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1.
Mol Autism ; 10: 36, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31673306

RESUMO

Background: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that affects more than 1% of children in the USA. ASD risk is thought to arise from both genetic and environmental factors, with the perinatal period as a critical window. Understanding early transcriptional changes in ASD would assist in clarifying disease pathogenesis and identifying biomarkers. However, little is known about umbilical cord blood gene expression profiles in babies later diagnosed with ASD compared to non-typically developing and non-ASD (Non-TD) or typically developing (TD) children. Methods: Genome-wide transcript levels were measured by Affymetrix Human Gene 2.0 array in RNA from cord blood samples from both the Markers of Autism Risk in Babies-Learning Early Signs (MARBLES) and the Early Autism Risk Longitudinal Investigation (EARLI) high-risk pregnancy cohorts that enroll younger siblings of a child previously diagnosed with ASD. Younger siblings were diagnosed based on assessments at 36 months, and 59 ASD, 92 Non-TD, and 120 TD subjects were included. Using both differential expression analysis and weighted gene correlation network analysis, gene expression between ASD and TD, and between Non-TD and TD, was compared within each study and via meta-analysis. Results: While cord blood gene expression differences comparing either ASD or Non-TD to TD did not reach genome-wide significance, 172 genes were nominally differentially expressed between ASD and TD cord blood (log2(fold change) > 0.1, p < 0.01). These genes were significantly enriched for functions in xenobiotic metabolism, chromatin regulation, and systemic lupus erythematosus (FDR q < 0.05). In contrast, 66 genes were nominally differentially expressed between Non-TD and TD, including 8 genes that were also differentially expressed in ASD. Gene coexpression modules were significantly correlated with demographic factors and cell type proportions. Limitations: ASD-associated gene expression differences identified in this study are subtle, as cord blood is not the main affected tissue, it is composed of many cell types, and ASD is a heterogeneous disorder. Conclusions: This is the first study to identify gene expression differences in cord blood specific to ASD through a meta-analysis across two prospective pregnancy cohorts. The enriched gene pathways support involvement of environmental, immune, and epigenetic mechanisms in ASD etiology.

2.
Epigenomics ; 11(13): 1487-1500, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31536415

RESUMO

Aim: Cigarette smoking influences DNA methylation genome wide, in newborns from pregnancy exposure and in adults from personal smoking. Whether a unique methylation signature exists for in utero exposure in newborns is unknown. Materials & methods: We separately meta-analyzed newborn blood DNA methylation (assessed using Illumina450k Beadchip), in relation to sustained maternal smoking during pregnancy (9 cohorts, 5648 newborns, 897 exposed) and adult blood methylation and personal smoking (16 cohorts, 15907 participants, 2433 current smokers). Results & conclusion: Comparing meta-analyses, we identified numerous signatures specific to newborns along with many shared between newborns and adults. Unique smoking-associated genes in newborns were enriched in xenobiotic metabolism pathways. Our findings may provide insights into specific health impacts of prenatal exposure on offspring.

3.
Circulation ; 140(8): 645-657, 2019 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31424985

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: DNA methylation is implicated in coronary heart disease (CHD), but current evidence is based on small, cross-sectional studies. We examined blood DNA methylation in relation to incident CHD across multiple prospective cohorts. METHODS: Nine population-based cohorts from the United States and Europe profiled epigenome-wide blood leukocyte DNA methylation using the Illumina Infinium 450k microarray, and prospectively ascertained CHD events including coronary insufficiency/unstable angina, recognized myocardial infarction, coronary revascularization, and coronary death. Cohorts conducted race-specific analyses adjusted for age, sex, smoking, education, body mass index, blood cell type proportions, and technical variables. We conducted fixed-effect meta-analyses across cohorts. RESULTS: Among 11 461 individuals (mean age 64 years, 67% women, 35% African American) free of CHD at baseline, 1895 developed CHD during a mean follow-up of 11.2 years. Methylation levels at 52 CpG (cytosine-phosphate-guanine) sites were associated with incident CHD or myocardial infarction (false discovery rate<0.05). These CpGs map to genes with key roles in calcium regulation (ATP2B2, CASR, GUCA1B, HPCAL1), and genes identified in genome- and epigenome-wide studies of serum calcium (CASR), serum calcium-related risk of CHD (CASR), coronary artery calcified plaque (PTPRN2), and kidney function (CDH23, HPCAL1), among others. Mendelian randomization analyses supported a causal effect of DNA methylation on incident CHD; these CpGs map to active regulatory regions proximal to long non-coding RNA transcripts. CONCLUSION: Methylation of blood-derived DNA is associated with risk of future CHD across diverse populations and may serve as an informative tool for gaining further insight on the development of CHD.

4.
Clin Epigenetics ; 11(1): 125, 2019 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31455416

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Umbilical cord blood (UCB) is commonly used in epigenome-wide association studies of prenatal exposures. Accounting for cell type composition is critical in such studies as it reduces confounding due to the cell specificity of DNA methylation (DNAm). In the absence of cell sorting information, statistical methods can be applied to deconvolve heterogeneous cell mixtures. Among these methods, reference-based approaches leverage age-appropriate cell-specific DNAm profiles to estimate cellular composition. In UCB, four reference datasets comprising DNAm signatures profiled in purified cell populations have been published using the Illumina 450 K and EPIC arrays. These datasets are biologically and technically different, and currently, there is no consensus on how to best apply them. Here, we systematically evaluate and compare these datasets and provide recommendations for reference-based UCB deconvolution. RESULTS: We first evaluated the four reference datasets to ascertain both the purity of the samples and the potential cell cross-contamination. We filtered samples and combined datasets to obtain a joint UCB reference. We selected deconvolution libraries using two different approaches: automatic selection using the top differentially methylated probes from the function pickCompProbes in minfi and a standardized library selected using the IDOL (Identifying Optimal Libraries) iterative algorithm. We compared the performance of each reference separately and in combination, using the two approaches for reference library selection, and validated the results in an independent cohort (Generation R Study, n = 191) with matched Fluorescence-Activated Cell Sorting measured cell counts. Strict filtering and combination of the references significantly improved the accuracy and efficiency of cell type estimates. Ultimately, the IDOL library outperformed the library from the automatic selection method implemented in pickCompProbes. CONCLUSION: These results have important implications for epigenetic studies in UCB as implementing this method will optimally reduce confounding due to cellular heterogeneity. This work provides guidelines for future reference-based UCB deconvolution and establishes a framework for combining reference datasets in other tissues.

5.
Environ Health Perspect ; 127(5): 57012, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31148503

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prenatal exposure to air pollution has been associated with childhood respiratory disease and other adverse outcomes. Epigenetics is a suggested link between exposures and health outcomes. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to investigate associations between prenatal exposure to particulate matter (PM) with diameter [Formula: see text] ([Formula: see text]) or [Formula: see text] ([Formula: see text]) and DNA methylation in newborns and children. METHODS: We meta-analyzed associations between exposure to [Formula: see text] ([Formula: see text]) and [Formula: see text] ([Formula: see text]) at maternal home addresses during pregnancy and newborn DNA methylation assessed by Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation450K BeadChip in nine European and American studies, with replication in 688 independent newborns and look-up analyses in 2,118 older children. We used two approaches, one focusing on single cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) sites and another on differentially methylated regions (DMRs). We also related PM exposures to blood mRNA expression. RESULTS: Six CpGs were significantly associated [false discovery rate (FDR) [Formula: see text]] with prenatal [Formula: see text] and 14 with [Formula: see text] exposure. Two of the [Formula: see text] CpGs mapped to FAM13A (cg00905156) and NOTCH4 (cg06849931) previously associated with lung function and asthma. Although these associations did not replicate in the smaller newborn sample, both CpGs were significant ([Formula: see text]) in 7- to 9-y-olds. For cg06849931, however, the direction of the association was inconsistent. Concurrent [Formula: see text] exposure was associated with a significantly higher NOTCH4 expression at age 16 y. We also identified several DMRs associated with either prenatal [Formula: see text] and or [Formula: see text] exposure, of which two [Formula: see text] DMRs, including H19 and MARCH11, replicated in newborns. CONCLUSIONS: Several differentially methylated CpGs and DMRs associated with prenatal PM exposure were identified in newborns, with annotation to genes previously implicated in lung-related outcomes. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP4522.

6.
Genes (Basel) ; 10(4)2019 04 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30987383

RESUMO

: Lead (Pb) exposure is associated with a wide range of neurological deficits. Environmental exposures may impact epigenetic changes, such as DNA methylation, and can affect neurodevelopmental outcomes over the life-course. Mating mice were obtained from a genetically invariant C57BL/6J background agouti viable yellow Avy strain. Virgin dams (a/a) were randomly assigned 0 ppm (control), 2.1 ppm (low), or 32 ppm (high) Pb-acetate water two weeks prior to mating with male mice (Avy/a), and this continued through weaning. At age 10 months, cortex neuronal nuclei were separated with NeuN⁺ antibodies in male mice to investigate neuron-specific genome-wide promoter DNA methylation using the Roche NimbleGen Mouse 3x720K CpG Island Promoter Array in nine pooled samples (three per dose). Several probes reached p-value < 10-5 , all of which were hypomethylated: 12 for high Pb (minimum false discovery rate (FDR) = 0.16, largest intensity ratio difference = -2.1) and 7 for low Pb (minimum FDR = 0.56, largest intensity ratio difference = -2.2). Consistent with previous results in bulk tissue, we observed a weak association between early-life exposure to Pb and DNA hypomethylation, with some affected genes related to neurodevelopment or cognitive function. Although these analyses were limited to males, data indicate that non-dividing cells such as neurons can be carriers of long-term epigenetic changes induced in development.

7.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 1893, 2019 04 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31015461

RESUMO

Birthweight is associated with health outcomes across the life course, DNA methylation may be an underlying mechanism. In this meta-analysis of epigenome-wide association studies of 8,825 neonates from 24 birth cohorts in the Pregnancy And Childhood Epigenetics Consortium, we find that DNA methylation in neonatal blood is associated with birthweight at 914 sites, with a difference in birthweight ranging from -183 to 178 grams per 10% increase in methylation (PBonferroni < 1.06 x 10-7). In additional analyses in 7,278 participants, <1.3% of birthweight-associated differential methylation is also observed in childhood and adolescence, but not adulthood. Birthweight-related CpGs overlap with some Bonferroni-significant CpGs that were previously reported to be related to maternal smoking (55/914, p = 6.12 x 10-74) and BMI in pregnancy (3/914, p = 1.13x10-3), but not with those related to folate levels in pregnancy. Whether the associations that we observe are causal or explained by confounding or fetal growth influencing DNA methylation (i.e. reverse causality) requires further research.


Assuntos
Peso ao Nascer/genética , DNA/metabolismo , Epigênese Genética , Genoma Humano , Adolescente , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Ilhas de CpG , DNA/genética , Metilação de DNA , Feminino , Desenvolvimento Fetal/genética , Feto , Ácido Fólico/sangue , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/sangue , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/etiologia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/genética , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/fisiopatologia , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Fumar/sangue , Fumar/genética
8.
Sci Total Environ ; 650(Pt 1): 1131-1140, 2019 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30308801

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Maternal immune system regulation is critical for maintenance of a healthy pregnancy and fetal development. Exposure to phenols and parabens is widespread, and may be linked to systemic inflammation and alteration of circulating immunological biomarkers. OBJECTIVE: We sought to characterize associations between repeated measures of individual urinary phenols, parabens and plasma inflammatory markers across pregnancy. METHODS: In the LIFECODES prospective birth cohort, we conducted a nested preterm birth case-control study, including 130 cases and 352 controls. In urine samples collected from each participant at up to four study visits during pregnancy, we measured concentrations of six phenols and four parabens, as well as five plasma inflammatory markers. We used multivariable linear mixed models to analyze repeated measures of exposures on inflammatory markers. We created and applied inverse probability weights to account for the sampling approach. RESULTS: We observed bidirectional associations between select phenols and parabens and inflammatory markers. An interquartile range increase in triclosan (55.2 ng/mL) was associated with a 12.5% (95% CI: 3.67, 22.0) increase in C-reactive protein, a 7.95% (95% CI: 1.95, 14.3) increase in interleukin 10, and a 7.93% (95% CI: 3.82, 12,2) increase in tumor necrosis factor-α. Additionally, an interquartile range increase in 2,5-dichlorophenol (11.0 ng/mL) was associated with a 10% increase in C-reactive protein (95% CI: 1.92, 18.7). Conversely, an interquartile range increase in ethyl paraben (10.4 ng/mL) was associated with a 7.7% decrease in interleukin­1ß (95% CI: -14.1, -0.86). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings can be organized into two thematic frameworks, one where concentrations of urinary phenols and parabens during pregnancy reflected a pro-inflammatory relationship with immunological biomarkers, and the other contrary theme - an anti-inflammatory relationship. These findings have implications for fetal development and reproductive outcomes, and emphasize the need for further research on immunological mechanisms of phenol and paraben action during pregnancy.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluentes Ambientais/urina , Exposição Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Parabenos/metabolismo , Fenóis/urina , Biomarcadores/sangue , Biomarcadores/urina , Poluentes Ambientais/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fenóis/sangue , Gravidez
9.
Environ Health Perspect ; 126(8): 087002, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30102601

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Oxidative stress may play an important role in the etiology of primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). The association between risk of POAG and lead exposure, which is an environmental source of oxidative stress, has not been fully investigated yet. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to determine the association between bone lead­a biomarker of cumulative lead dose (tibia lead) or an endogenous source of stored lead (patella lead)­and incident POAG. METHODS: We examined a prospective cohort of 634 POAG-free men [mean baseline age=66.8 y of age (SD=6.7)] from the Normative Aging Study (NAS) who had tibia and patella K X-ray fluorescence lead measurements between 1 January 1991 and 31 December 1999. They also had standard ocular evaluations by NAS optometrists until 31 December 2014. POAG cases were identified by consistent reports of enlarged or asymmetric cup-to-disc ratio together with visual field defect or existence of disc hemorrhage. We used Cox proportional hazards regressions to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) of incident POAG and adjusted survival curves to examine changes in the risk of POAG during follow-up according to bone lead quartiles. RESULTS: We identified 44 incident cases of POAG by the end of follow-up (incidence rate=74 per 10,000 person-years; median follow-up=10.6 y). In fully adjusted models, 10-fold increases in patella lead and tibia lead were associated with HRs of 5.06 (95% CI: 1.61, 15.88, p=0.005) and 3.07 (95% CI: 0.94, 10.0, p=0.06), respectively. The HRs comparing participants in the third and fourth quartiles with the lowest quartile were 3.41 (95% CI: 1.34, 8.66) and 3.24 (95% CI: 1.22, 8.62) for patella lead (p-for-trend=0.01), and 3.84 (95% CI: 1.54, 9.55) and 2.61 (95% CI: 0.95, 7.21) for tibia lead (p-for-trend=0.02). CONCLUSIONS: Our study provides longitudinal evidence that bone lead may be an important risk factor for POAG in the U.S. population. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP3442.

10.
Epigenetics ; 13(1): 108-116, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29451060

RESUMO

Cord blood DNA methylation is associated with numerous health outcomes and environmental exposures. Whole cord blood DNA reflects all nucleated blood cell types, while centrifuging whole blood separates red blood cells, generating a white blood cell buffy coat. Both sample types are used in DNA methylation studies. Cell types have unique methylation patterns and processing can impact cell distributions, which may influence comparability. We evaluated differences in cell composition and DNA methylation between cord blood buffy coat and whole cord blood samples. Cord blood DNA methylation was measured with the Infinium EPIC BeadChip (Illumina) in eight individuals, each contributing buffy coat and whole blood samples. We analyzed principal components (PC) of methylation, performed hierarchical clustering, and computed correlations of mean-centered methylation between pairs. We conducted moderated t-tests on single sites and estimated cell composition. DNA methylation PCs were associated with individual (PPC1 = 1.4 × 10-9; PPC2 = 2.9 × 10-5; PPC3 = 3.8 × 10-5; PPC4 = 4.2 × 10-6; PPC5 = 9.9 × 10-13, PPC6 = 1.3 × 10-11) and not with sample type (PPC1-6>0.7). Samples hierarchically clustered by individual. Pearson correlations of mean-centered methylation between paired samples ranged from r = 0.66 to r = 0.87. No individual site significantly differed between buffy coat and whole cord blood when adjusting for multiple comparisons (five sites had unadjusted P<10-5). Estimated cell type proportions did not differ by sample type (P = 0.46), and estimated proportions were highly correlated between paired samples (r = 0.99). Differences in methylation and cell composition between buffy coat and whole cord blood are much lower than inter-individual variation, demonstrating that both sample preparation types can be analytically combined and compared.

12.
Nat Commun ; 8(1): 1011, 2017 10 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29066808

RESUMO

Integration of emerging epigenetic information with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) genetic results may elucidate functional insights not possible via either type of information in isolation. Here we use the genotype and DNA methylation (DNAm) data from cord blood and peripheral blood to identify SNPs associated with DNA methylation (meQTL lists). Additionally, we use publicly available fetal brain and lung meQTL lists to assess enrichment of ASD GWAS results for tissue-specific meQTLs. ASD-associated SNPs are enriched for fetal brain (OR = 3.55; P < 0.001) and peripheral blood meQTLs (OR = 1.58; P < 0.001). The CpG targets of ASD meQTLs across cord, blood, and brain tissues are enriched for immune-related pathways, consistent with other expression and DNAm results in ASD, and reveal pathways not implicated by genetic findings. This joint analysis of genotype and DNAm demonstrates the potential of both brain and blood-based DNAm for insights into ASD and psychiatric phenotypes more broadly.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/genética , Ilhas de CpG/genética , Metilação de DNA/genética , Epigênese Genética , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/sangue , Encéfalo/embriologia , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Pré-Escolar , Epigenômica/métodos , Sangue Fetal/metabolismo , Seguimentos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Pulmão/embriologia , Pulmão/metabolismo , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Cordão Umbilical/metabolismo
13.
Hum Mol Genet ; 26(20): 4067-4085, 2017 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29016858

RESUMO

Pre-pregnancy maternal obesity is associated with adverse offspring outcomes at birth and later in life. Individual studies have shown that epigenetic modifications such as DNA methylation could contribute. Within the Pregnancy and Childhood Epigenetics (PACE) Consortium, we meta-analysed the association between pre-pregnancy maternal BMI and methylation at over 450,000 sites in newborn blood DNA, across 19 cohorts (9,340 mother-newborn pairs). We attempted to infer causality by comparing the effects of maternal versus paternal BMI and incorporating genetic variation. In four additional cohorts (1,817 mother-child pairs), we meta-analysed the association between maternal BMI at the start of pregnancy and blood methylation in adolescents. In newborns, maternal BMI was associated with small (<0.2% per BMI unit (1 kg/m2), P < 1.06 × 10-7) methylation variation at 9,044 sites throughout the genome. Adjustment for estimated cell proportions greatly attenuated the number of significant CpGs to 104, including 86 sites common to the unadjusted model. At 72/86 sites, the direction of the association was the same in newborns and adolescents, suggesting persistence of signals. However, we found evidence for acausal intrauterine effect of maternal BMI on newborn methylation at just 8/86 sites. In conclusion, this well-powered analysis identified robust associations between maternal adiposity and variations in newborn blood DNA methylation, but these small effects may be better explained by genetic or lifestyle factors than a causal intrauterine mechanism. This highlights the need for large-scale collaborative approaches and the application of causal inference techniques in epigenetic epidemiology.


Assuntos
Herança Materna/genética , Obesidade/complicações , Resultado da Gravidez/genética , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Coortes , Metilação de DNA/genética , Epigênese Genética/genética , Epigenômica/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Herança Materna/fisiologia , Mães , Gravidez/fisiologia , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/genética , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/metabolismo
14.
Environ Res ; 157: 44-51, 2017 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28511080

RESUMO

Cadmium has been linked to impaired cognitive function in adults and may cause behavioral, physiological and molecular abnormalities characteristic of Alzheimer's disease (AD) in animals. Evidence linking cadmium and AD in humans is limited, but supportive. In the most recent epidemiologic study, blood cadmium in U.S. adults was positively associated with elevated AD mortality 7-13 years later. The association between urinary cadmium - an arguably more appropriate biomarker for studying chronic diseases - and AD mortality has not yet been explored. Further study of cadmium and AD mortality in an independent population, with longer follow-up, and stratified by sex is also needed. We sought to answer these questions using the U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) (1999-2006 cycles) and NHANES III (interviews in 1988-1994) datasets, separately linked to AD mortality as of 2011. We used survey-weighted Cox regression models predicting age at AD death and adjusted for race/ethnicity, sex, smoking status, education and urinary creatinine. An interquartile range (IQR; IQR=0.51ng/mL) increase in urinary cadmium was associated with 58% higher rate of AD mortality (hazard ratio (HR)=1.58, 95% CI: 1.20, 2.09. p-value=0.0009, mean follow-up: 7.5 years) in NHANES 1999-2006 participants. In contrast, in NHANES III participants, an IQR (IQR=0.78ng/mL) increase in urinary cadmium was not associated with AD mortality (HR=0.85, 95% CI: 0.63, 1.17, p-value=0.31, mean follow-up: 13 years). Also in the NHANES III sample however, when the maximum follow-up time was restricted to 12.7 years (i.e. the same as NHANES 1999-2006 participants) and urinary creatinine adjustments were not made, urinary cadmium was associated with elevated AD mortality (HR=1.11, 95% CI: 1.02, 1.20, p-value=0.0086). Our study partially supported an association between cadmium and AD mortality, but the sensitivity of results to follow-up time and creatinine adjustments necessitate cautious interpretation of the association. Further studies, particularly those on toxicological mechanisms, are required to fully understand the nature of the "cadmium-AD mortality" association.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/mortalidade , Cádmio/toxicidade , Exposição Ambiental , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doença de Alzheimer/induzido quimicamente , Biomarcadores/urina , Cádmio/sangue , Cádmio/urina , Creatinina/urina , Poluentes Ambientais/sangue , Poluentes Ambientais/urina , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Teóricos , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Fatores de Tempo , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
15.
Environ Res ; 152: 102-108, 2017 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27770710

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lead (Pb) exposure has been associated with poorer cognitive function cross-sectionally in aging adults, however the association between cumulative Pb exposure and longitudinal changes in cognition is little characterized. METHODS: In a 1993-2007 subcohort of the VA Normative Aging Study (Mini-mental status exam (MMSE) n=741; global cognition summary score n=715), we used linear mixed effects models to test associations between cumulative Pb exposure (patella or tibia bone Pb) and repeated measures of cognition (MMSE, individual cognitive tests, and global cognition summary). Cox proportional hazard modeling assessed the risk of an MMSE score falling below 25. RESULTS: Among men 51-98 at baseline, higher patella Pb concentration (IQR: 21µg/g) was associated with -0.13 lower baseline MMSE (95% CI: -0.25, -0.004) and faster longitudinal MMSE decline (-0.016 units/year, 95% CI: -0.032, -0.0004) over 15 years. Each IQR increase in patella Pb was associated with increased risk of a MMSE score below 25 (HR=1.21, 95% CI: 0.99, 1.49; p=0.07). There were no significant associations between Pb and global cognition (both baseline and longitudinal change). Patella Pb was associated with faster longitudinal decline in Word List Total Recall in the language domain (0.014 units/year, 95% CI: -0.026, -0.001) and Word List Delayed Recall in the memory domain (0.014 units/year, 95% CI: -0.027, -0.002). We found weaker associations with tibia Pb. CONCLUSIONS: Cumulative Pb exposure is associated with faster declines in MMSE and Word List Total and Delayed Recall tests. These findings support the hypothesis that Pb exposure accelerates cognitive aging.


Assuntos
Transtornos Cognitivos/epidemiologia , Cognição/efeitos dos fármacos , Exposição Ambiental , Poluentes Ambientais/metabolismo , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Chumbo/metabolismo , Chumbo/toxicidade , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Envelhecimento , Transtornos Cognitivos/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Massachusetts/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Patela/química , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Tíbia/química , Adulto Jovem
16.
Genome Biol ; 17(1): 255, 2016 12 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27955697

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic low-grade inflammation reflects a subclinical immune response implicated in the pathogenesis of complex diseases. Identifying genetic loci where DNA methylation is associated with chronic low-grade inflammation may reveal novel pathways or therapeutic targets for inflammation. RESULTS: We performed a meta-analysis of epigenome-wide association studies (EWAS) of serum C-reactive protein (CRP), which is a sensitive marker of low-grade inflammation, in a large European population (n = 8863) and trans-ethnic replication in African Americans (n = 4111). We found differential methylation at 218 CpG sites to be associated with CRP (P < 1.15 × 10-7) in the discovery panel of European ancestry and replicated (P < 2.29 × 10-4) 58 CpG sites (45 unique loci) among African Americans. To further characterize the molecular and clinical relevance of the findings, we examined the association with gene expression, genetic sequence variants, and clinical outcomes. DNA methylation at nine (16%) CpG sites was associated with whole blood gene expression in cis (P < 8.47 × 10-5), ten (17%) CpG sites were associated with a nearby genetic variant (P < 2.50 × 10-3), and 51 (88%) were also associated with at least one related cardiometabolic entity (P < 9.58 × 10-5). An additive weighted score of replicated CpG sites accounted for up to 6% inter-individual variation (R2) of age-adjusted and sex-adjusted CRP, independent of known CRP-related genetic variants. CONCLUSION: We have completed an EWAS of chronic low-grade inflammation and identified many novel genetic loci underlying inflammation that may serve as targets for the development of novel therapeutic interventions for inflammation.


Assuntos
Proteína C-Reativa/genética , Epigênese Genética , Inflamação/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Afro-Americanos , Ilhas de CpG/genética , Metilação de DNA/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Variação Genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Inflamação/sangue , Masculino , Motivos de Nucleotídeos/genética
17.
Epigenetics ; 11(11): 773-779, 2016 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27668573

RESUMO

Cord blood is widely used as surrogate tissue in epigenome-wide association studies of prenatal conditions. Cell type composition variation across samples can be an important confounder of epigenome-wide association studies in blood that constitute a mixture of cells. We evaluated a newly developed cord blood reference panel to impute cell type composition from DNA methylation levels, including nucleated red blood cells (nRBCs). We estimated cell type composition from 154 unique cord blood samples with available DNA methylation data as well as direct measurements of nucleated cell types. We observed high correlations between the estimated and measured composition for nRBCs (r = 0.92, R2 = 0.85), lymphocytes (r = 0.77, R2 = 0.58), and granulocytes (r = 0.72, R2 = 0.52), and a moderate correlation for monocytes (r = 0.51, R2 = 0.25) as well as relatively low root mean square errors from the residuals ranging from 1.4 to 5.4%. These results validate the use of the cord blood reference panel and highlight its utility and limitations for epidemiological studies.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA/genética , Epigenômica , Eritroblastos/metabolismo , Sangue Fetal/metabolismo , Adulto , Ilhas de CpG/genética , Feminino , Genoma Humano , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Granulócitos/metabolismo , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Contagem de Leucócitos , Monócitos/metabolismo
18.
Am J Hum Genet ; 98(4): 680-96, 2016 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27040690

RESUMO

Epigenetic modifications, including DNA methylation, represent a potential mechanism for environmental impacts on human disease. Maternal smoking in pregnancy remains an important public health problem that impacts child health in a myriad of ways and has potential lifelong consequences. The mechanisms are largely unknown, but epigenetics most likely plays a role. We formed the Pregnancy And Childhood Epigenetics (PACE) consortium and meta-analyzed, across 13 cohorts (n = 6,685), the association between maternal smoking in pregnancy and newborn blood DNA methylation at over 450,000 CpG sites (CpGs) by using the Illumina 450K BeadChip. Over 6,000 CpGs were differentially methylated in relation to maternal smoking at genome-wide statistical significance (false discovery rate, 5%), including 2,965 CpGs corresponding to 2,017 genes not previously related to smoking and methylation in either newborns or adults. Several genes are relevant to diseases that can be caused by maternal smoking (e.g., orofacial clefts and asthma) or adult smoking (e.g., certain cancers). A number of differentially methylated CpGs were associated with gene expression. We observed enrichment in pathways and processes critical to development. In older children (5 cohorts, n = 3,187), 100% of CpGs gave at least nominal levels of significance, far more than expected by chance (p value < 2.2 × 10(-16)). Results were robust to different normalization methods used across studies and cell type adjustment. In this large scale meta-analysis of methylation data, we identified numerous loci involved in response to maternal smoking in pregnancy with persistence into later childhood and provide insights into mechanisms underlying effects of this important exposure.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , Epigênese Genética , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Asma/etiologia , Asma/genética , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Fenda Labial/etiologia , Fenda Labial/genética , Fissura Palatina/etiologia , Fissura Palatina/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez
19.
Epigenetics ; 11(5): 354-62, 2016 05 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27019159

RESUMO

Epigenome-wide association studies of disease widely use DNA methylation measured in blood as a surrogate tissue. Cell proportions can vary between people and confound associations of exposure or outcome. An adequate reference panel for estimating cell proportions from adult whole blood for DNA methylation studies is available, but an analogous cord blood cell reference panel is not yet available. Cord blood has unique cell types and the epigenetic signatures of standard cell types may not be consistent throughout the life course. Using magnetic bead sorting, we isolated cord blood cell types (nucleated red blood cells, granulocytes, monocytes, natural killer cells, B cells, CD4(+)T cells, and CD8(+)T cells) from 17 live births at Johns Hopkins Hospital. We confirmed enrichment of the cell types using fluorescence assisted cell sorting and ran DNA from the separated cell types on the Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip array. After filtering, the final analysis was on 104 samples at 429,794 probes. We compared cell type specific signatures in cord to each other and methylation at 49.2% of CpG sites on the array differed by cell type (F-test P < 10(-8)). Differences between nucleated red blood cells and the remainder of the cell types were most pronounced (36.9% of CpG sites at P < 10(-8)) and 99.5% of these sites were hypomethylated relative to the other cell types. We also compared the mean-centered sorted cord profiles to the available adult reference panel and observed high correlation between the overlapping cell types for granulocytes and monocytes (both r=0.74), and poor correlation for CD8(+)T cells and NK cells (both r=0.08). We further provide an algorithm for estimating cell proportions in cord blood using the newly developed cord reference panel, which estimates biologically plausible cell proportions in whole cord blood samples.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA/genética , Epigenômica , Sangue Fetal/metabolismo , Genoma Humano , Linfócitos B/metabolismo , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/metabolismo , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/metabolismo , Ilhas de CpG/genética , Eritroblastos/metabolismo , Feminino , Sangue Fetal/citologia , Granulócitos/metabolismo , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Células Matadoras Naturais/metabolismo , Nascimento Vivo/genética , Masculino , Monócitos/metabolismo
20.
Curr Behav Neurosci Rep ; 3(3): 264-274, 2016 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28093577

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Evidence has linked neuropsychiatric disorders with epigenetic marks as either a biomarker of disease, biomarker of exposure, or mechanism of disease processes. Neuropsychiatric epidemiologic studies using either target brain tissue or surrogate blood tissue each have methodological challenges and distinct advantages. RECENT FINDINGS: Brain tissue studies are challenged by small sample sizes of cases and controls, incomplete phenotyping, post-mortem timing, and cellular heterogeneity, but the use of a primary disease relevant tissue is critical. Blood-based studies have access to much larger sample sizes and more replication opportunities, as well as the potential for longitudinal measurements, both prior to onset and during the course of treatments. Yet, blood studies also are challenged by cell-type heterogeneity, and many question the validity of using peripheral tissues as a brain biomarker. Emerging evidence suggests that these limitations to blood-based epigenetic studies are surmountable, but confirmation in target tissue remains important. SUMMARY: Epigenetic mechanisms have the potential to help elucidate biology connecting experiential risk factors with neuropsychiatric disease manifestation. Cross-tissue studies as well as advanced epidemiologic methods should be employed to more effectively conduct neuropsychiatric epigenetic research.

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