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1.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(5): 1505-1508, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33900183

RESUMO

We evaluated nucleic acid amplification testing (NAAT) for Zika virus on whole-blood specimens compared with NAAT on serum and urine specimens among asymptomatic pregnant women during the 2015-2016 Puerto Rico Zika outbreak. Using NAAT, more infections were detected in serum and urine than in whole blood specimens.

2.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2021 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33677480

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Antibodies to PD-1 and CTLA-4 may perturb HIV persistence during antiretroviral therapy (ART) by reversing HIV-latency and/or boosting HIV-specific immunity leading to clearance of infected cells. We tested this hypothesis in a clinical trial of anti-PD-1 alone or in combination with anti-CTLA-4 in people living with HIV (PLWH) and cancer. METHODS: This was a substudy of the AIDS Malignancy Consortium-095 Study. ART-suppressed PLWH with advanced malignancies were assigned to nivolumab (anti-PD-1) with or without ipilimumab (anti-CTLA-4). In samples obtained pre-infusion and one and seven days after the first and fourth dose of immune checkpoint blockade (ICB), we quantified cell-associated unspliced (CA-US) HIV-RNA and HIV-DNA. Plasma HIV-RNA was quantified during the first treatment cycle. Quantitative viral outgrowth assay (QVOA) to estimate the frequency of replication-competent HIV was performed before and after ICB for participants with samples available. RESULTS: Of forty participants, 33 received nivolumab and seven nivolumab plus ipilimumab. Whereas CA-US HIV RNA did not change with nivolumab monotherapy, we detected a median 1.44 fold-increase (IQR 1.16-1.89) after the first dose of nivolumab and ipilimumab combination therapy (P=0.031). There was no decrease in the frequency of cells containing replication-competent HIV, but in the two individuals on combination ICB for whom we had longitudinal QVOA, we detected decreases of 97% and 64% compared to baseline. CONCLUSION: Anti-PD-1 alone showed no effect on HIV-latency or the latent HIV-reservoir, but the combination of anti-PD-1 and anti-CTL-4 induced a modest increase in CA-US HIV RNA and may potentially eliminate cells containing replication-competent HIV.

4.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(10): e0008787, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33108390

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although infection with Trypanosoma cruzi is thought to be lifelong, less than half of those infected develop cardiomyopathy, suggesting greater parasite control or even clearance. Antibody levels appear to correlate with T. cruzi (antigen) load. We test the association between a downwards antibody trajectory, PCR positivity and ECG alterations in untreated individuals with Chagas disease. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This is a retrospective cohort of T. cruzi seropositive blood donors. Paired blood samples (index donation and follow-up) were tested using the VITROS Immunodiagnostic Products Anti-T.cruzi (Chagas) assay (Ortho Clinical Diagnostics, Raritan NJ) and PCR performed on the follow-up sample. A 12-lead resting ECG was performed. Significant antibody decline was defined as a reduction of > 1 signal-to-cutoff (S/CO) unit on the VITROS assay. Follow-up S/CO of < 4 was defined as borderline/low. 276 untreated seropositive blood donors were included. The median (IQR) follow-up was 12.7 years (8.5-16.9). 56 (22.1%) subjects had a significant antibody decline and 35 (12.7%) had a low/borderline follow-up result. PCR positivity was lower in the falling (26.8% vs 52.8%, p = 0.001) and low/borderline (17.1% vs 51.9%, p < 0.001) antibody groups, as was the rate of ECG abnormalities. Falling and low/borderline antibody groups were predominantly composed of individuals with negative PCR and normal ECG findings: 64% and 71%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Low and falling antibody levels define a phenotype of possible spontaneous parasite clearance.

5.
J Clin Microbiol ; 58(12)2020 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32967899

RESUMO

Clearance of low-level viremia that persists in most HIV-1-positive individuals on antiretroviral therapy (ART) is an important milestone for efforts to cure HIV-1 infection. The level of persistent viremia on ART is generally below the lower limit of quantification (LOQ) of current FDA-cleared plasma HIV-1 RNA assays (20 to 40 copies/ml) but can be quantified by reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) assays with single-copy sensitivity. Such assays require multistep manual methods, and their low throughput limits the capacity to monitor the effects of interventions on persistent viremia. Recently, S. Bakkour, X. Deng, P. Bacchetti, E. Grebe, et al. (J Clin Microbiol 58:e01400-20, 2020, https://doi.org/10.1128/JCM.01400-20), reported the use of multiple replicates and Poisson statistics to infer HIV-1 RNA concentrations below the commercial LOQ of an automated platform (Hologic Panther Aptima). Here, we evaluate the detection and quantitation of low-level viremia using the following two adaptions of the automated platform: a multireplicate strategy (9×) and a concentrated single-replicate strategy in which 5 ml of plasma is concentrated by centrifugation (1×, concentrated). We compare these new methods to a recently reported manual integrase-targeting single-copy assay version 2 (iSCA v2). Using laboratory-generated HIV-1 RNA plasma samples at known concentrations, all three methods had similar sensitivity for HIV-1 RNA detection, although iSCA v2 was most sensitive (95% LOD, 2.3 copies/ml), 9× was marginally less sensitive (95% LOD, 3.0 copies/ml), and 1×, concentrated was least sensitive (95% LOD, 3.9 copies/ml). In contrast, for clinical plasma samples, 9× had greater sensitivity than iSCA v2 (82% of samples were quantifiable compared with 62% of samples by iSCA v2). These results support 9× as an acceptable high-throughput alternative to iSCA v2 for quantifying low-level viremia in individuals on ART.

6.
J Clin Microbiol ; 58(12)2020 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32967900

RESUMO

Detection of residual plasma viremia in antiretroviral therapy (ART)-suppressed HIV-infected individuals is critical for characterizing the latent reservoir and evaluating the impact of cure interventions. Ultracentrifugation-based single-copy assays are sensitive but labor intensive. Fully automated replicate testing using a standard clinical viral load assay was evaluated as a high-throughput alternative for the quantification of low-level viremia. Four plasma samples from blood donors with acute HIV-1 infection and one viral culture supernatant were serially diluted into 25-ml samples to nominal viral loads ranging from 39 to <0.5 copies (cp)/ml. Each dilution was tested with 45 replicates (reps) using 0.5 ml/rep with the Aptima HIV-1 Quant assay. The nominal and estimated viral loads based on the single-hit Poisson model were compared, and a hybrid Poisson digital model for calibrated viral load estimation was derived. Testing performed using 45 reps on longitudinal plasma samples from 50 ART-suppressed individuals in the Reservoir Assay Validation and Evaluation Network (RAVEN) study cohort (range of 1 to 19 years of continuous ART suppression) showed a median viral load of 0.54 cp/ml (interquartile range [IQR], 0.22 to 1.46 cp/ml) and a 14% (95% confidence interval [CI], 9% to 19%) decline in viral load for each additional year in duration suppressed. Within the RAVEN cohort, the expected false-negative rate for detection at lower rep numbers using 9 and 18 reps was 26% and 14%, respectively. Residual plasma viremia levels positively correlated with cell-associated HIV RNA and DNA. The performance characteristics of the replicate Aptima assay support its use for quantifying residual plasma viremia to study the latent HIV reservoir and cure interventions.

7.
Am J Transplant ; 2020 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32780519

RESUMO

Pharmacologic inhibition of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) in the setting of renal transplantation has previously been associated with lower human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) DNA burden, and in vitro studies suggest that mTOR inhibition may lead to HIV transcriptional silencing. Because prospective clinical trials are lacking, we conducted an open-label, single-arm study to determine the impact of the broad mTOR inhibitor, everolimus, on residual HIV burden, transcriptional gene expression profiles, and immune responses in HIV-infected adult solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients on antiretroviral therapy. Whereas everolimus therapy did not have an overall effect on cell-associated HIV-1 DNA and RNA levels in the entire cohort, participants who maintained everolimus time-averaged trough levels >5 ng/mL during the first 2 months of therapy had significantly lower RNA levels up to 6 months after the cessation of study drug. Time-averaged everolimus trough levels significantly correlated with greater inhibition of mTOR gene pathway transcriptional activity. Everolimus treatment also led to decreased PD-1 expression on certain T cell subsets. These data support the rationale for further study of the effects of mTOR inhibition on HIV transcriptional silencing in non-SOT populations, either alone or in combination with other strategies. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02429869.

8.
Transfusion ; 60(9): 1960-1969, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32738079

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Strategies to reduce platelet (PLT) bacterial contamination include donor screening, skin disinfection, sample diversion, bacterial culture, pathogen reduction (PR), and day-of-transfusion tests. We report bacterial sepsis following a pathogen-reduced PLT transfusion. CASE REPORT: An adult male with relapsed acute lymphoblastic leukemia was successfully treated for central catheter-associated Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia. A peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC) was placed. Chills, rigors, and flushing developed immediately after PICC-infused pathogen-reduced PLTs, progressing to septic shock requiring intensive care management. METHODS: PICC and peripheral blood (PB), transfused bag saline flushes (TBFs), environmental samples, and the pathogen-reduced untransfused co-component (CC) were cultured. Plasma metagenomic and bacterial isolate whole-genome sequencing; PLT mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) testing of untransfused CC and TBF; CC testing for amotosalen (S-59)/S-59 photoproducts; isolate PR studies (INTERCEPT); and TBF polymerase chain reaction for recipient Y-chromosome DNA were performed. RESULTS: PB and PICC cultures grew Acinetobacter calcoaceticus/baumannii complex (ACBC). TBF was gram-positive; mass spectrometry identified ACBC and Staphylococcus saprophyticus (SS). CC Gram stain and cultures were negative. Environmental cultures, some done after decontamination, were ACBC/SS negative. Posttransfusion patient plasma and TBF ACBC sequences were genetically identical. No Y-chromosome signal was detected in TBF. S-59 photoproducts and evidence of mtDNA amplification inhibition were found in the CC. Spiking PR studies showed >5.9-log inactivation for both isolates. Donor skin cultures for Acinetobacter were negative. CONCLUSION: CC sterility, PR studies, residual S-59 photoproducts, and mtDNA amplification inhibition suggest successful PR. Unidentified environmental sources and inherent or acquired bag defects may have contributed to postmanufacturing pathogen-reduced PLT contamination.

9.
Blood ; 136(11): 1359-1367, 2020 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32693408

RESUMO

In 2015, the US Food and Drug Administration published revised guidance that recommended a change in blood donor deferral of men who have sex with men (MSM) from an indefinite to a 12-month deferral since the donor last had sex with a man. We assessed whether HIV incidence in first-time blood donors or associated transfusion risk increased. Donations in 4 major blood collection organizations were monitored for 15 months before and 2 years after implementation of the 12-month MSM deferral policy. HIV-positive donations were classified as recently acquired or long-term using a recent infection testing algorithm and incidence in both periods estimated. Residual transfusion transmission risk was estimated by multiplying incidence by the length of the infectious window period. The latter was estimated using a model based on infectious dose and the sensitivity of nucleic acid testing. Factors associated with incident infection in each period were assessed using Poisson regression. Overall HIV incidence in first-time donors before implementation of the 12-month MSM deferral was estimated at 2.62 cases per 100 000 person-years (105 PY) (95% credible interval [CI], 1.53-3.93 cases/105 PY), and after implementation at 2.85 cases/105 PY (95% CI, 1.96-3.93 cases/105 PY), with no statistically significant change. In male first-time donors, the incidence difference was 0.93 cases/105 PY (95% CI, -1.74-3.58 cases/105 PY). The residual risk of HIV transfusion transmission through components sourced from first-time donors was estimated at 0.32 transmissions per million (106) packed red blood cell transfusions (95% CI, 0.29-0.65 transmissions/106 transfusions) before and 0.35 transmissions/106 transfusions (95% CI, 0.31-0.65 transmissions/106 transfusions) after implementation. The difference was not statistically significant. Factors associated with incident infection were the same in each period. We observed no increase in HIV incidence or HIV transfusion transmission risk after implementation of a 12-month MSM deferral policy.

10.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 20(12): 1446-1456, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32673593

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Characterisation of the dynamics of Zika virus persistence following acute infection is needed to inform blood donor and diagnostic testing policies and understand the natural history of Zika virus infection. We aimed to characterise the natural history, persistence, and clinical outcomes of Zika virus infection through a prospective study in initially asymptomatic Zika virus RNA-positive blood donors. METHODS: Zika virus-infected blood donors identified through Zika virus nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT) screening at three blood collection organisations in the USA were enrolled into a 1-year follow-up study, with blood and body fluid samples and detailed symptom data collected at up to seven visits. All samples were tested for Zika virus RNA by real-time PCR (rtPCR); follow-up plasma, whole blood, and urine were also tested by replicate NAAT. Plasma was tested for flavivirus-specific IgM and IgG by ELISA. Zika virus RNA persistence for each assay or sample type and plasma antibody persistence from estimated date of plasma NAAT-detectable infection were calculated from follow-up data using survival statistical methods. FINDINGS: Between July 6, 2016 and March 7, 2017, we enrolled 53 participants. From the estimated date of plasma NAAT-detectable infection, Zika virus RNA was detectable in plasma for 9·9 days (95% CI 8·1-12·0), in red blood cells for 95·4 days (62·8-129·1), and in whole blood for 73·5 days (39·8-107·5). Replicate NAATs (one or more of eight replicates positive) extended detection of Zika virus RNA in plasma to 34·8 days (19·9-56·2) and in whole blood (at least one of two tests positive) to 104·8 days (76·7-129·9). Urine was rtPCR reactive up to 14·5 days (10·5-20·3) and saliva up to 26·4 days (19·7-38·7). Zika virus IgM persisted for 237·7 days (128·7-459·5) from estimated time since plasma NAAT-detectable infection. Zika virus RNA fell below detectable limits more rapidly in the saliva of participants with pre-existing dengue virus IgG than in those without. Of 25 donors identified pre-seroconversion with symptom data at the first or second study visit, 16 (64%) developed multiple Zika virus-related symptoms after asymptomatic index donations, compared with nine (36%) of 25 donors detected after seroconversion. INTERPRETATION: Determination of viral marker persistence is enhanced by follow-up of blood donors who are pre-symptomatic or asymptomatic, Zika virus RNA-positive, and antibody negative. Zika virus RNA persists in red blood cells for several months following clearance from plasma and body fluids, and replicate, highly sensitive NAATs extend RNA detection in all compartments. Whole blood testing can extend detection of acute infection for diagnostics and monitoring of pregnant women, sexual partners, and travellers. FUNDING: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority.

11.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 20(12): 1437-1445, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32673594

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Puerto Rico began screening blood donations for Zika virus RNA with nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) on April 3, 2016, because of an emerging Zika virus outbreak. We followed up positive donors to assess the dynamics of viral and serological markers during the early stages of Zika virus infection and update the estimate of infection incidence in the Puerto Rican population during the outbreak. METHODS: Blood donations from volunteer donors in Puerto Rico were screened for the presence of Zika virus RNA using the cobas Zika NAAT. Positive donations were further tested to confirm infection, estimate viral load, and identify Zika virus-specific IgM antibodies. Individuals with positive blood donations were invited to attend follow-up visits. Donations with confirmed infection (defined as detection of Zika virus RNA or IgM on additional testing of index or follow-up samples) were assessed for stage of infection according to Zika virus RNA detectability in simulated minipools, viral load, and Zika virus IgM status. A three-step process was used to estimate the mean duration of NAAT reactivity of Zika virus in human plasma from individuals identified pre-seroconversion with at least one follow up visit and to update the 2016 incidence estimate of Zika virus infection. FINDINGS: Between April 3 and Dec 31, 2016, 53 112 blood donations were screened for Zika virus, of which 351 tested positive, 339 had confirmed infections, and 319 could be staged. Compared with IgM-positive index donations (n=110), IgM-negative index donations (n=209) had higher mean viral loads (1·1 × 106vs 8·3 × 104 international units per mL) and were more likely to be detected in simulated minipools (93% [n=194] vs 26% [n=29]). The proportions of donations with confirmed infections that had viral RNA detected only in individual-donation NAATs (ie, not in simulated minipools) and were IgM positive increased as the epidemic evolved. The estimated mean duration of NAAT detectability in the 140 donors included in the follow-up study was 11·70 days (95% CI 10·06-14·36). Applying this detection period to the observed proportion of donations that were confirmed NAAT positive yielded a Zika virus seasonal incidence estimate of 21·1% (95% CI 18·1-24·1); 768 101 infections in a population of 3 638 773 in 2016. INTERPRETATION: Characterisation of early Zika virus infection has implications for blood safety because infectivity of blood donations and utility of screening methods likely correlate with viral load and serological stage of infection. Our findings also have implications for diagnostic testing, public health surveillance, and epidemiology, and we estimate that around 21% of the Puerto Rican population was infected during the 2016 outbreak. FUNDING: Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute.

12.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 7(5): ofaa115, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32391403

RESUMO

Background: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) coinfection among people with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) might perturb immune function and HIV persistence. We aimed to evaluate the impact of HCV clearance with direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) on immune activation and HIV persistence in HIV/HCV-coinfected individuals on antiretroviral therapy (ART). Methods: In a prospective observational study, ART-treated participants with HIV/HCV coinfection received sofosbuvir/daclatasvir ±â€…ribavirin (n = 19). Blood samples were collected before DAA therapy, at the end of treatment, and 12 months after DAA termination (12MPT). T- and natural killer (NK)-cell phenotype, soluble plasma factors, cell-associated (CA)-HIV deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) forms (total, integrated, 2LTR), CA-unspliced (US) and multiple-spliced ribonucleic acid (RNA), and plasma HIV RNA were evaluated. Results: Hepatitis C virus clearance was associated with (1) a downmodulation of activation and exhaustion markers in CD4+, CD8+ T, and NK cells together with (2) decreased plasma levels of Interferon gamma-induced protein 10 (IP10), interleukin-8 (IL-8), soluble (s)CD163 and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule (sICAM). Cell-associated US HIV RNA was significantly higher at 12MPT compared to baseline, with no change in HIV DNA or plasma RNA. Conclusions: Elimination of HCV in HIV/HCV-coinfected individuals alters immune function and the transcriptional activity of latently infected cells. This report provides insights into the effects of HCV coinfection in HIV persistence and regards coinfected subjects as a population in which HIV remission might prove to be more challenging.

13.
J Infect Dis ; 2020 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32147687

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evaluations of HIV curative interventions require reliable and efficient quantification of replication-competent latent reservoirs (LR). The "classic" quantitative viral outgrowth assay (QVOA) has been regarded as "gold standard," although prohibitively resource- and labor-intensive. We compared six "next-gen" VOA employing PCR or ultrasensitive p24 to assess their suitability as scalable proxies for QVOA. METHODS: Next-gen VOA were compared to classic QVOA using single leukapheresis-derived samples from five ART-suppressed HIV+ participants and one HIV- control; each lab tested blinded batches of three frozen and one fresh sample. Markov chain Monte Carlo methods estimated extra-Poisson variation at aliquot, batch, and lab levels. Models also estimated the effect of testing frozen versus fresh samples. RESULTS: Next-gen VOA had similar estimates of variation to QVOA. Assays with ultrasensitive readout reported higher IUPM than classic QVOA. Within-batch testing had 2.5-fold extra-Poisson variation (95%CI 2.1,3.5) for next-gen assays. Between-lab variation increased extra-Poisson variation to 3.4-fold (95% CI 2.6,5.4). Frozen storage did not substantially alter IUPM (-18%(-52%,+39%)). CONCLUSIONS: The data offer cautious support for use of next-gen VOA as proxies for more laborious QVOA, while providing greater sensitivities and dynamic ranges. Measurement of LR in eradication strategies would benefit from high throughput and scalable assays.

14.
Transfusion ; 60(2): 317-325, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31885102

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Transfusion-transmitted Babesia microti is well recognized in the Northeast and upper Midwestern United States. Blood donation screening in Babesia-endemic states has occurred under investigational protocols prior to US Food and Drug Administration-licensed test availability. Here, we provide a prospective screening summary of nucleic acid testing (NAT) as part of a multicenter Babesia pivotal trial followed by extended investigational use. METHODS: From June 2017 to February 2018, 176,928 donation samples were tested with Procleix Babesia Assay (Grifols Diagnostic Solutions), a blood screening NAT for Babesia species ribosomal RNA detection using whole blood samples. During the pivotal trial, donations were collected in 11 endemic states plus Washington, DC, and Florida (nonendemic). Whole blood lysate samples were either tested in pools of 16 or individually. Reactive samples were confirmed by Babesia microti antibody and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing. If unconfirmed, further testing used a second PCR assay capable of detecting multiple Babesia species. Follow-up samples were also tested. Extended investigational testing followed pivotal trial completion. RESULTS: The pivotal trial identified 61 confirmed positives (176,608 donations): 35 (57%) PCR positive, 59 (97%) antibody positive, and two (3%) NAT positive/antibody negative, for a total yield of one positive per 2895 donations, including one Florida resident; others were from seven endemic states. During extended investigational testing of 496,270 donations in endemic states through January 2019, 211 (1:2351) repeat reactive donations were identified. CONCLUSIONS: Babesia was detected in donors from multiple US states, including one previously not associated with positive blood donors. This study supports the use of the Procleix Babesia Assay using individual testing or pools of up to 16.


Assuntos
Babesia/patogenicidade , Doadores de Sangue/estatística & dados numéricos , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Transcrição Genética/genética , Idoso , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase
15.
J Infect Dis ; 221(7): 1146-1155, 2020 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31677350

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Identification of nonviral markers of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection that increase before viral rebound during analytical treatment interruption (ATI) may affect HIV persistence research. We previously showed that HIV ribonucleic acid (RNA) is enriched in CD30+CD4+ T cells in many individuals. Here, we studied CD30+CD4+ T-cell dynamics before ATI, during ATI (before detectable plasma RNA), and after HIV rebound. METHODS: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 23 participants collected longitudinally from 5 Adult AIDS Clinical Trials Group studies incorporating ATI were included in this study. Flow cytometric characterization of expression of CD30 and markers of T-cell activation and exhaustion were performed along with HIV-1 RNA and deoxyribonucleic acid quantification and measurement of soluble plasma CD30 and CD30 ligand. RESULTS: The percentage of CD4+ T cells expressing CD30 significantly increased from pre-ATI to postinterruption time points before detectible viremia (1.65 mean relative increase, P = .005). Seventy-seven percent of participants experienced an increase in CD30+ cells before viral rebound. In contrast, there were no significant differences between pre-ATI and postinterruption pre-rebound time points in percentages of lymphocytes expressing CD69, CD38/HLA-DR, or PD-1 until after HIV recrudescence. CONCLUSIONS: CD30 may be a surrogate marker of early replication or viral transcriptional activity before detection by routine peripheral blood sampling.

17.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 815, 2019 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31533639

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Elite controllers (EC), a small subset of the HIV-positive population (< 1%), suppress HIV viremia below the limit of quantification of clinical viral load assays in the absence of antiretroviral therapy (ART). However, there is a paucity of longitudinal data detailing the viral and immune dynamics or HIV reservoir seeding during acute infection in individuals that go on to become Elite Controllers. CASE PRESENTATION: In this report, we describe a case of a 42 year old woman diagnosed during acute infection who rapidly and permanently suppressed her viremia in the absence of antiretroviral therapy (ART). Rapid antibody/antigen testing was either negative or equivocal during acute infection, despite subsequent viral load testing at that time point with 71,550 plasma HIV RNA copies/mL, making initial diagnosis challenging. The patient subsequently developed detectable anti-HIV antibodies and an increase in HIV-specific CD8+ T cell responses to overlapping subtype C HIV gag peptide; very low-level plasma viremia (0.84 RNA copies/mL) was detected by an ultrasensitive assay 2 years following infection. Subsequently, she was started on ART for multifocal furunculosis despite continued suppression of virus and stable CD4+ T cell counts. Following ART initiation, HIV specific antibody levels and CD8+ T cell responses increased, but no HIV DNA or RNA was able to be isolated from large numbers of peripheral blood CD4+ T cells. CONCLUSION: This case provides important information regarding the establishment of elite HIV control during acute infection and also demonstrates an increase in HIV-specific immune responses following ART despite undetectable peripheral blood cellular measures of HIV persistence. This case also highlights the challenges in diagnosing acute HIV infection without the use of viral load testing in this rare elite controller phenotype.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , HIV-1/isolamento & purificação , Adulto , Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/citologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Feminino , Anticorpos Anti-HIV/sangue , Infecções por HIV/imunologia , Infecções por HIV/patologia , HIV-1/genética , Humanos , RNA Viral/sangue , Carga Viral
18.
Fetal Diagn Ther ; 46(3): 175-186, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30661073

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Significant limitations with existing treatments for major haemoglobinopathies motivate the development of effective intrauterine therapy. We assessed the feasibility of fetoscopic and ultrasound-guided intrauterine haemopoietic cell transplantation (IUHCT) in macaque fetuses in early gestation when haemopoietic and immunological ontogeny is anticipated to enable long-term donor cell engraftment. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Fluorescent-labelled bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells from 10 pregnant Macaca fascicularis were injected into their fetuses at E71-114 (18.9-170.0E+6 cells/fetus) by fetoscopic intravenous (n = 7) or ultrasound (US)-guided intracardiac injections, with sacrifice at 24 h to examine donor-cell distribution. RESULTS: Operating times ranged from 35 to 118 min. Chorionic membrane tenting and intrachorionic haemorrhage were observed only with fetoscopy (n = 2). Labelled cells were stereoscopically visualised in lung, spleen, liver, and placenta. Donor-cell chimerism was highest in liver, spleen, and heart by flow cytometry, placenta by unique polymorphism qPCR, and was undetected in blood. Chimerism was 2-3 log-fold lower in individual organs by qPCR than by flow cytometry. DISCUSSION: Both fetoscopic and US-guided IUHCT were technically feasible, but fetoscopy caused more intraoperative complications in our pilot series. The discrepancy in chimerism detection predicts the challenges in long-term surveillance of donor-cell chimerism. Further studies of long-term outcomes in the non-human primate are valuable for the development of clinical protocols for IUHCT.


Assuntos
Terapias Fetais/métodos , Fetoscopia/métodos , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/métodos , Modelos Animais , Ultrassonografia de Intervenção/métodos , Animais , Células da Medula Óssea , Macaca
19.
Transfusion ; 59(1): 57-66, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30566231

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The major aims of the RBC-Omics study were to evaluate the genomic and metabolomic determinants of spontaneous and stress-induced hemolysis during RBC storage. This study was unique in scale and design to allow evaluation of RBC donations from a sufficient number of donors across the spectrum of race, ethnicity, sex, and donation intensity. Study procedures were carefully piloted, optimized, and controlled to enable high-quality data collection. METHODS: The enrollment goal of 14,000 RBC donors across four centers, with characterization of RBC hemolysis across two testing laboratories, required rigorous piloting and optimization and establishment of a quality assurance (QA) and quality control (QC) program. Optimization of WBC elution from leukoreduction (LR) filters, development and validation of small-volume transfer bags, impact of manufacturing and sample-handling procedures on hemolysis parameters, and testing consistency across laboratories and technicians and over time were part of this quality assurance/quality control program. RESULTS: LR filter elution procedures were optimized for obtaining DNA for analysis. Significant differences between standard and pediatric storage bags led to use of an alternative LR-RBC transfer bag. The impact of sample preparation and freezing methods on metabolomics analyses was evaluated. Proficiency testing monitored and documented testing consistency across laboratories and technicians. CONCLUSION: Piloting and optimization, and establishment of a robust quality assurance/quality control program documented process consistency throughout the study and was essential in executing this large-scale multicenter study. This program supports the validity of the RBC-Omics study results and a sample repository that can be used in future studies.


Assuntos
Preservação de Sangue/métodos , Hemólise/fisiologia , Trifosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Eritrócitos/citologia , Eritrócitos/metabolismo , Humanos , Controle de Qualidade
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