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1.
Mult Scler ; : 1352458519885106, 2019 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31714181

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Meningeal inflammation may contribute to gray matter (GM) involvement in multiple sclerosis (MS) and is proposed to manifest as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) leptomeningeal enhancement (LME). OBJECTIVE: To investigate how LME relates to GM lesions in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) at 7T. METHODS: A total of 30 RRMS subjects (age (mean ± standard deviation (SD)): 44.0 ± 11.3 years, 93% on disease-modifying treatment) and 15 controls underwent gadolinium-enhanced three-dimensional (3D) MP2RAGE (magnetization-prepared 2 rapid gradient-echo) and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) MRI. LME, cortical lesions (CLs), thalamic lesions (TLs), and white matter (WM) lesions were expert-quantified. Wilcoxon rank-sum, two-sample t-tests, Spearman correlations, and regression models were employed. RESULTS: Two-thirds (20/30) of MS subjects and 1/15 controls (6.7%) had LME. LME+ MS subjects had 2.7 ± 1.5 foci, longer disease duration (14.9 ± 10.4 vs. 8.1 ± 5.7 years, p = 0.028), increased CL number (21.5 ± 12.6 vs. 5.5 ± 5.0, p < 0.001) and volume (0.80 ± 1.13 vs. 0.13 ± 0.13 mL, p = 0.002), and increased TL number (3.95 ± 2.11 vs. 0.70 ± 1.34, p < 0.001) and volume (0.106 ± 0.09 vs. 0.007 ± 0.01 mL, p < 0.001) versus LME- subjects. LME focus number correlated more highly with CL (rs = 0.50, p = 0.01) and TL (rs = 0.81, p < 0.001) than WM lesion (rs = 0.34, p > 0.05) volume. Similar LME-CL number associations were observed in unadjusted and WM lesion-adjusted comparisons (both p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Cerebral LME is common in RRMS at 7T and is independently associated with GM injury. We hypothesize that cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)-related inflammation links cortical and thalamic injury.

2.
Neurol Neuroimmunol Neuroinflamm ; 6(5): e587, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31355321

RESUMO

Objective: To determine the value of [F-18]PBR06-PET for assessment of microglial activation in the cerebral gray matter in patients with MS. Methods: Twelve patients with MS (7 relapsing-remitting and 5 secondary progressive [SP]) and 5 healthy controls (HCs) had standardized uptake value (SUV) PET maps coregistered to 3T MRI and segmented into cortical and subcortical gray matter regions. SUV ratios (SUVRs) were global brain normalized. Voxel-by-voxel analysis was performed using statistical parametric mapping (SPM). Normalized brain parenchymal volumes (BPVs) were determined from MRI using SIENAX. Results: Cortical SUVRs were higher in the hippocampus, amygdala, midcingulate, posterior cingulate, and rolandic operculum and lower in the medial-superior frontal gyrus and cuneus in the MS vs HC group (all p < 0.05). Subcortical gray matter SUVR was higher in SPMS vs RRMS (+10.8%, p = 0.002) and HC (+11.3%, p = 0.055) groups. In the MS group, subcortical gray matter SUVR correlated with the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) score (r = 0.75, p = 0.005) and timed 25-foot walk (T25FW) (r = 0.70, p = 0.01). Thalamic SUVRs increased with increasing EDSS scores (r = 0.83, p = 0.0008) and T25FW (r = 0.65, p = 0.02) and with decreasing BPV (r = -0.63, p = 0.03). Putaminal SUVRs increased with increasing EDSS scores (0.71, p = 0.009) and with decreasing BPV (r = -0.67, p = 0.01). On SPM analysis, peak correlations of thalamic voxels with BPV were seen in the pulvinar and with the EDSS score and T25FW in the dorsomedial thalamic nuclei. Conclusions: This study suggests that [F-18]PBR06-PET detects widespread abnormal microglial activation in the cerebral gray matter in MS. Increased translocator protein binding in subcortical gray matter regions is associated with brain atrophy and may link to progressive MS.

3.
J Neurol Sci ; 403: 38-43, 2019 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31207364

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Spinal cord demyelination is common in multiple sclerosis (MS) and has been linked to increased disability and progressive clinical course. Spinal cord atrophy shows an especially close relationship to MS-related physical disability, though the relationship between spinal cord lesions/atrophy and health-related quality of life (QOL) has not been explored. METHODS: 62 patients (53 relapsing MS, 7 secondary progressive, 2 clinically isolated syndrome) from our center underwent 3 T MRI within 30 days of clinical examination and QOL assessment. Upper cervical (C1-C3) spinal cord area (UCCA) was obtained from 3D high-resolution MPRAGE sequences (1 mm isotropic voxels). Cervical spinal cord (C1-C7) lesion count, and cervical and brain T2 hyperintense lesion volumes were calculated. Brain parenchymal fraction (BPF) was obtained from an automated segmentation pipeline. Spearman correlations were assessed between MRI and clinical data. Partial Spearman correlations adjusting for age, disease duration, and BPF assessed the independent association between MRI variables and QOL domains. RESULTS: UCCA showed an inverse relationship with age (r = -0.330, p = .009), disease duration, (r = -0.444, p < .001), and nine-hole peg test (r = -0.353, p = .005). The Upper Extremity Function QOL domain showed the strongest relationship to UCCA (r = 0.333, p = .008), with Lower Extremity Function QOL (r = 0.234, p = .067) and Satisfaction with Social Roles and Activities (r = 0.245, p = .055) correlations bordering significance. The association between UCCA and Upper Extremity QOL remained significant after adjustment for BPF, age, and disease duration. QOL domains reflective of psychological health (Depression, Anxiety, Emotional and Behavioral Dyscontrol, Positive Affect and Wellbeing) showed no relationship to UCCA. Cervical and brain lesion volume related to impairment in Stigma while cervical lesion count was unrelated to NeuroQOL impairment. Brain atrophy correlated with conventional markers of disability and cognition but did not have a significant relationship to QOL. CONCLUSION: Cervical spinal cord volume is independently associated with impaired upper extremity-related QOL in patients with MS. These findings suggest specific clinical relevance of MS-related spinal cord atrophy as compared to brain or cervical spinal cord lesions, or whole brain atrophy.

4.
Neurobiol Aging ; 81: 30-37, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31207467

RESUMO

We provide here normative values of yearly percentage brain volume change (PBVC/y) as obtained with Structural Imaging Evaluation, using Normalization, of Atrophy, a widely used open-source software, developing a PBVC/y calculator for assessing the deviation from the expected PBVC/y in patients with neurological disorders. We assessed multicenter (34 centers, 11 acquisition protocols) magnetic resonance imaging data of 720 healthy participants covering the whole adult lifespan (16-90 years). Data of 421 participants with a follow-up > 6 months were used to obtain the normative values for PBVC/y and data of 392 participants with a follow-up <1 month were selected to assess the intrasubject variability of the brain volume measurement. A mixed model evaluated PBVC/y dependence on age, sex, and magnetic resonance imaging parameters (scan vendor and magnetic field strength). PBVC/y was associated with age (p < 0.001), with 60- to 70-year-old participants showing twice more volume decrease than participants aged 30-40 years. PBVC/y was also associated with magnetic field strength, with higher decreases when measured by 1.5T than 3T scanners (p < 0.001). The variability of PBVC/y normative percentiles was narrower as the interscan interval was longer (e.g., 80th normative percentile was 50% smaller for participants with 2-year than with 1-year follow-up). The use of these normative data, eased by the freely available calculator, might help in better discriminating pathological from physiological conditions in the clinical setting.

5.
Brain ; 142(3): 633-646, 2019 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30715195

RESUMO

Spinal cord lesions detected on MRI hold important diagnostic and prognostic value for multiple sclerosis. Previous attempts to correlate lesion burden with clinical status have had limited success, however, suggesting that lesion location may be a contributor. Our aim was to explore the spatial distribution of multiple sclerosis lesions in the cervical spinal cord, with respect to clinical status. We included 642 suspected or confirmed multiple sclerosis patients (31 clinically isolated syndrome, and 416 relapsing-remitting, 84 secondary progressive, and 73 primary progressive multiple sclerosis) from 13 clinical sites. Cervical spine lesions were manually delineated on T2- and T2*-weighted axial and sagittal MRI scans acquired at 3 or 7 T. With an automatic publicly-available analysis pipeline we produced voxelwise lesion frequency maps to identify predilection sites in various patient groups characterized by clinical subtype, Expanded Disability Status Scale score and disease duration. We also measured absolute and normalized lesion volumes in several regions of interest using an atlas-based approach, and evaluated differences within and between groups. The lateral funiculi were more frequently affected by lesions in progressive subtypes than in relapsing in voxelwise analysis (P < 0.001), which was further confirmed by absolute and normalized lesion volumes (P < 0.01). The central cord area was more often affected by lesions in primary progressive than relapse-remitting patients (P < 0.001). Between white and grey matter, the absolute lesion volume in the white matter was greater than in the grey matter in all phenotypes (P < 0.001); however when normalizing by each region, normalized lesion volumes were comparable between white and grey matter in primary progressive patients. Lesions appearing in the lateral funiculi and central cord area were significantly correlated with Expanded Disability Status Scale score (P < 0.001). High lesion frequencies were observed in patients with a more aggressive disease course, rather than long disease duration. Lesions located in the lateral funiculi and central cord area of the cervical spine may influence clinical status in multiple sclerosis. This work shows the added value of cervical spine lesions, and provides an avenue for evaluating the distribution of spinal cord lesions in various patient groups.

6.
BMC Neurol ; 19(1): 23, 2019 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30755165

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Serum hematological indices such as the neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) or monocyte-lymphocyte ratio (MLR) have been used as biomarkers of pathogenic inflammation and prognostication in multiple areas of medicine; recent evidence shows correlation with psychological parameters as well. OBJECTIVES/AIMS: To characterize clinical, neuroimaging, and psycho-neuro-immunological associations with NLR and MLR in persons with multiple sclerosis (MS). METHODS: We identified a large cohort of clinically well-defined patients from our longitudinal database that included MS-related outcomes, disease-modifying therapy, patient-reported outcome (PRO) measures, and quantified cerebral MRI at 1.5 T. We queried hospital records for complete blood counts within 2 months of each clinic visit and excluded those obtained during clinical relapses. Four hundred eighty-three patients, with a mean of 3 longitudinal observations each, were identified who met these criteria. Initial analyses assessed the association between NLR and MLR as the outcomes, and psychological and demographic predictors in univariable and multivariable models controlling for age, gender and treatment. The second set of analyses assessed the association between clinical and MRI outcomes including whole brain atrophy and T2-hyperintense lesion volume, with NLR and MLR as predictors in univariable and multivariable models. All analyses used a mixed effects linear or logistic regression model with repeated measures. RESULTS: Unadjusted analyses demonstrated significant associations between higher (log-transformed) NLR (but not MLR) and PRO measures including increasing depression (p = 0.01), fatigue (p < 0.01), and decreased physical quality of life (p < 0.01). Higher NLR and MLR strongly predicted increased MS-related disability as assessed by the Expanded Disability Status Scale, independent of all demographic, clinical, treatment-related, and psychosocial variables (p < 0.001). Lastly, higher NLR and MLR significantly discriminated progressive from relapsing status (p ≤ 0.01 for both), and higher MLR correlated with increased whole-brain atrophy (p < 0.05) but not T2 hyperintense lesion volume (p > 0.05) even after controlling for all clinical and demographic covariates. Sensitivity analyses using a subset of untreated patients (N = 146) corroborated these results. CONCLUSIONS: Elevated NLR and MLR may represent hematopoetic bias toward increased production and pro-inflammatory priming of the myeloid innate immune system (numerator) in conjunction with dysregulated adaptive immune processes (denominator), and consequently reflect a complementary and independent marker for severity of MS-related neurological disability and MRI outcomes.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/sangue , Linfócitos/citologia , Monócitos/citologia , Esclerose Múltipla/sangue , Esclerose Múltipla/imunologia , Neutrófilos/citologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Inflamação/sangue , Inflamação/imunologia , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Esclerose Múltipla/patologia , Qualidade de Vida
7.
Neurology ; 92(11): 519-533, 2019 03 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30787160

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To summarize current and emerging imaging techniques that can be used to assess neuroprotection and repair in multiple sclerosis (MS), and to provide a consensus opinion on the potential utility of each technique in clinical trial settings. METHODS: Clinicians and scientists with expertise in the use of MRI in MS convened in Toronto, Canada, in November 2016 at a North American Imaging in Multiple Sclerosis (NAIMS) Cooperative workshop meeting. The discussion was compiled into a manuscript and circulated to all NAIMS members in attendance. Edits and feedback were incorporated until all authors were in agreement. RESULTS: A wide spectrum of imaging techniques and analysis methods in the context of specific study designs were discussed, with a focus on the utility and limitations of applying each technique to assess neuroprotection and repair. Techniques were discussed under specific themes, and included conventional imaging, magnetization transfer ratio, diffusion tensor imaging, susceptibility-weighted imaging, imaging cortical lesions, magnetic resonance spectroscopy, PET, advanced diffusion imaging, sodium imaging, multimodal techniques, imaging of special regions, statistical considerations, and study design. CONCLUSIONS: Imaging biomarkers of neuroprotection and repair are an unmet need in MS. There are a number of promising techniques with different strengths and limitations, and selection of a specific technique will depend on a number of factors, notably the question the trial seeks to answer. Ongoing collaborative efforts will enable further refinement and improved methods to image the effect of novel therapeutic agents that exert benefit in MS predominately through neuroprotective and reparative mechanisms.

8.
Neurol Neuroimmunol Neuroinflamm ; 6(2): e530, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30800720

RESUMO

Objective: To classify and immunologically characterize persons with MS based on brain lesions and atrophy and their associated microRNA profiles. Methods: Cerebral T2-hyperintense lesion volume (T2LV) and brain parenchymal fraction (BPF) were quantified and used to define MRI phenotypes as follows: type I: low T2LV, low atrophy; type II: high T2LV, low atrophy; type III: low T2LV, high atrophy; type IV: high T2LV, high atrophy, in a large cross-sectional cohort (n = 1,088) and a subset with 5-year lngitudinal follow-up (n = 153). Serum miRNAs were assessed on a third MS cohort with 2-year MRI phenotype stability (n = 98). Results: One-third of the patients had lesion-atrophy dissociation (types II or III) in both the cross-sectional and longitudinal cohorts. At 5 years, all phenotypes had progressive atrophy (p < 0.001), disproportionally in type II (BPF -2.28%). Only type IV worsened in physical disability. Types I and II showed a 5-year MRI phenotype conversion rate of 33% and 46%, whereas III and IV had >90% stability. Type II switched primarily to IV (91%); type I switched primarily to II (47%) or III (37%). Baseline higher age (p = 0.006) and lower BPF (p < 0.001) predicted 5-year phenotype conversion. Each MRI phenotype demonstrated an miRNA signature whose underlying biology implicates blood-brain barrier pathology: hsa.miR.22.3p, hsa.miR.361.5p, and hsa.miR.345.5p were the most valid differentiators of MRI phenotypes. Conclusions: MRI-defined MS phenotypes show high conversion rates characterized by the continuation of either predominant neurodegeneration or inflammation and support the partial independence of these 2 measures. MicroRNA signatures of these phenotypes suggest a role for blood-brain barrier integrity.

9.
J Magn Reson Imaging ; 50(3): 878-888, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30652391

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: MRI is the imaging modality of choice for diagnosis and intervention assessment in neurological disease. Its full potential has not been realized due in part to challenges in harmonizing advanced techniques across multiple sites. PURPOSE: To develop a method for the assessment of reliability and repeatability of advanced multisite-multisession neuroimaging studies and specifically to assess the reliability of an advanced MRI protocol, including multiband fMRI and diffusion tensor MRI, in a multisite setting. STUDY TYPE: Prospective. POPULATION: Twice repeated measurement of a single subject with stable relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS) at seven institutions. FIELD STRENGTH/SEQUENCE: A 3 T MRI protocol included higher spatial resolution anatomical scans, a variable flip-angle longitudinal relaxation rate constant (R1 ≡ 1/T1 ) measurement, quantitative magnetization transfer imaging, diffusion tensor imaging, and a resting-state fMRI (rsFMRI) series. ASSESSMENT: Multiple methods of assessing intrasite repeatability and intersite reliability were evaluated for imaging metrics derived from each sequence. STATISTICAL TESTS: Student's t-test, Pearson's r, and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) (2,1) were employed to assess repeatability and reliability. Two new statistical metrics are introduced that frame reliability and repeatability in the respective units of the measurements themselves. RESULTS: Intrasite repeatability was excellent for quantitative R1 , magnetization transfer ratio (MTR), and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) based metrics (r > 0.95). rsFMRI metrics were less repeatable (r = 0.8). Intersite reliability was excellent for R1 , MTR, and DWI (ICC >0.9), and moderate for rsFMRI metrics (ICC∼0.4). DATA CONCLUSION: From most reliable to least, using a new reliability metric introduced here, MTR > R1 > DWI > rsFMRI; for repeatability, MTR > DWI > R1 > rsFMRI. A graphical method for at-a-glance assessment of reliability and repeatability, effect sizes, and outlier identification in multisite-multisession neuroimaging studies is introduced. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 1 Technical Efficacy: Stage 2 J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2019;50:878-888.

10.
Neuroimage ; 184: 901-915, 2019 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30300751

RESUMO

The spinal cord is frequently affected by atrophy and/or lesions in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. Segmentation of the spinal cord and lesions from MRI data provides measures of damage, which are key criteria for the diagnosis, prognosis, and longitudinal monitoring in MS. Automating this operation eliminates inter-rater variability and increases the efficiency of large-throughput analysis pipelines. Robust and reliable segmentation across multi-site spinal cord data is challenging because of the large variability related to acquisition parameters and image artifacts. In particular, a precise delineation of lesions is hindered by a broad heterogeneity of lesion contrast, size, location, and shape. The goal of this study was to develop a fully-automatic framework - robust to variability in both image parameters and clinical condition - for segmentation of the spinal cord and intramedullary MS lesions from conventional MRI data of MS and non-MS cases. Scans of 1042 subjects (459 healthy controls, 471 MS patients, and 112 with other spinal pathologies) were included in this multi-site study (n = 30). Data spanned three contrasts (T1-, T2-, and T2∗-weighted) for a total of 1943 vol and featured large heterogeneity in terms of resolution, orientation, coverage, and clinical conditions. The proposed cord and lesion automatic segmentation approach is based on a sequence of two Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs). To deal with the very small proportion of spinal cord and/or lesion voxels compared to the rest of the volume, a first CNN with 2D dilated convolutions detects the spinal cord centerline, followed by a second CNN with 3D convolutions that segments the spinal cord and/or lesions. CNNs were trained independently with the Dice loss. When compared against manual segmentation, our CNN-based approach showed a median Dice of 95% vs. 88% for PropSeg (p ≤ 0.05), a state-of-the-art spinal cord segmentation method. Regarding lesion segmentation on MS data, our framework provided a Dice of 60%, a relative volume difference of -15%, and a lesion-wise detection sensitivity and precision of 83% and 77%, respectively. In this study, we introduce a robust method to segment the spinal cord and intramedullary MS lesions on a variety of MRI contrasts. The proposed framework is open-source and readily available in the Spinal Cord Toolbox.


Assuntos
Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Esclerose Múltipla/diagnóstico por imagem , Esclerose Múltipla/patologia , Redes Neurais (Computação) , Medula Espinal/patologia , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Variações Dependentes do Observador , Reconhecimento Automatizado de Padrão , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
11.
Neuroimage Clin ; 20: 1211-1221, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30391859

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is crucial for in vivo detection and characterization of white matter lesions (WML) in multiple sclerosis (MS). The most widely established MRI outcome measure is the volume of hyperintense lesions on T2-weighted images (T2L). Unfortunately, T2L are non-specific for the level of tissue destruction and show a weak relationship to clinical status. Interest in lesions that appear hypointense on T1-weighted images (T1L) ("black holes") has grown because T1L provide more specificity for axonal loss and a closer link to neurologic disability. The technical difficulty of T1L segmentation has led investigators to rely on time-consuming manual assessments prone to inter- and intra-rater variability. This study aims to develop an automatic T1L segmentation approach, adapted from a T2L segmentation algorithm. MATERIALS AND METHODS: T1, T2, and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) sequences were acquired from 40 MS subjects at 3 Tesla (3 T). T2L and T1L were manually segmented. A Method for Inter-Modal Segmentation Analysis (MIMoSA) was then employed. RESULTS: Using cross-validation, MIMoSA proved to be robust for segmenting both T2L and T1L. For T2L, a Sørensen-Dice coefficient (DSC) of 0.66 and partial AUC (pAUC) up to 1% false positive rate of 0.70 were achieved. For T1L, 0.53 DSC and 0.64 pAUC were achieved. Manual and MIMoSA segmented volumes were correlated and resulted in 0.88 for T1L and 0.95 for T2L. The correlation between Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) scores and manual versus automatic volumes were similar for T1L (0.32 manual vs. 0.34 MIMoSA), T2L (0.33 vs. 0.32), and the T1L/T2L ratio (0.33 vs 0.33). CONCLUSIONS: Though originally designed to segment T2L, MIMoSA performs well for segmenting T1 black holes in patients with MS.

12.
PLoS One ; 13(11): e0206939, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30408094

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cerebral atrophy is common in multiple sclerosis (MS) and selectively involves gray matter (GM). Several fully automated methods are available to measure whole brain and regional deep GM (DGM) atrophy from MRI. OBJECTIVE: To assess the sensitivity of fully automated MRI segmentation pipelines in detecting brain atrophy in patients with relapsing-remitting (RR) MS and normal controls (NC) over five years. METHODS: Consistent 3D T1-weighted sequences were performed on a 3T GE unit in 16 mildly disabled patients with RRMS and 16 age-matched NC at baseline and five years. All patients received disease-modifying immunotherapy on-study. Images were applied to two pipelines to assess whole brain atrophy [brain parenchymal fraction (BPF) from SPM12; percentage brain volume change (PBVC) from SIENA] and two other pipelines (FSL-FIRST; FreeSurfer) to assess DGM atrophy (thalamus, caudate, globus pallidus, putamen). MRI change was compared by two sample t-tests. Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) and timed 25-foot walk (T25FW) change was compared by repeated measures proportional odds models. RESULTS: Using FreeSurfer, the MS group had a ~10-fold acceleration in on-study volume loss than NC in the caudate (mean decrease 0.51 vs. 0.05 ml, p = 0.022). In contrast, caudate atrophy was not detected by FSL-FIRST (mean decrease 0.21 vs. 0.12 ml, p = 0.53). None of the other pipelines showed any difference in volume loss between groups, for whole brain or regional DGM atrophy (all p>0.38). The MS group showed on-study stability on EDSS (p = 0.47) but slight worsening of T25FW (p = 0.054). CONCLUSIONS: In this real-world cohort of mildly disabled treated patients with RRMS, we identified ongoing atrophy of the caudate nucleus over five years, despite the lack of any significant whole brain atrophy, compared to healthy controls. The detectability of caudate atrophy was dependent on the MRI segmentation pipeline employed. These findings underscore the increased sensitivity gained when assessing DGM atrophy in monitoring MS.

13.
eNeurologicalSci ; 12: 42-46, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30229136

RESUMO

Background: Primary progressive (PP) multiple sclerosis (MS) is considered a clinically distinct entity from the spectrum of relapsing-remitting (RR) forms of the disease. Objective: To compare the presence of brain and spinal cord lesions between PP and RR subjects. Methods: We studied people with PPMS [n = 40, 17 (42.5%) men, age 50.7 ±â€¯7.7 years, disease duration 10.1 ±â€¯7.4 years, Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) score 4.6 ±â€¯2.1] and RRMS [n = 40, 12 (30%) men, age 47.9 ±â€¯4.2, disease duration 13.7 ±â€¯5.9, EDSS 1.7 ±â€¯1.3]. MRI of the brain and full spinal cord at 1.5T was analyzed to define patients having: 1. brain only, 2. spinal cord only, or 3. brain and spinal cord MS lesions. Results: Lesions in the brain only were less common in PP (n = 1, 2.5% of people) than RR (n = 10, 25%) (Fisher's exact p = 0.007). Lesions in the spinal cord only (PP: n = 6, 15%, RR: n = 3, 7.5%, p = 0.481) or brain plus spinal cord (PP: n = 33, 83%, RR: n = 27, 68%, p = 0.196) were similar between groups. PP had higher EDSS and timed 25-ft walk (Wilcoxon tests, both p < 0.001), higher age (t-test p = 0.049), lower disease duration (t-test, p = 0.02), and a similar sex ratio (Fisher's exact p = 0.352) vs. RR. Conclusions: We report a topographic difference in MRI lesion involvement between PPMS and RRMS. Lesions restricted to the brain are more common in RRMS. These findings provide support to the notion that PP may have features distinctive from the RR spectrum of the disease. Longitudinal comparisons and quantitative MRI analysis would be necessary to confirm and extend these results.

14.
Clin Nucl Med ; 43(9): e289-e295, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30004939

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: F-PBR06 and C-PBR28 are second-generation PET radioligands targeting the 18-kd translocator protein to assess microglial activation. We directly compared F-PBR06 and C-PBR28 for detecting brain translocator protein binding in multiple sclerosis (MS). METHODS: Six patients with MS (4 women; mean age ± SD, 32.1 ± 4.9 [range, 23.5-37.4 years]; Expanded Disability Status Scale score 2.3 ± 1.2 [range, 1.0-4.0]) underwent brain PET with both ligands, along with 3-T MRI. MRI was coregistered to the summed 60- to 90-minute PET images. SUV ratios (SUVRs), derived by normalization to global brain radioactivity, were obtained for whole-brain white matter (WM), supratentorial WM, normal-appearing WM (NAWM), and T2 (fluid-attenuated inversion recovery) hyperintense and T1 hypointense MS WM lesions. The highest mean SUVR for the fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery lesional slices was defined as SUVRmax. RESULTS: F-PBR06 and C-PBR28 were moderately intercorrelated for whole-brain WM SUVR (r = 0.83, P = 0.04) and supratentorial WM SUVR (r = 0.81, P = 0.05) but not for SUVRs of NAWM, T1 lesions, T2 lesions, or SUVRmax. Both tracers demonstrated that SUVR was higher in NAWM than in T1 and T2 lesions (all P < 0.05). F-PBR06 (but not C-PBR28) demonstrated a higher SUVR in T1 versus T2 lesions (0.85 ± 0.07 vs 0.78 ± 0.03, P = 0.03). F-PBR06-derived (but not C-PBR28) SUVRmax correlated with both Expanded Disability Status Scale score (r = 0.82, P = 0.04) and timed 25-ft walking speed (r = 0.89, P = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Our preliminary results suggest an association between microglial activation and physical disability in MS. Microglial detection in lesions was not interchangeable between the tracers, with a higher clinical relevance suggested for F-PBR06.


Assuntos
Esclerose Múltipla/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons/métodos , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos , Substância Branca/diagnóstico por imagem , Acetanilidas , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pirimidinas
15.
Front Neurol ; 9: 487, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29988562

RESUMO

Background: In MS patients, hypertension is associated with a delayed diagnosis and an increased risk of progression. Understanding the mechanisms of this association could potentially lead to improved prevention of disease progression. We aimed to establish whether high blood pressure contributes to white-matter injury and brain atrophy in MS. Methods: Cross-sectional study of 95 patients with RRMS. Estimates of fractional anisotropy, gray-matter volume and lesion load were obtained from 3T MRI. We used fractional anisotropy voxel-based statistics to establish the effect of blood pressure on white matter tracts. Additionally, we used voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to study the effect on gray matter integrity. Results: Only 29.5% had normal blood pressure levels, with 52.6% suffering from prehypertension and 17.9% with hypertension. Increasing systolic blood pressure was associated with damage to posterior white-matter tracts as well as greater levels of gray matter atrophy, in particular in the frontal cortex. Age-adjusted linear regression indicated that neither lesion volume (ß = 0.002, 95%CI: 0.02-0.02; p = 0.85) or lesion number (ß = -0.004, 95%CI: 0.03-0.02; p = 0.74) were associated with systolic blood pressure. Conclusions: Prehypertension and hypertension are frequent in MS. Increased blood pressure is related to white- and gray-matter integrity, both related to MS disability outcomes. These findings suggest attention to the control of blood pressure in MS patients.

16.
Brain Behav ; 8(8): e01068, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30019857

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Whole-brain atrophy is a standard outcome measure in multiple sclerosis (MS) clinical trials as assessed by various software tools. The effect of processing method on the validity of such data obtained from high-resolution 3T MRI is not known. We compared two commonly used methods of quantifying whole-brain atrophy. METHODS: Three-dimensional T1-weighted and FLAIR images were obtained at 3T in MS (n = 61) and normal control (NC, n = 30) groups. Whole-brain atrophy was assessed by two automated pipelines: (a) SPM8 to derive brain parenchymal fraction (BPF, proportional-based method); (b) SIENAX to derive normalized brain parenchymal volume (BPV, registration method). We assessed agreement between BPF and BPV, as well their relationship to Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) score, timed 25-foot walk (T25FW), cognition, and cerebral T2 (FLAIR) lesion volume (T2LV). RESULTS: Brain parenchymal fraction and BPV showed only partial agreement (r = 0.73) in the MS group, and r = 0.28 in NC. Both methods showed atrophy in MS versus NC (BPF p < 0.01, BPV p < 0.05). Within MS group comparisons, BPF (p < 0.05) but not BPV (p > 0.05) correlated with EDSS score. BPV (p = 0.03) but not BPF (p = 0.08) correlated with T25FW. Both metrics correlated with T2LV (p < 0.05) and cognitive subscales. BPF (p < 0.05) but not BPV (p > 0.05) showed lower brain volume in cognitively impaired (n = 23) versus cognitively preserved (n = 38) patients. However, direct comparisons of BPF and BPV sensitivities to atrophy and clinical correlations were not statistically significant. CONCLUSION: Whole-brain atrophy metrics may not be interchangeable between proportional- and registration-based automated pipelines from 3T MRI in patients with MS.

17.
J Neurol Sci ; 392: 94-99, 2018 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30031994

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the change in cerebral lesions and atrophy associated with pregnancy in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis often affects women of reproductive age. Disease stabilization typically occurs during pregnancy, with transient recrudescence post-partum. Previous studies showed increased MRI-defined inflammatory Gadolinium enhancing disease activity and T2 lesion load in the 6 months' post-partum. The effect of pregnancy on T1 lesion load and brain atrophy in MS is not well understood. METHODS: We retrospectively identified 16 patients with relapsing-2remitting MS (RRMS) with pre-pregnancy and post-partum 1.5 T brain MRI separated by (mean ±â€¯SD) 15.4 ±â€¯3.2 months. The time between delivery and post-partum MRI was 2.2 ±â€¯1.5 months. Baseline characteristics were age 33.0 ±â€¯4.1 years, disease duration 7.2 ±â€¯4.8 years, and Expanded Disability Status Score (EDSS) 1.0 ±â€¯1.0. T2 hyperintense (T2LV) and T1 hypointense (T1LV) lesion volumes were quantified and the number of Gd + lesions was assessed. An SPM12 pipeline estimated global atrophy using brain parenchymal fraction (BPF) and global cortical gray matter (GM) atrophy using the cortical GM fraction (cGMF). Paired t-tests assessed within subject changes. Spearman's correlation coefficients assessed MRI-clinical associations. RESULTS: Post-partum, there was an increase in both T1LV (p = .048, p = .023 with cube root transformation (CRT) and T2LV (p = .022, CRT p = .065). There were no changes in Gd + lesions, BPF, or cGMF (all p > .05). CONCLUSIONS: Pregnancy is associated with increased in T2 and T1 cerebral lesion load in MS. However, a de-coupling is apparent, with no whole brain or cortical atrophy developing despite the increase in destructive lesions and despite the expected pregnancy-related decline in brain volume. While in the short term, pregnancy may be protective against the brain volume loss expected with increased lesion load, longer duration of follow-up is needed to verify these findings.

18.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 4970, 2018 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29563571

RESUMO

The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor with important functions in the immune response and cancer. AHR agonists are provided by the environment, the commensal flora and the metabolism. Considering AHR physiological functions, AHR agonists may have important effects on health and disease. Thus, the quantification of AHR agonists in biological samples is of scientific and clinical relevance. We compared different reporter systems for the detection of AHR agonists in serum samples of Multiple Sclerosis (MS) patients, and assessed the influence of transfection methods and cell lines in a reporter-based in vitro assay. While the use of stable or transient reporters did not influence the measurement of AHR agonistic activity, the species of the cell lines used in these reporter assays had important effects on the reporter readings. These observations suggest that cell-specific factors influence AHR activation and signaling. Thus, based on the reported species selectivity of AHR ligands and the cell species-of-origin effects that we describe in this manuscript, the use of human cell lines is encouraged for the analysis of AHR agonistic activity in human samples. These findings may be relevant for the analysis of AHR agonists in human samples in the context of inflammatory and neoplastic disorders.

19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29358319

RESUMO

Since its technical development in the early 1980s, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has quickly been adopted as an essential tool in supporting the diagnosis, longitudinal monitoring, evaluation of therapeutic response, and scientific investigations in multiple sclerosis (MS). The clinical usage of MRI has increased in parallel with technical innovations in the technique itself; the widespread adoption of clinically routine MRI at 1.5T has allowed sensitive qualitative and quantitative assessments of macroscopic central nervous system (CNS) inflammatory demyelinating lesions and tissue atrophy. However, conventional MRI lesion measures lack specificity for the underlying MS pathology and only weakly correlate with clinical status. Higher field strength units and newer, advanced MRI techniques offer increased sensitivity and specificity in the detection of disease activity and disease severity. This review summarizes the current status and future prospects regarding the role of MRI in the characterization of MS-related brain and spinal cord involvement.

20.
Magn Reson Med ; 79(3): 1595-1601, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28617996

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To explore (i) the variability of upper cervical cord area (UCCA) measurements from volumetric brain 3D T1 -weighted scans related to gradient nonlinearity (GNL) and subject positioning; (ii) the effect of vendor-implemented GNL corrections; and (iii) easily applicable methods that can be used to retrospectively correct data. METHODS: A multiple sclerosis patient was scanned at seven sites using 3T MRI scanners with the same 3D T1 -weighted protocol without GNL-distortion correction. Two healthy subjects and a phantom were additionally scanned at a single site with varying table positions. The 2D and 3D vendor-implemented GNL-correction algorithms and retrospective methods based on (i) phantom data fit, (ii) normalization with C2 vertebral body diameters, and (iii) the Jacobian determinant of nonlinear registrations to a template were tested. RESULTS: Depending on the positioning of the subject, GNL introduced up to 15% variability in UCCA measurements from volumetric brain T1 -weighted scans when no distortion corrections were used. The 3D vendor-implemented correction methods and the three proposed methods reduced this variability to less than 3%. CONCLUSIONS: Our results raise awareness of the significant impact that GNL can have on quantitative UCCA studies, and point the way to prospectively and retrospectively managing GNL distortions in a variety of settings, including clinical environments. Magn Reson Med 79:1595-1601, 2018. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

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