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1.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 203(1): 37-53, 2021 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32667261

RESUMO

Rationale: New approaches are needed to guide personalized treatment of asthma.Objectives: To test if urinary eicosanoid metabolites can direct asthma phenotyping.Methods: Urinary metabolites of prostaglandins (PGs), cysteinyl leukotrienes (CysLTs), and isoprostanes were quantified in the U-BIOPRED (Unbiased Biomarkers for the Prediction of Respiratory Diseases Outcomes) study including 86 adults with mild-to-moderate asthma (MMA), 411 with severe asthma (SA), and 100 healthy control participants. Validation was performed internally in 302 participants with SA followed up after 12-18 months and externally in 95 adolescents with asthma.Measurement and Main Results: Metabolite concentrations in healthy control participants were unrelated to age, body mass index, and sex, except for the PGE2 pathway. Eicosanoid concentrations were generally greater in participants with MMA relative to healthy control participants, with further elevations in participants with SA. However, PGE2 metabolite concentrations were either the same or lower in male nonsmokers with asthma than in healthy control participants. Metabolite concentrations were unchanged in those with asthma who adhered to oral corticosteroid treatment as documented by urinary prednisolone detection, whereas those with SA treated with omalizumab had lower concentrations of LTE4 and the PGD2 metabolite 2,3-dinor-11ß-PGF2α. High concentrations of LTE4 and PGD2 metabolites were associated with lower lung function and increased amounts of exhaled nitric oxide and eosinophil markers in blood, sputum, and urine in U-BIOPRED participants and in adolescents with asthma. These type 2 (T2) asthma associations were reproduced in the follow-up visit of the U-BIOPRED study and were found to be as sensitive to detect T2 inflammation as the established biomarkers.Conclusions: Monitoring of urinary eicosanoids can identify T2 asthma and introduces a new noninvasive approach for molecular phenotyping of adult and adolescent asthma.Clinical trial registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT01976767).

2.
Eur Respir J ; 2020 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33303557

RESUMO

RATIONALE: There are no validated measures of disease activity in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Since "active" disease is expected to have worse outcomes (e.g. mortality), we explored potential markers of disease activity in patients enrolled in the ECLIPSE cohort in relation to 8-year all-cause mortality. METHODS: We investigated: (1) how changes in relevant clinical variables over time (1 or 3 years) relate to 8-year mortality; (2) whether these variables inter-relate; and (3) if any clinical, imaging, and/or biological marker measured cross-sectionally at baseline relates to any activity component. RESULTS: Results showed that: (1) After 1 year, hospitalisation for COPD, exacerbation frequency, worsening of body mass index, airflow obstruction, dyspnoea, and exercise (BODE) index or health status (St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire [SGRQ]), and persistence of systemic inflammation were significantly associated with 8-year mortality; (2) At 3 years, the same markers, plus forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) decline and to a lesser degree computed tomography (CT) emphysema, showed association, thus qualifying as markers of disease activity; (3) Changes in FEV1, inflammatory cytokines and CT emphysema were not inter-related, while the multidimensional indices (BODE and SGRQ) showed modest correlations; and, (4) Changes in these markers could not be predicted by any baseline cross-sectional measure. CONCLUSIONS: In COPD, 1- and 3-year changes in exacerbation frequency, systemic inflammation, BODE and SGRQ scores, and FEV1 decline are independent markers of disease activity associated with 8-year all-cause mortality. These disease activity markers are generally independent and not predictable from baseline measurements.

3.
Respirology ; 2020 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33164314

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Activation of the blood coagulation system is a common observation in inflammatory diseases. The role of coagulation in COPD is underexplored. METHODS: The study included 413 COPD patients and 49 controls from the 3-year Bergen COPD Cohort Study (BCCS). One hundred and forty-eight COPD patients were also examined during AECOPD. The plasma markers of coagulation activation, TAT complex, APC-PCI complex and D-dimer, were measured at baseline and during exacerbations by enzyme immunoassays. Differences in levels of the markers between stable COPD patients and controls, and between stable COPD and AECOPD were examined. The associations between coagulation markers and later AECOPD and mortality were examined by negative binomial and Cox regression analyses. RESULTS: TAT was significantly lower in stable COPD (1.03 ng/mL (0.76-1.44)) than in controls (1.28 (1.04-1.49), P = 0.002). During AECOPD, all markers were higher than in the stable state: TAT 2.56 versus 1.43 ng/mL, APC-PCI 489.3 versus 416.4 ng/mL and D-dimer 763.5 versus 479.7 ng/mL (P < 0.001 for all). Higher D-dimer in stable COPD predicted a higher mortality (HR: 1.60 (1.24-2.05), P < 0.001). Higher TAT was associated with both an increased risk of later exacerbations, with a yearly incidence rate ratio of 1.19 (1.04-1.37), and a faster time to the first exacerbation (HR: 1.25 (1.10-1.42), P = 0.001, all after adjustment). CONCLUSION: Activation of the coagulation system is increased during COPD exacerbations. Coagulation markers are potential predictors of later COPD exacerbations and mortality.

4.
COPD ; 17(6): 662-671, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33164586

RESUMO

Six-minute walk test (6MWT) measures walking distance (6MWD) and desaturation status in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients. This study aimed to examine whether change in 6MWD and desaturation in 1 year were risk factors for later mortality, lung function decline and number of exacerbations. A total of 295 COPD patients performed 6MWT at baseline and 1 year later in the Bergen COPD cohort study 2006-2011. They were clinically examined and interviewed at annual visits. Mortality information was collected from the Norwegian Cause of Death Registry in 2015. We performed cox regression for mortality outcomes, linear mixed effect models for lung function, and negative binomial regression for exacerbations. Patients who desaturated in both 6MWTs had increased risk of all-cause and respiratory mortality, hazard ratio (HR) 2.7 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.5-5.0) and 3.6 (95% CI 1.7-7.6), respectively, compared to non-desaturators. Patients who desaturated only at second 6MWT were at risk for all-cause mortality (HR 2.0, 95% CI 1.0-3.8). There were no apparent association between 6MWD and mortality. Desaturation in second 6MWT was associated with later increased rate of decline in forced vital capacity (FVC) % predicted (after 1 year predicted mean 4.2% above non-desaturators, after 5 years 0.7% below). Decline in 6MWD ≥ 30m was borderline (p = 0.06) associated with later decline in forced expiratory volume in 1 second % predicted, and with exacerbations (p = 0.07). Repeated desaturation in the 6MWT over time in COPD patients is a risk factor for all-cause and respiratory mortality, while onset of desaturation is associated with future FVC decline.

5.
ERJ Open Res ; 6(3)2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32964006

RESUMO

Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) on the management of COPD exacerbations evaluate heterogeneous outcomes, often omitting those that are clinically important and patient relevant. This limits their usability and comparability. A core outcome set (COS) is a consensus-based minimum set of clinically important outcomes that should be evaluated in all RCTs in specific areas of health care. We present the study protocol of the COS-AECOPD ERS Task Force, aiming to develop a COS for COPD exacerbation management, that could remedy these limitations. For the development of this COS we follow standard methodology recommended by the COMET initiative. A comprehensive list of outcomes is assembled through a methodological systematic review of the outcomes reported in relevant RCTs. Qualitative research with patients with COPD will also be conducted, aiming to identify additional outcomes that may be important to patients, but are not currently addressed in clinical research studies. Prioritisation of the core outcomes will be facilitated through an extensive, multi-stakeholder Delphi survey with a global reach. Selection will be finalised in an international, multi-stakeholder meeting. For every core outcome, we will recommend a specific measurement instrument and standardised time points for evaluation. Selection of instruments will be based on evidence-informed consensus. Our work will improve the quality, usability and comparability of future RCTs on the management of COPD exacerbations and, ultimately, the care of patients with COPD. Multi-stakeholder engagement and societal support by the European Respiratory Society will raise awareness and promote implementation of the COS.

6.
Respir Med ; 170: 106060, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32843179

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study assessed the association between respiratory symptoms and mortality in four cohorts of the general population in Norway aged 15-75 years and in selected subgroups in the pooled sample. METHODS: The study comprised 158,702 persons, who were drawn randomly from the Norwegian population register. All subjects received a standardized, self-administered questionnaire on 11 respiratory symptoms between 1972 and 1998, with follow-up of death until December 31, 2017. Analyses were performed on 114,380 respondents. RESULTS: The hazard of death was closely associated with sex, age, and education. The hazard ratios (HR) for death and the 95% confidence intervals (CI) by risk factors were similar in the four cohorts. After adjustment for demographic and environmental, modifiable factors, the HR for death was 1.90 (95% CI 1.80-2.00) for breathlessness score 3, 1.28 (1.21-1.37) for cough/phlegm score 5 and 1.09 (1.05-1.14) for attack of breathlessness/wheeze score 2 compared to the referent (no symptom), respectively. The cough/phlegm score was associated with death in current smokers but not in never smokers or ex-smokers. Breathlessness score was associated with death in men and women. CONCLUSION: Among persons aged 45-75 years, respiratory symptoms were significant predictors of all cause mortality. Education and smoking habits influenced only the associations between coughing and mortality. The associations were independent of study sites.

7.
Respir Med ; 171: 106105, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32858497

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is partial evidence that COPD is expressed differently in women than in men, namely on symptoms, pulmonary function, exacerbations, comorbidities or prognosis. There is a need to improve the characterization of COPD in females. METHODS: We obtained and pooled data of 17 139 patients from 22 COPD cohorts and analysed the clinical differences by sex, establishing the relationship between these characteristics in women and the prognosis and severity of the disease. Comparisons were established with standard statistics and survival analysis, including crude and multivariate Cox-regression analysis. RESULTS: Overall, 5355 (31.2%) women were compared with men with COPD. Women were younger, had lower pack-years, greater FEV1%, lower BMI and a greater number of exacerbations (all p < 0.05). On symptoms, women reported more dyspnea, equal cough but less expectoration (p < 0.001). There were no differences in the BODE index score in women (2.4) versus men (2.4) (p = 0.5), but the distribution of all BODE components was highly variable by sex within different thresholds of BODE. On prognosis, 5-year survival was higher in COPD females (86.9%) than in males (76.3%), p < 0.001, in all patients and within each of the specific comorbidities that we assessed. The crude and adjusted RR and 95% C.I. for death in males was 1.82 (1.69-1.96) and 1.73 (1.50-2.00), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: COPD in women has some characteristic traits expressed differently than compared to men, mainly with more dyspnea and COPD exacerbations and less phlegm, among others, although long-term survival appears better in female COPD patients.

8.
Lancet Respir Med ; 8(7): 696-708, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32649918

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genetic factors influence chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) risk, but the individual variants that have been identified have small effects. We hypothesised that a polygenic risk score using additional variants would predict COPD and associated phenotypes. METHODS: We constructed a polygenic risk score using a genome-wide association study of lung function (FEV1 and FEV1/forced vital capacity [FVC]) from the UK Biobank and SpiroMeta. We tested this polygenic risk score in nine cohorts of multiple ethnicities for an association with moderate-to-severe COPD (defined as FEV1/FVC <0·7 and FEV1 <80% of predicted). Associations were tested using logistic regression models, adjusting for age, sex, height, smoking pack-years, and principal components of genetic ancestry. We assessed predictive performance of models by area under the curve. In a subset of studies, we also studied quantitative and qualitative CT imaging phenotypes that reflect parenchymal and airway pathology, and patterns of reduced lung growth. FINDINGS: The polygenic risk score was associated with COPD in European (odds ratio [OR] per SD 1·81 [95% CI 1·74-1·88] and non-European (1·42 [1·34-1·51]) populations. Compared with the first decile, the tenth decile of the polygenic risk score was associated with COPD, with an OR of 7·99 (6·56-9·72) in European ancestry and 4·83 (3·45-6·77) in non-European ancestry cohorts. The polygenic risk score was superior to previously described genetic risk scores and, when combined with clinical risk factors (ie, age, sex, and smoking pack-years), showed improved prediction for COPD compared with a model comprising clinical risk factors alone (AUC 0·80 [0·79-0·81] vs 0·76 [0·75-0·76]). The polygenic risk score was associated with CT imaging phenotypes, including wall area percent, quantitative and qualitative measures of emphysema, local histogram emphysema patterns, and destructive emphysema subtypes. The polygenic risk score was associated with a reduced lung growth pattern. INTERPRETATION: A risk score comprised of genetic variants can identify a small subset of individuals at markedly increased risk for moderate-to-severe COPD, emphysema subtypes associated with cigarette smoking, and patterns of reduced lung growth. FUNDING: US National Institutes of Health, Wellcome Trust.


Assuntos
Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/genética , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico , Fatores de Risco , Capacidade Vital
9.
BMJ Open Respir Res ; 7(1)2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32152177

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Data on discomfort and complications from research bronchoscopy in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma is limited. We present complications and discomfort occurring within a week after bronchoscopy, and investigate personal and procedural risk factors. METHODS: 239 subjects with COPD, asthma or without lung disease underwent research bronchoscopies as part of a microbiome study of the lower airways (the MicroCOPD study). Bronchoscopy was done in the supine position with oral scope insertion with the option of light conscious alfentanil sedation. Sampling consisted of protected specimen brushes, bronchoalveolar lavage, small volume lavage and for some, endobronchial biopsies. Bleeding, desaturation, cough, haemodynamic changes, dyspnoea and other events that required an unplanned intervention or early termination of bronchoscopy were prospectively recorded. Follow-up consisted of a telephone interview where subjects rated discomfort and answered questions about fever sensation and respiratory symptoms in the week following bronchoscopy. RESULTS: An unplanned intervention or early termination of bronchoscopy was required in 25.9% of bronchoscopies. Three subjects (1.3%) experienced potentially severe complications, of which all recovered without sequelae. COPD subjects experienced more dyspnoea than controls. Sedation and lower age was associated with less unplanned intervention or premature termination. About half of the subjects (47.7%) reported fever. Discomfort was associated with postprocedural fever, dread of bronchoscopy, higher score on the COPD Assessment Test and never-smoking. In subjects undergoing more than one bronchoscopy, the first bronchoscopy was often predictive for complications and postprocedural fever in the repeated bronchoscopy. CONCLUSION: Research bronchoscopies were not associated with more complications or discomfort in COPD subjects. 47.7% experienced postbronchoscopy fever sensation, which was associated with discomfort.

10.
PLoS One ; 14(10): e0223952, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31647831

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Exacerbations are major contributors to morbidity and mortality in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and respiratory bacterial and viral infections are an important trigger. However, using conventional diagnostic techniques, a causative agent is not always found. Metagenomic next-generation sequencing (mNGS) allows analysis of the complete virome, but has not yet been applied in COPD exacerbations. OBJECTIVES: To study the respiratory virome in nasopharyngeal samples during COPD exacerbations using mNGS. STUDY DESIGN: 88 nasopharyngeal swabs from 63 patients from the Bergen COPD Exacerbation Study (2006-2010) were analysed by mNGS and in-house qPCR for respiratory viruses. Both DNA and RNA were sequenced simultaneously using an Illumina library preparation protocol with in-house adaptations. RESULTS: By mNGS, 24/88 samples tested positive. Sensitivity and specificity, as compared with PCR, were 96% and 98% for diagnostic targets (23/24 and 1093/1120, respectively). Additional viral pathogens detected by mNGS were herpes simplex virus type 1 and coronavirus OC43. A positive correlation was found between Cq value and mNGS viral normalized species reads (log value) (p = 0.002). Patients with viral pathogens had lower percentages of bacteriophages (p<0.001). No correlation was found between viral reads and clinical markers. CONCLUSIONS: The mNGS protocol used was highly sensitive and specific for semi-quantitative detection of respiratory viruses. Excellent negative predictive value implicates the power of mNGS to exclude any pathogenic respiratory viral infectious cause in one test, with consequences for clinical decision making. Reduced abundance of bacteriophages in COPD patients with viral pathogens implicates skewing of the virome during infection, with potential consequences for the bacterial populations, during infection.


Assuntos
Nasofaringe/virologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/complicações , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Viroses/epidemiologia , Vírus/genética , Idoso , Feminino , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Metagenômica , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nasofaringe/patologia , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/virologia , Infecções Respiratórias/patologia , Infecções Respiratórias/virologia , Viroses/patologia , Viroses/virologia , Vírus/classificação
12.
PLoS One ; 14(9): e0222449, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31527888

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are debilitating events and spur disease progression. Infectious causes are frequent; however, it is unknown to what extent exacerbations are caused by larger shifts in the airways' microbiota. The aim of the current study was to analyse the changes in microbial composition between stable state and during exacerbations, and the corresponding immune response. METHODS: The study sample included 36 COPD patients examined at stable state and exacerbation from the Bergen COPD Cohort and Exacerbations studies, and one patient who delivered sputum on 13 different occasions during the three-year study period. A physician examined the patients at all time points, and sputum induction was performed by stringent protocol. Only induced sputum samples were used in the current study, not spontaneously expectorated sputum. Sputum inflammatory markers (IL-6, IL-8, IL-18, IP-10, MIG, TNF-α) and antimicrobial peptides (AMPs, i.e. LL-37/hCAP-18, SLPI) were measured in supernatants, whereas target gene sequencing (16S rRNA) was performed on corresponding cell pellets. The microbiome bioinformatics platform QIIME2TM and the statistics environment R were applied for bioinformatics analyses. RESULTS: Levels of IP-10, MIG, TNF-α and AMPs were significantly different between the two disease states. Of 36 sample pairs, 24 had significant differences in the 12 most abundant genera between disease states. The diversity was significantly different in several individuals, but not when data was analysed on a group level. The one patient case study showed longitudinal dynamics in microbiota unrelated to disease state. CONCLUSION: Changes in the sputum microbiota with changing COPD disease states are common, and are accompanied by changes in inflammatory markers. However, the changes are highly individual and heterogeneous events.


Assuntos
Inflamação/patologia , Microbiota/genética , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/microbiologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos/metabolismo , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Estudos de Coortes , Citocinas/metabolismo , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Inflamação/genética , Inflamação/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/metabolismo , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Sistema Respiratório/microbiologia , Sistema Respiratório/patologia , Escarro
13.
Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis ; 14: 1639-1655, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31413559

RESUMO

Rationale: The Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) 2017 is based on an ABCD assessment tool of symptoms and exacerbation history and grade 1-4 of airflow limitation severity, facilitating classification either into 4 groups (ABCD) or 16 groups (1A-4D). We aimed to compare the GOLD 2011, GOLD 2017 ABCD, and GOLD 2017 1A-4D classifications in terms of their distribution and prediction of mortality and hospitalizations. Methods: In the GenKOLS study, 912 COPD patients with FEV1 less than 80% of the predicted answered questionnaires and performed lung function testing in 2003-2005. The patients were recruited from a hospital patient registry (n=662) and from the general population (n=250), followed up until 2011 with respect to all-cause and respiratory mortality, and all-cause and respiratory hospitalizations. We performed logistic regression and receiver operating curve (ROC) analyses for the different classifications with estimations of area under the curve (AUC) for comparisons. Results: Mean age at baseline was 60 years (SD 11), 55% were male. Mean duration of follow-up was 91 months. By GOLD 2011, 21% were classified as group A, 29% group B, 6% group C, and 43% as group D, corresponding percentages for GOLD 2017 were: 25%, 52%, 3%, and 20%. The GOLD 2011 classification had higher AUC values than the GOLD 2017 group ABCD classification for respiratory mortality and hospitalization, but after inclusion of airflow limitation severity in GOLD 2017 groups 2A-4D, AUC values were significantly higher with GOLD 2017. Conclusion: In a clinically relevant sample of COPD patients, the GOLD 2017 classification doubles the prevalence of group B and halves the prevalence of groups C and D as compared to the GOLD 2011 classification. The prediction of respiratory mortality and respiratory hospitalization was better for GOLD 2017 2A-4D taking airflow limitation severity into account, as compared to GOLD 2017 ABCD and GOLD 2011.


Assuntos
Classificação/métodos , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Testes de Função Respiratória , Área Sob a Curva , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Noruega/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Prognóstico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/classificação , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/mortalidade , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/fisiopatologia , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos , Testes de Função Respiratória/métodos , Testes de Função Respiratória/estatística & dados numéricos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
15.
Multidiscip Respir Med ; 14: 14, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31069076

RESUMO

Background: Bronchoscopy is frequently used to sample the lower airways in lung microbiome studies. Despite being a safe procedure, it is associated with discomfort that may result in reservations regarding participation in research bronchoscopy studies. Information on participation in research bronchoscopy studies is limited. We report response rates, reasons for non-response, motivation for participation, and predictors of participation in a large-scale single-centre bronchoscopy study ("MicroCOPD"). Methods: Two hundred forty-nine participants underwent at least one bronchoscopy in addition to being examined by a physician, having lung function tested, and being offered a CT scan of the heart and lungs (subjects > 40 years). Each participant was asked an open question regarding motivation. Non-response reasons were gathered, and response rates were calculated. Results: The study had a response rate just above 50%, and men had a significantly higher response rate than women (56.5% vs. 44.8%, p = 0.01). Procedural fear was the most common non-response reason. Most participants participated due to perceived personal benefit, but a large proportion did also participate to help others and contribute to science. Men were less likely to give exclusive altruistic motives, whereas subjects with asthma were more likely to report exclusive personal benefit as main motive. Conclusion: Response rates of about 50% in bronchoscopy studies make large bronchoscopy studies feasible, but the fact that participants are motivated by their own health status places a large responsibility on the investigators regarding the accuracy of the provided study information.

16.
Respir Med ; 152: 81-88, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31128615

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: COPD patients have an increased risk of developing lung cancer, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. We aimed to identify risk factors for lung cancer in patients from the Bergen COPD Cohort Study. METHODS: We compared 433 COPD patients with 279 healthy controls, all former or current smokers. All COPD patients had FEV1<80% and FEV1/FVC-ratio<0.7. Baseline predictors were sex, age, spirometry, body composition, smoking history, emphysema assessed by CT, chronic bronchitis, prior exacerbation frequency, Charlson Comorbidity Score, inhalation medication and 44 serum/plasma inflammatory biomarkers. Patients were followed up for 9 years recording incidence of lung cancer. Cox-regression models were fitted for the statistical analyses. The biomarkers were evaluated using principal component analysis. RESULTS: 28 COPD patients and 3 controls developed lung cancer, COPD patients had a significantly higher risk of developing lung cancer, (HR 5.0; 95% CI 1.5-17.1, p < 0.01, adjusted values). Among COPD patients, emphysema (HR 4.4; 1.7-10.8, p < 0.01) and obesity (HR 3.3; 1.3-8.5, p = 0.02) were associated with a higher cancer rate. Use of inhaled steroids was associated with a lower rate (HR 0.4; 0.2-0.9, p = 0.03). Smoking status, pack-years smoked or levels of systemic inflammatory markers, except for interferon gamma-induced protein 10, did not affect the lung cancer rate in patients with COPD. CONCLUSION: Patients with COPD have a higher lung cancer rate compared to healthy controls adjusted for smoking. The presence of emphysema and obesity in COPD predicted a higher lung cancer risk in COPD patients. Systemic inflammation was not associated with increased lung cancer risk.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/complicações , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia , Enfisema Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Administração por Inalação , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Bronquite Crônica/complicações , Bronquite Crônica/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Comorbidade , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Inflamação/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Prospectivos , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/sangue , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/fisiopatologia , Enfisema Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Fumar/epidemiologia , Espirometria/métodos , Esteroides/administração & dosagem , Esteroides/efeitos adversos , Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Exacerbação dos Sintomas
17.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 144(1): 70-82, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30928653

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Stratification by eosinophil and neutrophil counts increases our understanding of asthma and helps target therapy, but there is room for improvement in our accuracy in prediction of treatment responses and a need for better understanding of the underlying mechanisms. OBJECTIVE: We sought to identify molecular subphenotypes of asthma defined by proteomic signatures for improved stratification. METHODS: Unbiased label-free quantitative mass spectrometry and topological data analysis were used to analyze the proteomes of sputum supernatants from 246 participants (206 asthmatic patients) as a novel means of asthma stratification. Microarray analysis of sputum cells provided transcriptomics data additionally to inform on underlying mechanisms. RESULTS: Analysis of the sputum proteome resulted in 10 clusters (ie, proteotypes) based on similarity in proteomic features, representing discrete molecular subphenotypes of asthma. Overlaying granulocyte counts onto the 10 clusters as metadata further defined 3 of these as highly eosinophilic, 3 as highly neutrophilic, and 2 as highly atopic with relatively low granulocytic inflammation. For each of these 3 phenotypes, logistic regression analysis identified candidate protein biomarkers, and matched transcriptomic data pointed to differentially activated underlying mechanisms. CONCLUSION: This study provides further stratification of asthma currently classified based on quantification of granulocytic inflammation and provided additional insight into their underlying mechanisms, which could become targets for novel therapies.


Assuntos
Asma/metabolismo , Proteoma , Escarro/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Asma/imunologia , Asma/fisiopatologia , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Eosinofilia/imunologia , Eosinofilia/metabolismo , Eosinofilia/fisiopatologia , Eosinófilos/imunologia , Feminino , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neutrófilos/imunologia , Fenótipo , Proteômica , Adulto Jovem
18.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 144(5): 1198-1213, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30998987

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The role of IL-17 immunity is well established in patients with inflammatory diseases, such as psoriasis and inflammatory bowel disease, but not in asthmatic patients, in whom further study is required. OBJECTIVE: We sought to undertake a deep phenotyping study of asthmatic patients with upregulated IL-17 immunity. METHODS: Whole-genome transcriptomic analysis was performed by using epithelial brushings, bronchial biopsy specimens (91 asthmatic patients and 46 healthy control subjects), and whole blood samples (n = 498) from the Unbiased Biomarkers for the Prediction of Respiratory Disease Outcomes (U-BIOPRED) cohort. Gene signatures induced in vitro by IL-17 and IL-13 in bronchial epithelial cells were used to identify patients with IL-17-high and IL-13-high asthma phenotypes. RESULTS: Twenty-two of 91 patients were identified with IL-17, and 9 patients were identified with IL-13 gene signatures. The patients with IL-17-high asthma were characterized by risk of frequent exacerbations, airway (sputum and mucosal) neutrophilia, decreased lung microbiota diversity, and urinary biomarker evidence of activation of the thromboxane B2 pathway. In pathway analysis the differentially expressed genes in patients with IL-17-high asthma were shared with those reported as altered in psoriasis lesions and included genes regulating epithelial barrier function and defense mechanisms, such as IL1B, IL6, IL8, and ß-defensin. CONCLUSION: The IL-17-high asthma phenotype, characterized by bronchial epithelial dysfunction and upregulated antimicrobial and inflammatory response, resembles the immunophenotype of psoriasis, including activation of the thromboxane B2 pathway, which should be considered a biomarker for this phenotype in further studies, including clinical trials targeting IL-17.

20.
Oncotarget ; 10(19): 1760-1774, 2019 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30956756

RESUMO

The development of cancer is driven by the accumulation of many oncogenesis-related genetic alterations and tumorigenesis is triggered by complex networks of involved genes rather than independent actions. To explore the epistasis existing among oncogenesis-related genes in lung cancer development, we conducted pairwise genetic interaction analyses among 35,031 SNPs from 2027 oncogenesis-related genes. The genotypes from three independent genome-wide association studies including a total of 24,037 lung cancer patients and 20,401 healthy controls with Caucasian ancestry were analyzed in the study. Using a two-stage study design including discovery and replication studies, and stringent Bonferroni correction for multiple statistical analysis, we identified significant genetic interactions between SNPs in RGL1:RAD51B (OR=0.44, p value=3.27x10-11 in overall lung cancer and OR=0.41, p value=9.71x10-11 in non-small cell lung cancer), SYNE1:RNF43 (OR=0.73, p value=1.01x10-12 in adenocarcinoma) and FHIT:TSPAN8 (OR=1.82, p value=7.62x10-11 in squamous cell carcinoma) in our analysis. None of these genes have been identified from previous main effect association studies in lung cancer. Further eQTL gene expression analysis in lung tissues provided information supporting the functional role of the identified epistasis in lung tumorigenesis. Gene set enrichment analysis revealed potential pathways and gene networks underlying molecular mechanisms in overall lung cancer as well as histology subtypes development. Our results provide evidence that genetic interactions between oncogenesis-related genes play an important role in lung tumorigenesis and epistasis analysis, combined with functional annotation, provides a valuable tool for uncovering functional novel susceptibility genes that contribute to lung cancer development by interacting with other modifier genes.

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