Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 582
Filtrar
1.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 2794, 2021 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33531528

RESUMO

Underlying genetic determinants contribute to developing type 2 diabetes (T2D) future diseases. The present study aimed to identify which genetic variants are associated with the incident of the major T2D co-morbid disease. First, we conducted a discovery study by investigating the genetic associations of comorbid diseases within the framework of the Utrecht Cardiovascular Pharmacogenetic studies by turning information of > 25 years follow-up data of 1237 subjects whom were genotyped and included in the discovery study. We performed Cox proportional-hazards regression to examine associations between genetic variants and comorbid diseases including cardiovascular diseases (CVD), chronic eye disease, cancer, neurologic diseases and chronic kidney disease. Secondly, we replicated our findings in two independent cohorts consisting of 1041 subjects. Finally, we performed a meta-analysis by combining the discovery and two replication cohorts. We ascertained 390 (39.7%) incident cases of CVD, 182 (16.2%) of chronic eye disease, 155 (13.8%) of cancer, 31 (2.7%) of neurologic disease and 13 (1.1%) of chronic kidney disease during a median follow-up of 10.2 years. In the discovery study, we identified a total of 39 Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with comorbid diseases. The replication study, confirmed that rs1870849 and rs8051326 may play a role in the incidence of chronic eye disease in T2D patients. Half of patients developed at least one comorbid disease, with CVD occurring most often and earliest followed by chronic eye disease. Further research is needed to confirm the associations of two associated SNPs with chronic eye disease in T2D.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33567068

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: High-density lipoproteins (HDL) may be protective against type 2 diabetes (T2D) development, but HDL particles vary in size and function which could lead to differential associations with incident T2D. A newly developed nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-derived algorithm provides concentrations for seven HDL subspecies. We aimed to investigate the association of HDL particle subspecies with incident T2D in the general population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Among 4828 subjects of the Prevention of Renal and Vascular End-Stage Disease (PREVEND) study without T2D at baseline. HDL subspecies with increasing size from H1P to H7P were measured by NMR (LP4 algorithm of the Vantera NMR platform). RESULTS: 265 individuals developed T2D (median follow-up of 7.3 years). In Cox regression models, HDL size and H4P [HR per 1 SD increase 0.83 (95% CI, 0.69-0.99) and 0.85 (95% CI, 0.75-0.95), respectively] were inversely associated with incident T2D, after adjustment for relevant covariates. Oppositely, levels of H2P were positively associated with incident T2D (HR 1.15 (95% CI, 1.01-1.32)). In secondary analyses, associations with large HDL particles and H6P were modified by BMI in such a way that they were particularly associated with a lower risk of incident T2D, in subjects with BMI < 30 kg/m 2. CONCLUSION: Greater HDL size and lower levels of H4P were associated with a lower risk, whereas higher levels of H2P were associated with a higher risk of developing T2D. In addition, large HDL particles and H6P were inversely associated with T2D in non-obese subjects.

3.
Clin Nutr ; 2021 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33589239

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Protein energy wasting (PEW) is the most important risk factor for morbidity and mortality in hemodialysis patients. Inadequate dietary protein intake is a frequent cause of PEW. Recent studies have identified fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) as an endocrine protein sensor. This study aims to investigate the potential of FGF21 as a biomarker for protein intake and PEW and to investigate intradialytic FGF21 changes. METHODS: Plasma FGF21 was measured using an enzyme-linked immunoassay. Complete intradialytic dialysate and interdialytic urinary collections were used to calculate 24-h urea excretion and protein intake. Muscle mass was assessed using the creatinine excretion rate and fatigue was assessed using the Short Form 36 and the Checklist Individual Strength. RESULTS: Out of 59 hemodialysis patients (65 ± 15 years, 63% male), 39 patients had a low protein intake, defined as a protein intake less than 0.9 g/kg/24-h. Patients with a low protein intake had nearly twofold higher plasma FGF21 compared to those with an adequate protein intake (FGF21 1370 [795-4034] pg/mL versus 709 [405-1077] pg/mL;P < 0.001). Higher plasma FGF21 was associated with higher odds of low protein intake (Odds Ratio: 3.18 [1.62-7.95] per doubling of FGF21; P = 0.004), independent of potential confounders. Higher plasma FGF21 was also associated with lower muscle mass (std ß: -0.34 [-0.59;-0.09];P = 0.009), lower vitality (std ß: -0.30 [-0.55;-0.05];P = 0.02), and more fatigue (std ß: 0.32 [0.07;0.57];P = 0.01). During hemodialysis plasma FGF21 increased by 354 [71-570] pg/mL, corresponding to a 29% increase. CONCLUSION: Higher plasma FGF21 is associated with higher odds of low protein intake in hemodialysis patients. Secondarily, plasma FGF21 is also associated with lower muscle mass, less vitality, and more fatigue. Lastly, there is an intradialytic increase in plasma FGF21. FGF21 could be a valuable marker allowing for objective assessment of PEW.

4.
J Clin Lipidol ; 2021 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33589404

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Transplant vasculopathy (TV) is a major contributing factor to chronic graft failure in renal transplant recipients (RTR). TV lesions resemble atherosclerosis in several ways, and it is plausible to believe that some risk factors influence both atherosclerotic plaque formation and formation of TV. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this prospective longitudinal study was to determine if dyslipidemia reflected by the triglyceride (TG)/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) ratio is prospectively associated with death censored chronic graft failure in RTR. METHOD: 454 prospectively included RTR with a functioning graft for at least one year, were followed for a median of 7 years. RTR were matched based on propensity scores to avoid potential confounding and subsequently the association of the TG/HDL-C ratio with the endpoint chronic graft failure, defined as return to dialysis or re-transplantation, was investigated. RESULTS: Linear regression analysis showed that concentration of insulin, male gender, BMI and number of antihypertensives predict the TG/HDL-C ratio. Cox regression showed that the TG/HDL-C ratio is associated with chronic graft failure (HR = 1.43, 95%CI = 1.12-1.84, p = 0.005) in competing risk analysis for mortality. Interaction testing indicated that the relationship of the TG/HDL-C ratio with graft failure is stronger in subjects with a higher insulin concentration. CONCLUSION: Our results demonstrate that the TG/HDL-C ratio has the potential to act as a predictive clinical biomarker. Furthermore, there is a need for closer attention to lipid management in RTR in clinical practice with a focus on triglyceride metabolism.

5.
Eur J Clin Nutr ; 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33589809

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Traditional malnutrition screening instruments, including the Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool (MUST), strongly rely on low body mass index (BMI) and weight loss. In overweight/obese patients, this may result in underdetection of malnutrition risk. Alternative instruments, like the Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment Short Form (PG-SGA SF), include characteristics and risk factors irrespective of BMI. Therefore, we aimed to compare performance of MUST and PG-SGA SF in malnutrition risk evaluation in overweight/obese hospitalized patients. SUBJECTS/METHODS: We assessed malnutrition risk using MUST (≥1 = increased risk) and PG-SGA SF (≥4 = increased risk) in adult patients at hospital admission in a university hospital. We compared results for patients with BMI < 25 kg/m2 vs. BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2. RESULTS: Of 430 patients analyzed (58 ± 16 years, 53% male, BMI 26.9 ± 5.5 kg/m2), 35% were overweight and 25% obese. Malnutrition risk was present in 16% according to MUST and 42% according to PG-SGA SF. In patients with BMI < 25 kg/m2, MUST identified 31% as at risk vs. 52% by PG-SGA SF. In patients with BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2, MUST identified 5% as at risk vs. 36% by PG-SGA SF. Agreement between MUST and PG-SGA SF was low (к = 0.143). Of the overweight/obese patients at risk according to PG-SGA SF, 83/92 (90%) were categorized as low risk by MUST. CONCLUSIONS: More than one-third of overweight/obese patients is at risk for malnutrition at hospital admission according to PG-SGA SF. Most of them are not identified by MUST. Awareness of BMI-dependency of malnutrition screening instruments and potential underestimation of malnutrition risk in overweight/obese patients by using these instruments is warranted.

6.
J Clin Epidemiol ; 2021 Feb 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33577985

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate whether clinical metabolomics, which is increasingly applied in population-based and epidemiological studies, can be used to provide analytical evidence of exposures, and whether such information can be useful to strengthen and/or complement corresponding clinical database entries, taking drug use as an example. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) metabolomics analyses were performed on urine from 100 randomly-selected control subjects (50% females) from the TransplantLines Food and Nutrition Biobank and Cohort Study (NCT identifier 'NCT02811835'), and drugs were identified through spectral library searching and targeted signal extraction. RESULTS: In 83 subjects for whom drug use information was available, 22 expected and 26 unexpected prescription-only drugs were identified, while 28 expected prescription-only drugs remained undetected. In addition, 7 prescription-only drugs were found in 17 subjects for whom drug use information was unavailable, and 58 over-the-counter drugs were identified in all 100 subjects. CONCLUSION: Molecular evidence for many drugs could be retrieved from LC-MS metabolomics data, which could be useful to complement and strengthen epidemiological databases given that considerable discrepancies were found between analytically-identified drugs and drugs listed in the available clinical database.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33618925

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Presence of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) importantly contributes to excess mortality in kidney transplant recipients (KTRs). However, it is unclear which dietary factors drive the adverse role of MetS in KTRs. We aimed to define a dietary pattern that maximally explained the variation in MetS components, and to investigate the association between this MetS-related dietary pattern (MetS-DP) and all-cause mortality in KTRs. METHODS AND RESULTS: We included 429 adult KTRs who had a functioning graft ⩾1 year. A MetS-DP was constructed using habitual dietary intake derived from a 177-item food frequency questionnaire. We used reduced rank regression (RRR), and defined the six components of MetS (waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, serum triglycerides, HbA1c, and HDL cholesterol) as response variables and 48 food groups as predictor variables. We evaluated the association between the MetS-DP and all-cause mortality using multivariable Cox regression analysis. The MetS-DP was characterized by high intakes of processed meat and desserts, and low intakes of vegetables, tea, rice, fruits, milk, and meat substitutes. During a mean follow-up of 5.3 ± 1.2 years, 63 KTRs (14.7%) died. Compared to the lowest tertile of the Mets-DP score, those with the greatest adherence had a more than 3-fold higher risk of all-cause mortality (hazard ratio [HR] = 3.63; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.70-7.74, P < 0.001), independent of potential confounders. CONCLUSIONS: We identified a MetS-related dietary pattern which was independently associated with all-cause mortality in KTRs. The association between this dietary pattern and all-cause mortality was mediated by MetS. Clinical trial reg. no. NCT02811835.

9.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 2021 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33443299

RESUMO

AIMS: There are limited data examining whether body mass index (BMI) influences the association between cardiovascular biomarkers and incident heart failure (HF). METHODS AND RESULTS: Thirteen biomarkers representing key HF domains were measured: N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), mid-regional pro-A-type natriuretic peptide (MR-proANP), cardiac troponin T (cTnT), C-reactive protein, procalcitonin, galectin-3, C-terminal pro-endothelin-1 (CT-proET-1), mid-regional pro-adrenomedullin, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, copeptin, renin, aldosterone, and cystatin-C. Associations of biomarkers with BMI were examined using linear regression models, and with incident HF using Cox regression models. We selected biomarkers significantly associated with incident HF, and evaluated whether BMI modified these associations. Among 8202 individuals, 41% were overweight (BMI 25-30 kg/m2 ), and 16% were obese (BMI ≥30 kg/m2 ). Mean age of the cohort was 49 years (range 28-75), and 50% were women. All biomarkers except renin were associated with BMI: inverse associations were observed with NT-proBNP, MR-proANP, CT-proET-1 and aldosterone whereas positive associations were observed with the remaining biomarkers (all P ≤ 0.001). During 11.3 ± 3.1 years of follow-up, 357 HF events were recorded. Only NT-proBNP, MR-proANP and cTnT remained associated with incident HF (P < 0.001), and a significant biomarker*BMI interaction was not observed (interaction P > 0.1). Combined NT-proBNP and cTnT measurements modestly improved performance metrics of the clinical HF model in overweight (ΔC-statistic = 0.024; likelihood ratio χ2  = 38; P < 0.001) and obese (ΔC-statistic = 0.020; likelihood ratio χ2  = 32; P < 0.001) individuals. CONCLUSIONS: Plasma concentrations of several cardiovascular biomarkers are influenced by obesity. Only NT-proBNP, MR-proANP and cTnT were associated with incident HF, and BMI did not modify these associations. A combination of NT-proBNP and cTnT improves HF risk prediction in overweight and obese individuals.

10.
Nutrients ; 13(1)2021 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33477634

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Due to the critical shortage of kidneys for transplantation, the identification of modifiable factors related to graft failure is highly desirable. The role of trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) in graft failure remains undetermined. Here, we investigated the clinical utility of TMAO and its dietary determinants for graft failure prediction in renal transplant recipients (RTRs). METHODS: We included 448 RTRs who participated in the TransplantLines Cohort Study. Cox proportional-hazards regression analyses were performed to study the association of plasma TMAO with graft failure. Net Benefit, which is a decision analysis method, was performed to evaluate the clinical utility of TMAO and dietary information in the prediction of graft failure. RESULTS: Among RTRs (age 52.7 ± 13.1 years; 53% males), the baseline median TMAO was 5.6 (3.0-10.2) µmol/L. In multivariable regression analysis, the most important dietary determinants of TMAO were egg intake (Std. ß = 0.09 [95%CI, 0.01; 0.18]; p = 0.03), fiber intake (Std. ß = -0.14 [95%CI, -0.22, -0.05]; p = 0.002), and fish and seafood intake (Std. ß = 0.12 [95%CI, 0.03,0.21]; p = 0.01). After a median follow-up of 5.3 (4.5-6.0) years, graft failure was observed in 58 subjects. TMAO was associated with an increased risk of graft failure, independent of age, sex, the body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, lipids, albuminuria, and the Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate (eGFR) (Hazard Ratio per 1-SD increase of TMAO, 1.62 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.22; 2.14, p < 0.001)). A TMAO and dietary enhanced prediction model offered approximately double the Net Benefit compared to a previously reported, validated prediction model for future graft failure, allowing the detection of 21 RTRs per 100 RTRs tested, with no false positives versus 10 RTRs, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: A predictive model for graft failure, enriched with TMAO and its dietary determinants, yielded a higher Net Benefit compared with an already validated model. This study suggests that TMAO and its dietary determinants are associated with an increased risk of graft failure and that it is clinically meaningful.

11.
J Hum Genet ; 2021 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33469137

RESUMO

The stress hormone cortisol modulates fuel metabolism, cardiovascular homoeostasis, mood, inflammation and cognition. The CORtisol NETwork (CORNET) consortium previously identified a single locus associated with morning plasma cortisol. Identifying additional genetic variants that explain more of the variance in cortisol could provide new insights into cortisol biology and provide statistical power to test the causative role of cortisol in common diseases. The CORNET consortium extended its genome-wide association meta-analysis for morning plasma cortisol from 12,597 to 25,314 subjects and from ~2.2 M to ~7 M SNPs, in 17 population-based cohorts of European ancestries. We confirmed the genetic association with SERPINA6/SERPINA1. This locus contains genes encoding corticosteroid binding globulin (CBG) and α1-antitrypsin. Expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) analyses undertaken in the STARNET cohort of 600 individuals showed that specific genetic variants within the SERPINA6/SERPINA1 locus influence expression of SERPINA6 rather than SERPINA1 in the liver. Moreover, trans-eQTL analysis demonstrated effects on adipose tissue gene expression, suggesting that variations in CBG levels have an effect on delivery of cortisol to peripheral tissues. Two-sample Mendelian randomisation analyses provided evidence that each genetically-determined standard deviation (SD) increase in morning plasma cortisol was associated with increased odds of chronic ischaemic heart disease (0.32, 95% CI 0.06-0.59) and myocardial infarction (0.21, 95% CI 0.00-0.43) in UK Biobank and similarly in CARDIoGRAMplusC4D. These findings reveal a causative pathway for CBG in determining cortisol action in peripheral tissues and thereby contributing to the aetiology of cardiovascular disease.

12.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 2021 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33515034

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Maintenance of high physical performance during aging might be supported by an adequate dietary intake of niacin, vitamins B-6 and B-12, and folate because these B vitamins are involved in multiple processes related to muscle functioning. However, not much is known about the association between dietary intake of these B vitamins and physical performance. OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to investigate the association between dietary intake of niacin, vitamins B-6 and B-12, and folate and physical performance in older adults and to explore mediation by niacin status and homocysteine concentrations. METHODS: We used baseline data from the New Dietary Strategies Addressing the Specific Needs of the Elderly Population for Healthy Aging in Europe (NU-AGE) trial, which included n = 1249 healthy older adults (aged 65-79 y) with complete data on dietary intake measured with 7-d food records and questionnaires on vitamin supplement use and physical performance measured with the short physical performance battery and handgrip dynamometry. Associations were assessed by adjusted linear mixed models. RESULTS: Intake of vitamin B-6 was related to lower chair rise test time [ß: -0.033 ± 0.016 s (log); P = 0.043]. Vitamin B-6 intake was also significantly associated with handgrip strength, but for this association, a significant interaction effect between vitamin B-6 intake and physical activity level was found. In participants with the lowest level of physical activity, higher intake of vitamin B-6 tended to be associated with greater handgrip strength (ß: 1.5 ± 0.8 kg; P = 0.051), whereas in participants in the highest quartile of physical activity, higher intake was associated with lower handgrip strength (ß: -1.4 ± 0.7 kg; P = 0.041). No evidence was found for an association between intake of niacin, vitamin B-12, or folate and physical performance or for mediation by niacin status or homocysteine concentrations. CONCLUSIONS: Vitamin B-6 intake was associated with better chair rise test time in a population of European healthy older adults and also with greater handgrip strength in participants with low physical activity only. Homocysteine concentrations did not mediate these associations. The NU-AGE trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01754012.

13.
Metabolism ; 116: 154465, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33316268

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Serum uric acid (SUA) is associated with fasting glucose in healthy subjects, and prospective epidemological studies have shown that elevated SUA is associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes. Whether SUA is independently associated with higher risk of posttransplantation diabetes mellitus (PTDM) in kidney transplant recipients (KTR) remains unknown. METHODS: We performed a longitudinal cohort study of 524 adult KTR with a functioning graft ≥1-year, recruited at a university setting (2008-2011). Multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional-hazards regression analyses were performed to assess the association between time-updated SUA and risk of PTDM (defined according the American Diabetes Association's diagnostic criteria). RESULTS: Mean (SD) SUA was 0.43 (0.11) mmol/L at baseline. During 5.3 (IQR, 4.1-6.0) years of follow-up, 52 (10%) KTR developed PTDM. In univariate prospective analyses, SUA was associated with increased risk of PTDM (HR 1.75, 95% CI 1.36-2.26 per 1-SD increment; P < 0.001). This finding remained materially unchanged after adjustment for components of the metabolic syndrome, lifestyle, estimated glomerular filtration rate, immunosuppressive therapy, cytomegalovirus and hepatitis C virus infection (HR 1.89, 95% CI 1.32-2.70; P = 0.001). These findings were consistent in categorical analyses, and robust in sensitivity analyses without outliers. CONCLUSIONS: In KTR, higher SUA levels are strongly and independently associated with increased risk of PTDM. Our findings are in agreement with accumulating evidence supporting SUA as novel independent risk marker for type 2 diabetes, and extend the evidence, for the first time, to the clinical setting of outpatient KTR.

14.
BMC Med ; 18(1): 380, 2020 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33298054

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Methylmalonic acid (MMA) is best known for its use as a functional marker of vitamin B12 deficiency. However, MMA concentrations not only depend on adequate vitamin B12 status, but also relate to renal function and endogenous production of propionic acid. Hence, we aimed to investigate to what extent variation in MMA levels is explained by vitamin B12 and eGFR and whether MMA levels are associated with mortality if vitamin B12 and eGFR are taken into account. METHODS: A total of 1533 individuals (aged 60-75 years, 50% male) were included from the Lifelines Cohort and Biobank Study. Individuals were included between 2006 and 2013, and the total follow-up time was 8.5 years. RESULTS: Median [IQR] age of the study population was 65 [62-69] years, 50% was male. At baseline, median MMA concentration was 170 [138-216] nmol/L, vitamin B12 290 [224-362] pmol/L, and eGFR 84 [74-91] mL/min/1.73 m2. Log2 vitamin B12, log2 eGFR, age, and sex were significantly associated with log2 MMA in multivariable linear regression analyses (model R2 = 0.22). After a total follow-up time of 8.5 years, 72 individuals had died. Log2 MMA levels were significantly associated with mortality (hazard ratio [HR] 1.67 [95% CI 1.25-2.22], P < 0.001). Moreover, we found a significant interaction between MMA and eGFR with respect to mortality (Pinteraction < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Only 22% of variation in MMA levels was explained by vitamin B12, eGFR, age, and sex, indicating that a large part of variation in MMA levels is attributable to other factors (e.g., catabolism, dietary components, or gut microbial production). Higher MMA levels are associated with an increased risk for mortality, independent of vitamin B12, eGFR, and sex. This association was more pronounced in individuals with impaired renal function.

15.
Clin Nutr ; 2020 Dec 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33341314

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Malnutrition has a negative impact on quality of life and survival in renal transplant recipients (RTR). Therefore, malnutrition detection is important in RTR, but this may be hampered by concomitant presence of weight gain and overweight. Recently, the Global Leadership Initiative on Malnutrition (GLIM) developed a set of diagnostic criteria for malnutrition. We aimed to assess the prevalence of malnutrition according to the GLIM criteria and the distribution of phenotypic criteria in RTR. Additionally, we examined the potential value of 24-h urinary creatinine excretion rate (CER) as alternative measure for the criterion reduced muscle mass. METHODS: We used data from stable outpatient RTR included in the TransplantLines Cohort and Biobank Study (NCT02811835). Presence of weight loss and reduced intake or assimilation were derived from Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment (PG-SGA) item scores. Reduced muscle mass was assessed by multi-frequency bio-electrical impedance analysis (MF-BIA) and defined as an appendicular skeletal muscle mass index (ASMI) < 7 kg/m2 for men and <5.5 kg/m2 for women, and in additional analysis defined as creatinine-height index (CHI, based on 24 h urine CER) < 80%. Inflammation was present if C-reactive protein (CRP) was >5 mg/L. Malnutrition was defined as presence of at least one phenotypic (weight loss and/or low BMI and/or reduced muscle mass) and one etiologic criterion (reduced intake/assimilation and/or disease burden/inflammation). RESULTS: We included 599 RTR (55 ± 13 years old, 62% male, BMI 27.2 ± 4.7 kg/m2) at a median of 3.1 years after transplantation. According to GLIM criteria, 14% was malnourished, of which 91% met the phenotypic criterion for reduced muscle mass. Similar results were found by using CHI as measure for muscle mass (13% malnutrition of which 79% with reduced muscle mass). CONCLUSIONS: Malnutrition is present in one in 7 stable RTR, with reduced muscle mass as the predominant phenotypic criterion. Assessment of nutritional status, most importantly muscle status, is warranted in routine care, to prevent malnutrition in RTR from remaining undetected and untreated. The diagnostic value of 24-h urinary CER in this regard requires further investigation.

16.
Am J Transplant ; 2020 Dec 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33331113

RESUMO

Disturbances in calcium-phosphate homeostasis are common after kidney transplantation. We aimed to assess the relationship between deregulations in plasma calcium and phosphate over time and mortality and death-censored graft failure (DCGF). In this prospective cohort study, we included kidney transplant recipients with ≥2 plasma calcium and phosphate measurements. Data were analyzed using time-updated Cox regression analyses adjusted for potential confounders including time-updated kidney function. We included 2769 patients (mean age 47 ± 14 years, 42.3% female) with 138 496 plasma calcium and phosphate levels (median [IQR] 43 [31-61] measurements per patient). During follow-up of 16.3 [8.7-25.2] years, 17.2% developed DCGF and 7.9% died. Posttransplant hypercalcemia was associated with an increased risk of mortality (1.63 [1.31-2.00], p < 0.0001), but not with DCGF. Hyperphosphatemia was associated with both DCGF (2.59 [2.05-3.27], p < .0001) and mortality (3.14 [2.58-3.82], p <  .0001). Only the association between hypercalcemia and mortality remained significant in sensitivity analyses censored by a simultaneous eGFR <45 mL/min/1.73 m2 . Hypocalcemia and hypophosphatemia were not consistently associated with either outcome. Posttransplant hypercalcemia, even in the presence of preserved kidney function, was associated with an increased mortality risk. Associations of hyperphosphatemia with DCGF and mortality may be driven by eGFR.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33348429

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes is associated with both impaired insulin action at target tissues and impaired insulin secretion in pancreatic beta cells. Mitochondrial dysfunction may play a role in both insulin resistance and impaired insulin secretion. Plasma creatine has been proposed as a potential marker for mitochondrial dysfunction. We aimed to investigate the association between plasma creatine and incident type 2 diabetes. METHODS: We measured fasting plasma creatine concentrations by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy in participants of the general population-based PREVEND study. The study outcome was incident type 2 diabetes, defined as a fasting plasma glucose ≥7.0 mmol/L (126 mg/dl); a random sample plasma glucose ≥11.1 mmol/L (200 mg/dl); self-report of a physician diagnosis or the use of glucose-lowering medications based on a central pharmacy registration. Associations of plasma creatine with type 2 diabetes were quantified using Cox proportional hazards models and were adjusted for potential confounders. RESULTS: We included 4735 participants aged 52 ± 11 years, of whom 49% were male. Mean plasma creatine concentrations were 36.7 ± 17.6 µmol/L, with lower concentrations in males than in females (30.4 ± 15.1 µmol/L vs. 42.7 ± 17.7 µmol/L; p for difference <.001). During 7.3 [6.2-7.7] years of follow-up, 235 (5.4%) participants developed type 2 diabetes. Higher plasma creatine concentrations were associated with an increased risk of incident type 2 diabetes (HR per SD change: 1.27 [95% CI: 1.11-1.44]; p < .001), independent of potential confounders. This association was strongly modified by sex (p interaction <.001). Higher plasma creatine was associated with an increased risk of incident type 2 diabetes in males (HR: 1.40 [1.17-1.67]; p < .001), but not in females (HR: 1.10 [0.90-1.34]; p = .37). CONCLUSION: Fasting plasma creatine concentrations are lower in males than in females. Higher plasma creatine is associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes in males.

19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33313895

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Circulating desphospho-uncarboxylated matrix γ-carboxyglutamate (Gla) protein (dp-ucMGP), a marker of vitamin K status, is associated with renal function and may serve as a potentially modifiable risk factor for incident chronic kidney disease (CKD). We aimed to assess the association between circulating dp-ucMGP and incident CKD. METHODS: We included 3969 participants with a mean age of 52.3 ± 11.6 years, of whom 48.0% were male, enrolled in the general population-based Prevention of REnal and Vascular ENd-stage Disease study. Study outcomes were incident CKD, defined as either development of an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 or microalbuminuria. Associations of dp-ucMGP with these outcomes were quantified using Cox proportional hazards models and were adjusted for potential confounders. RESULTS: Median plasma dp-ucMGP was 363 [interquartile range (IQR) 219-532] pmol/L and mean serum creatinine- and serum cystatin C-based eGFR (eGFRSCr-SCys) was 95.4 ± 21.8 mL/min/1.73 m2. During 7.1 years of follow-up, 205 (5.4%) participants developed incident CKD and 303 (8.4%) developed microalbuminuria. For every doubling of plasma dp-ucMGP, hazard ratios for the development of incident CKD and microalbuminuria were 1.85 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.59-2.16; P < 0.001] and 1.19 (95% CI 1.07-1.32; P = 0.001), respectively. These associations lost significance after adjustment for baseline eGFRSCr-SCys [0.99 (95% CI 0.88-1.12; P = 0.86)] and baseline age [1.03 (95% CI 0.94-1.14; P = 0.50)], respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The associations of plasma dp-ucMGP with incident CKD and microalbuminuria were driven by the respective baseline effects of renal function and age.

20.
Nephron ; : 1-8, 2020 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33212442

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Plasma potassium (K+) abnormalities are common among patients with chronic kidney disease and are associated with higher rates of death, major adverse cardiac events, and hospitalization in this population. Currently, no guidelines exist on how to handle pre-transplant plasma K+ in renal transplant recipients (RTR). OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to examine the relation between pre-transplant plasma K+ and interventions to resolve hyperkalaemia within 48 h after kidney transplantation. METHODS: In a single-centre cohort study, we addressed the association between the last available plasma K+ level before transplantation and the post-transplant need for dialysis or use of K+-lowering medication to resolve hyperkalaemia within 48 h after renal transplantation using multivariate logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: 151 RTR were included, of whom 51 (33.8%) patients received one or more K+ interventions within 48 h after transplantation. Multivariate regression analysis revealed that a higher pre-transplant plasma K+ was associated with an increased risk of post-transplant intervention (odds ratio 2.2 [95% CI: 1.1-4.4]), independent of donor type (deceased or living) and use of K+-lowering medication within 24 h prior to transplantation). CONCLUSIONS: This study indicates that a higher pre-transplant plasma K+ is associated with a higher risk of interventions necessary to resolve hyperkalaemia within 48 h after renal transplantation. Further research is recommended to determine a cutoff level for pre-transplant plasma K+ that can be used in practice.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA