerging acute toxicities are expected, optimal supportive measurements critically affect HSCT outcomes. The paucity of good clinical studies in supportive practices gives rise to the establishment of heterogeneous guidelines across the different centers, which hampers direct clinical comparison in multicentric studies. Aiming to harmonize the supportive care provided during the pediatric HSCT in Europe, the Pediatric Diseases Working Party (PDWP) of the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT) promoted dedicated workshops during the years 2017 and 2018. The present paper describes the resulting consensus on the management of sinusoidal obstructive syndrome, mucositis, enteral and parenteral nutrition, iron overload, and emesis during HSCT.

3.
Front Pediatr ; 7: 461, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31799221

RESUMO

Primary immunodeficiency disorders that predominantly affect immune regulation and mechanisms of self-tolerance have come into the limelight, because at least for a subgroup of monogenetic disorders, a targeted therapy has become available. Nevertheless, their management often involves the treatment of severely compromising, refractory, multi-organ autoimmunity, leading to further increased susceptibility to infections and complications of long-term immune suppressive treatment, including the risk of malignancy. While evidence for allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (alloHSCT) as a curative treatment option for severely affected patients by this disease category accumulates, clear indications, and guidelines for alloHSCT are lacking. Predictive and stratification-relevant tools such as disease activity scores are largely missing and often there is not a consistent genotype-phenotype correlation within the same family to facilitate the decision whether to transplant or not. In this review, we provide a literature-based update on indications and outcomes of alloHSCT for congenital immune dysregulative inborn errors of immunity according to the IUIS classification 2017.

4.
Cells ; 8(12)2019 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31817480

RESUMO

(1) Background: Refractory acute graft-versus-host disease (R-aGvHD) remains a leading cause of death after allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Survival rates of 15% after four years are currently achieved; deaths are only in part due to aGvHD itself, but mostly due to adverse effects of R-aGvHD treatment with immunosuppressive agents as these predispose patients to opportunistic infections and loss of graft-versus-leukemia surveillance resulting in relapse. Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) from different tissues and those generated by various protocols have been proposed as a remedy for R-aGvHD but the enthusiasm raised by initial reports has not been ubiquitously reproduced. (2) Methods: We previously reported on a unique MSC product, which was generated from pooled bone marrow mononuclear cells of multiple third-party donors. The products showed dose-to-dose equipotency and greater immunosuppressive capacity than individually expanded MSCs from the same donors. This product, MSC-FFM, has entered clinical routine in Germany where it is licensed with a national hospital exemption authorization. We previously reported satisfying initial clinical outcomes, which we are now updating. The data were collected in our post-approval pharmacovigilance program, i.e., this is not a clinical study and the data is high-level and non-monitored. (3) Results: Follow-up for 92 recipients of MSC-FFM was reported, 88 with GvHD ≥°III, one-third only steroid-refractory and two-thirds therapy resistant (refractory to steroids plus ≥2 additional lines of treatment). A median of three doses of MSC-FFM was administered without apparent toxicity. Overall response rates were 82% and 81% at the first and last evaluation, respectively. At six months, the estimated overall survival was 64%, while the cumulative incidence of death from underlying disease was 3%. (4) Conclusions: MSC-FFM promises to be a safe and efficient treatment for severe R-aGvHD.

5.
Front Immunol ; 10: 2785, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31849966

RESUMO

Background: Ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T) is a multisystem disorder with progressive cerebellar ataxia, immunodeficiency, chromosomal instability, and increased cancer susceptibility. Cellular immunodeficiency is based on naïve CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell lymphopenia. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) offers a potential to cure immunodeficiency and cancer due to restoration of the lymphopoietic system. The aim of this investigation was to analyze the effect of HSCT on naïve CD4+ as well as CD8+ T-cell numbers in A-T. Methods: We analyzed total numbers of peripheral naïve (CD45RA+CD62L+) and memory (CD45RO+CD62L-) CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells of 32 A-T patients. Naïve (CD62LhighCD44low) and memory (CD62LlowCD44high) T-cells were also measured in Atm-deficient mice before and after HSCT with GFP-expressing bone marrow derived hematopoietic stem cells. In addition, we analyzed T-cells in the peripheral blood of two A-T patients after HLA-identic allogeneic HSCT. Results: Like in humans, naïve CD4+ as well as naïve CD8+ lymphocytes were decreased in Atm-deficient mice. HSCT significantly inhibited thymic lymphomas and increased survival time in these animals. Donor cell chimerism increased up to more than 50% 6 months after HSCT accompanied by a significant increase of naïve CD4 and CD8 T-cell subpopulations, but not of memory T-cells. This finding was also identified in the blood of the A-T patients after HSCT. Conclusion: HSCT seems to be a feasible strategy to overcome immunodeficiency and might be a conceivable strategy to avoid T-cell driven cancer in A-T at higher risk for malignancy. Naïve CD4 and CD8 T-cells counts are suitable markers for monitoring immune reconstitution post-HSCT. However, risks and benefits of HSCT in A-T have to be properly weighted.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31887391

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent findings strongly support hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in patients with severe presentation of LPS-responsive beige-like anchor protein (LRBA) deficiency, but long-term follow-up and survival data beyond previous patient reports or meta-reviews are scarce for those patients who do not receive a transplant. OBJECTIVE: This international retrospective study was conducted to elucidate the longitudinal clinical course of patients with LRBA deficiency who do and do not receive a transplant. METHOD: We assessed disease burden and treatment responses with a specially developed immune deficiency and dysregulation activity score, reflecting the sum and severity of organ involvement and infections, days of hospitalization, supportive care requirements, and performance indices. RESULTS: Of 76 patients with LRBA deficiency from 29 centers (median follow-up, 10 years; range, 1-52), 24 underwent HSCT from 2005 to 2019. The overall survival rate after HSCT (median follow-up, 20 months) was 70.8% (17 of 24 patients); all deaths were due to nonspecific, early, transplant-related mortality. Currently, 82.7% of patients who did not receive a transplant (43 of 52; age range, 3-69 years) are alive. Of 17 HSCT survivors, 7 are in complete remission and 5 are in good partial remission without treatment (together, 12 of 17 [70.6%]). In contrast, only 5 of 43 patients who did not receive a transplant (11.6%) are without immunosuppression. Immune deficiency and dysregulation activity scores were significantly lower in patients who survived HSCT than in those receiving conventional treatment (P = .005) or in patients who received abatacept or sirolimus as compared with other therapies, and in patients with residual LRBA expression. Higher disease burden, longer duration before HSCT, and lung involvement were associated with poor outcome. CONCLUSION: The lifelong disease activity, implying a need for immunosuppression and risk of malignancy, must be weighed against the risks of HSCT.

7.
Front Pediatr ; 7: 436, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31709206

RESUMO

Congenital disorders of the immune system affecting maturation and/or function of phagocytic leucocytes can result in severe infectious and inflammatory complications with high mortality and morbidity. Further complications include progression to MDS/AML in some cases. Allogeneic stem cell transplantation is the only curative treatment for most patients with these diseases. In this review, we provide a detailed update on indications and outcomes of alloHSCT for congenital neutrophil disorders, based on data from the available literature.

8.
Front Immunol ; 10: 1272, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31379802

RESUMO

Introduction: The German PID-NET registry was founded in 2009, serving as the first national registry of patients with primary immunodeficiencies (PID) in Germany. It is part of the European Society for Immunodeficiencies (ESID) registry. The primary purpose of the registry is to gather data on the epidemiology, diagnostic delay, diagnosis, and treatment of PIDs. Methods: Clinical and laboratory data was collected from 2,453 patients from 36 German PID centres in an online registry. Data was analysed with the software Stata® and Excel. Results: The minimum prevalence of PID in Germany is 2.72 per 100,000 inhabitants. Among patients aged 1-25, there was a clear predominance of males. The median age of living patients ranged between 7 and 40 years, depending on the respective PID. Predominantly antibody disorders were the most prevalent group with 57% of all 2,453 PID patients (including 728 CVID patients). A gene defect was identified in 36% of patients. Familial cases were observed in 21% of patients. The age of onset for presenting symptoms ranged from birth to late adulthood (range 0-88 years). Presenting symptoms comprised infections (74%) and immune dysregulation (22%). Ninety-three patients were diagnosed without prior clinical symptoms. Regarding the general and clinical diagnostic delay, no PID had undergone a slight decrease within the last decade. However, both, SCID and hyper IgE- syndrome showed a substantial improvement in shortening the time between onset of symptoms and genetic diagnosis. Regarding treatment, 49% of all patients received immunoglobulin G (IgG) substitution (70%-subcutaneous; 29%-intravenous; 1%-unknown). Three-hundred patients underwent at least one hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Five patients had gene therapy. Conclusion: The German PID-NET registry is a precious tool for physicians, researchers, the pharmaceutical industry, politicians, and ultimately the patients, for whom the outcomes will eventually lead to a more timely diagnosis and better treatment.

9.
Biol Blood Marrow Transplant ; 25(7): 1281-1292, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30878607

RESUMO

Well-established donor lymphocyte infusion (DLI) and novel cytokine-induced killer (CIK) cell therapy for the treatment of relapsing hematologic malignancies after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) were compared with respect to feasibility, safety, and efficacy. Altogether, a total of 221 infusions were given to 91 patients (DLI, n = 55; CIK, n = 36). T cell recovery was significantly improved after CIK cell therapy (P < .0001). Although patients with CIK cell treatment showed a significantly worse prognosis at the time of HSCT (risk score, 1.7 versus 2.1; P < .0001), DLI and CIK cell therapy induced complete remission (CR) in 29% and 53% patients, respectively, whereas relapse occurred in 71% and 47%. In both groups, all patients with overt hematologic relapse at the time of immunotherapy (DLI, n = 11; CIK, n = 8) succumbed to their disease, while 36% and 68% patients with DLI or CIK cell therapy applied due to molecular relapse or active disease at the time of transplantation achieved CR. The 6-month overall survival rate in the latter patients was 57% and 77%, respectively, with a median follow-up of 27.9 months (range, .9 to 149.2 months). The 6-month cumulative incidence of relapse was 55% and 22% in patients who received DLI and CIK cell therapy, respectively (P = .012). Acute graft-versus-host disease developed in 35% of the patients who received DLI and in 25% of those who received CIK. No transfusion-related deaths occurred. These data, while underscoring the therapeutic value of conventional DLI, suggest the improved safety and to a certain extent efficacy of CIK cell therapy for patients at high risk for post-transplantation relapse of various hematologic malignancies.

10.
J Clin Immunol ; 39(1): 81-89, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30607663

RESUMO

The association of immunodeficiency-related vaccine-derived rubella virus (iVDRV) with cutaneous and visceral granulomatous disease has been reported in patients with primary immunodeficiency disorders (PIDs). The majority of these PID patients with rubella-positive granulomas had DNA repair disorders. To support this line of inquiry, we provide additional descriptive data on seven previously reported patients with Nijmegen breakage syndrome (NBS) (n = 3) and ataxia telangiectasia (AT) (n = 4) as well as eight previously unreported patients with iVDRV-induced cutaneous granulomas and DNA repair disorders including NBS (n = 1), AT (n = 5), DNA ligase 4 deficiency (n = 1), and Artemis deficiency (n = 1). We also provide descriptive data on several previously unreported PID patients with iVDRV-induced cutaneous granulomas including cartilage hair hypoplasia (n = 1), warts, hypogammaglobulinemia, immunodeficiency, myelokathexis (WHIM) syndrome (n = 1), MHC class II deficiency (n = 1), Coronin-1A deficiency (n = 1), X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency (X-SCID) (n = 1), and combined immunodeficiency without a molecular diagnosis (n = 1). At the time of this report, the median age of the patients with skin granulomas and DNA repair disorders was 9 years (range 3-18). Cutaneous granulomas have been documented in all, while visceral granulomas were observed in six cases (40%). All patients had received rubella virus vaccine. The median duration of time elapsed from vaccination to the development of cutaneous granulomas was 48 months (range 2-152). Hematopoietic cell transplantation was reported to result in scarring resolution of cutaneous granulomas in two patients with NBS, one patient with AT, one patient with Artemis deficiency, one patient with DNA Ligase 4 deficiency, one patient with MHC class II deficiency, and one patient with combined immunodeficiency without a known molecular etiology. Of the previously reported and unreported cases, the majority share the diagnosis of a DNA repair disorder. Analysis of additional patients with this complication may clarify determinants of rubella pathogenesis, identify specific immune defects resulting in chronic infection, and may lead to defect-specific therapies.


Assuntos
Reparo do DNA/genética , Granuloma/complicações , Granuloma/virologia , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/complicações , Vírus da Rubéola/patogenicidade , Dermatopatias/etiologia , Dermatopatias/virologia , Adolescente , Ataxia Telangiectasia/genética , Ataxia Telangiectasia/virologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Granuloma/genética , Cabelo/anormalidades , Cabelo/virologia , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/métodos , Doença de Hirschsprung/genética , Doença de Hirschsprung/virologia , Humanos , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/genética , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/virologia , Masculino , Síndrome de Quebra de Nijmegen/genética , Síndrome de Quebra de Nijmegen/virologia , Osteocondrodisplasias/congênito , Osteocondrodisplasias/genética , Osteocondrodisplasias/virologia , Rubéola (Sarampo Alemão)/genética , Rubéola (Sarampo Alemão)/virologia , Pele/virologia , Dermatopatias/genética , Doenças por Imunodeficiência Combinada Ligada ao Cromossomo X/genética , Doenças por Imunodeficiência Combinada Ligada ao Cromossomo X/virologia
11.
Bone Marrow Transplant ; 54(5): 737-745, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30258130

RESUMO

Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (alloHSCT) has become a well-established treatment option for many patients suffering from malignant and non-malignant diseases. In the past decade, high-resolution HLA-typing, remission surveillance, pre-emptive immune intervention, and standardisation in supportive care measures have substantially improved transplant outcomes. This retrospective study evaluated transplant procedures in 162 paediatric patients with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (n = 124) or acute myeloid leukaemia (n = 38) who received their first alloHSCT in our institution over an 11-year period. We observed a significant reduction in risk of non-relapse mortality (NRM) over time (HR = 0.34, 95% CI 0.12-0.98; P = 0.05), the 4-year NRM estimate decreased from 20% in 2005-2008 to 7% in 2012-2016 (P = 0.02) and an increase in survival after relapse. There was no significant difference in patients who received a graft from a sibling, haplo, or an unrelated donor with regard to their overall survival (P = 0.45), event-free survival (P = 0.61), and non-relapse mortality (P = 0.19). Our data suggest that a specific transplant infrastructure with a highly experienced team in an accredited transplant centre likely contributes to better transplant outcomes for acute leukaemia patients in complete remission regardless of donor type.

12.
Front Immunol ; 9: 2495, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30420857

RESUMO

Ataxia telangiectasia (A-T) is a primary immunodeficiency with mutations in the gene encoding the A-T mutated (ATM) protein that interacts with immune, hematopoietic, and endocrine targets resulting in broad multi-systemic clinical manifestations with a devastating outcome. Apart from a progressive neurodegenerative disorder, A-T leads to significantly increased susceptibility to malignancies. It is a matter of discussion whether pre-emptive allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (alloHSCT) using a reduced intensity conditioning regimen would be an option to restore immune-competence and prevent malignancy, as shown in animal models, because conventional treatment protocols of malignant diseases using radio- and/or chemotherapy have a high rate of therapy-related morbidity and mortality in these patients. We present the course of the disease, including immune reconstitution and neurological outcome following pre-emptive alloHSCT in a 4-year-old boy with A-T on a 6 year follow-up. Our manuscript provides a proof-of-concept of alloHSCT as an individual pre-emptive treatment strategy from which some A-T patients might benefit.


Assuntos
Ataxia Telangiectasia/terapia , Neoplasias Hematológicas/prevenção & controle , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/prevenção & controle , Animais , Ataxia Telangiectasia/complicações , Proteínas Mutadas de Ataxia Telangiectasia/genética , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Quimerismo , Neoplasias Hematológicas/etiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/etiologia , Medicina de Precisão , Condicionamento Pré-Transplante , Transplante Homólogo , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
Front Immunol ; 9: 2000, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30279689

RESUMO

Background: Ataxia telangiectasia (A-T) is a devastating multi-system disorder characterized by progressive cerebellar ataxia, growth retardation, immunodeficiency, chronic pulmonary disease and chromosomal instability. Cutaneous granulomas are a known phenomenon in A-T but extra-dermal manifestation of granulomas at bone and synovia has not been reported so far. The clinical presentation, immunological findings, the long-term course and treatment options of eight patients with severe granulomas will be reported. Methods: From our cohort of 44 classical A-T patients, eight patients aged 2-11 years (18.2%) presented with granulomas. Immunological features of patients with and without granulomas were compared. Five patients suffered from cutaneous manifestation, in two patients we detected a bone and in one a joint involvement. Patients with significant extra-dermal involvement as well as one patient with massive skin manifestation were treated with TNF inhibitors. The patient with granulomas at his finger joint and elbow was treated with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Results: Interestingly, seven of eight patients with granulomas were total IgA deficient, but there were no differences in IgG and IgM levels. All lymphocytes subsets were equally distributed except patients with granuloma had significantly lower naïve CD8 cells. In patients without treatment, four of eight showed a slow but significant enlargement of the granuloma. Treatment success with TNF inhibitors was variable. In one patient, treatment with TNF inhibitors led to a total remission for 3 years up to now. In two patients, treatment with TNF inhibitors led to a partial regression of granulomas. Treatment interruptions caused deterioration again. Conclusions: Granulomas in A-T progress slowly over years and can lead to significant morbidity.Treatment with TNF inhibitors was safe and in part successful in our patients. Interestingly HSCT leads to complete remission, and indicates that aberrant immune function is responsible for granulomas in A-T patients. What This Study Adds to the Field: Granulomas in A-T progress slowly over years and can lead to significant morbidity. Treatment with TNF inhibitors was safe and in part successful in our patients. AT A GLANCE COMMENTARY: Scientific knowledge on the subject: Little is known about the clinical presentation, course and treatment of granulomas in ataxia telangiectasia (A-T). In addition, this is the first report of extra-dermal manifestation of granulomas at bone and synovia in patients with A-T. What This Study Adds to the Field: Granulomas in A-T progress slowly over years and can lead to significant morbidity. Treatment with TNF inhibitors was safe and in part successful in our patients.


Assuntos
Adalimumab/uso terapêutico , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Ataxia Telangiectasia/terapia , Granuloma/terapia , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Infliximab/uso terapêutico , Dermatopatias/terapia , Adalimumab/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Infliximab/farmacologia , Masculino , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Front Pediatr ; 6: 121, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29780793

RESUMO

B lymphocytes are key players in humoral immunity, expressing diverse surface immunoglobulin receptors directed against specific antigenic epitopes. The development and profile of distinct subpopulations have gained awareness in the setting of primary immunodeficiency disorders, primary or secondary autoimmunity and as therapeutic targets of specific antibodies in various diseases. The major B cell subpopulations in peripheral blood include naïve (CD19+ or CD20+IgD+CD27-), non-switched memory (CD19+ or CD20+IgD+CD27+) and switched memory B cells (CD19+ or CD20+IgD-CD27+). Furthermore, less common B cell subpopulations have also been described as having a role in the suppressive capacity of B cells to maintain self-tolerance. Data on reference values for B cell subpopulations are limited and only available for older age groups, neglecting the continuous process of human B cell development in children and adolescents. This study was designed to establish an exponential regression model to produce continuous reference values for main B cell subpopulations to reflect the dynamic maturation of the human immune system in healthy children.

15.
Bone Marrow Transplant ; 53(7): 852-862, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29379171

RESUMO

The inability to generate mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) of consistent potency likely is responsible for inconsistent clinical outcomes of patients with aGvHD receiving MSC products. We developed a novel MSC manufacturing protocol characterized by high in vitro potency and near-identity of individual doses, referred to as "MSC-Frankfurt am Main (MSC-FFM)". Herein, we report outcomes of the 69 patients who have received MSC-FFM. These were 51 children and 18 adults with refractory aGvHD grade II (4%), III (36%) or IV (59%). Patients were refractory either to frontline therapy (steroids) (29%) or to steroids and 1-5 additional lines of immunosuppressants (71%) were given infusions in four weekly intervals. The day 28 overall response rate was 83%; at the last follow-up, 61% and 25% of patients were in complete or partial remission. The median follow-up was 8.1 months. Six-month estimate for cumulative incidence of non-relapse mortality was 27% (range, 16-38); leukemia relapse mortality was 2% (range, 0-5). This was associated with a superior six-month overall survival (OS) probability rate of 71% (range, 61-83), compared to the outcome of patients not treated with MSC-FFM. This novel product was effective in children and adults, suggesting that MSC-FFM represents a promising therapy for steroid refractory aGvHD.


Assuntos
Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/terapia , Transplante de Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/métodos , Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Doença Aguda , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/mortalidade , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/patologia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Taxa de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
Front Immunol ; 8: 109, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28239380

RESUMO

Natural killer (NK) cells play an important role following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) exerting graft-versus-leukemia/tumor effect and mediating pathogen-specific immunity. Although NK cells are the first donor-derived lymphocytes reconstituting post-HSCT, their distribution of CD56++CD16- (CD56bright), CD56++CD16+ (CD56intermediate=int), and CD56+CD16++ (CD56dim) NK cells is explicitly divergent from healthy adults, but to some extent comparable to the NK cell development in early childhood. The proportion of CD56bright/CD56int/CD56dim changed from 15/8/78% in early childhood to 6/4/90% in adults, respectively. Within this study, we first compared the NK cell reconstitution post-HSCT to reference values of NK cell subpopulations of healthy children. Afterward, we investigated the reconstitution of NK cell subpopulations post-HSCT in correlation to acute graft versus host disease (aGvHD) and chronic graft versus host disease (cGvHD) as well as to viral infections. Interestingly, after a HSCT follow-up phase of 12 months, the distribution of NK cell subpopulations largely matched the 50th percentile of the reference range for healthy individuals. Patients suffering from aGvHD and cGvHD showed a delayed reconstitution of NK cells. Remarkably, within the first 2 months post-HSCT, patients suffering from aGvHD had significantly lower levels of CD56bright NK cells compared to patients without viral infection or without graft versus host disease (GvHD). Therefore, the amount of CD56bright NK cells might serve as an early prognostic factor for GvHD development. Furthermore, a prolonged and elevated peak in CD56int NK cells seemed to be characteristic for the chronification of GvHD. In context of viral infection, a slightly lower CD56 and CD16 receptor expression followed by a considerable reduction in the absolute CD56dim NK cell numbers combined with reoccurrence of CD56int NK cells was observed. Our results suggest that a precise analysis of the reconstitution of NK cell subpopulations post-HSCT might indicate the occurrence of undesired events post-HSCT such as severe aGvHD.

18.
Front Immunol ; 8: 52, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28197149

RESUMO

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in young children can be a clinical manifestation of various primary immunodeficiency syndromes. Poor clinical outcome is associated with poor quality of life and high morbidity from the complications of prolonged immunosuppressive treatment and malabsorption. In 2012, mutations in the lipopolysaccharide-responsive beige-like anchor (LRBA) gene were identified as the cause of an autoimmunity and immunodeficiency syndrome. Since then, several LRBA-deficient patients have been reported with a broad spectrum of clinical manifestations without reliable predictive prognostic markers. Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (alloHSCT) has been performed in a few severely affected patients with complete or partial response. Herein, we present a detailed course of the disease and the transplantation procedure used in a LRBA-deficient patient suffering primarily from infantile IBD with immune enteropathy since the age of 6 weeks, and progressive autoimmunity with major complications following long-term immunosuppressive treatment. At 12 years of age, alloHSCT using bone marrow of a fully matched sibling donor-a healthy heterozygous LRBA mutant carrier-was performed after conditioning with a reduced-intensity regimen. During the 6-year follow-up, we observed a complete remission of enteropathy, autoimmunity, and skin vitiligo, with complete donor chimerism. The genetic diagnosis of LRBA deficiency was made post-alloHSCT by detection of two compound heterozygous mutations, using targeted sequencing of DNA samples extracted from peripheral blood before the transplantation.

19.
Biol Blood Marrow Transplant ; 23(1): 87-95, 2017 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27742575

RESUMO

Monitoring of minimal residual disease (MRD) or chimerism may help guide pre-emptive immunotherapy (IT) with a view to preventing relapse in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) after transplantation. Patients with ALL who consecutively underwent transplantation in Frankfurt/Main, Germany between January 1, 2005 and July 1, 2014 were included in this retrospective study. Chimerism monitoring was performed in all, and MRD assessment was performed in 58 of 89 patients. IT was guided in 19 of 24 patients with mixed chimerism (MC) and MRD and by MRD only in another 4 patients with complete chimerism (CC). The 3-year probabilities of event-free survival (EFS) were .69 ± .06 for the cohort without IT and .69 ± .10 for IT patients. Incidences of relapse (CIR) and treatment-related mortality (CITRM) were equally distributed between both cohorts (without IT: 3-year CIR, .21 ± .05, 3-year CITRM, .10 ± .04; IT patients: 3-year CIR, .18 ± .09, 3-year CITRM .13 ± .07). Accordingly, 3-year EFS and 3-year CIR were similar in CC and MC patients with IT, whereas MC patients without IT experienced relapse. IT was neither associated with an enhanced immune recovery nor an increased risk for acute graft-versus-host disease. Relapse prevention by IT in patients at risk may lead to the same favorable outcome as found in CC and MRD-negative-patients. This underlines the importance of excellent MRD and chimerism monitoring after transplantation as the basis for IT to improve survival in childhood ALL.


Assuntos
Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Imunoterapia/métodos , Transfusão de Linfócitos , Neoplasia Residual/terapia , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/terapia , Prevenção Secundária/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Quimerismo , Feminino , Alemanha , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/mortalidade , Humanos , Imunossupressão , Imunoterapia/mortalidade , Masculino , Neoplasia Residual/diagnóstico , Neoplasia Residual/mortalidade , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/mortalidade , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/patologia , Recidiva , Análise de Sobrevida , Transplante Homólogo , Adulto Jovem
20.
Pediatr Transplant ; 20(8): 1132-1136, 2016 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27734564

RESUMO

CLS involves sudden loss of intravascular fluids into the interstitial spaces. CLS was described as a possible complication after SCT. Few studies report the incidence of CLS in pediatric populations. We aimed to assess CLS incidence, its risk factors, and impact on the survival. The clinical charts of patients <18 years of age transplanted at our institution between 2002 and 2012 were reviewed. CLS was defined by weight gain >3% in 24 hours and positive intake balance despite furosemide administration. In total, 234 patients underwent 275 allogeneic SCT procedures in the analyzed time frame. Fifteen patients developed CLS (5.4%). The probability of developing CLS was significantly increased in patients suffering from sepsis (14.3% vs 0.6%, P<.001). Patients with CLS exhibited an increased risk of acute GvHD in the first 30 days after SCT (10.8% vs 1.8%, P=.002). Ten of the patients with CLS required intensive care. CLS strongly impacts OS at day +100 after SCT and is a predictive factor of TRM at the same date (42.9% vs 5%, P<.0001). The biological relation among sepsis, GvHD, and CLS development in terms of cytokine release and endothelial damage warrants further studies.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Vazamento Capilar/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Vazamento Capilar/epidemiologia , Transplante de Células-Tronco/efeitos adversos , Doença Aguda , Adolescente , Peso Corporal , Síndrome de Vazamento Capilar/complicações , Criança , Citocinas/metabolismo , Feminino , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Análise Multivariada , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Sepse/complicações , Sepse/fisiopatologia , Condicionamento Pré-Transplante , Transplante Homólogo
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