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1.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 10(1): 26, 2021 Mar 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33685487

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Social innovation has been applied increasingly to achieve social goals, including improved healthcare delivery, despite a lack of conceptual clarity and consensus on its definition. Beyond its tangible artefacts to address societal and structural needs, social innovation can best be understood as innovation in social relations, in power dynamics and in governance transformations, and may include institutional and systems transformations. METHODS: A scoping review was conducted of empirical studies published in the past 10 years, to identify how social innovation in healthcare has been applied, the enablers and barriers affecting its operation, and gaps in the current literature. A number of disciplinary databases were searched between April and June 2020, including Academic Source Complete, CIHAHL, Business Source Complete Psych INFO, PubMed and Global Health. A 10-year publication time frame was selected and articles limited to English text. Studies for final inclusion was based on a pre-defined criteria. RESULTS: Of the 27 studies included in this review, the majority adopted a case research methodology. Half of these were from authors outside the health sector working in high-income countries (HIC). Social innovation was seen to provide creative solutions to address barriers associated with access and cost of care in both low- and middle-income countries and HIC settings in a variety of disease focus areas. Compared to studies in other disciplines, health researchers applied social innovation mainly from an instrumental and technocratic standpoint to foster greater patient and beneficiary participation in health programmes. No empirical evidence was presented on whether this process leads to empowerment, and social innovation was not presented as transformative. The studies provided practical insights on how implementing social innovation in health systems and practice can be enhanced. CONCLUSIONS: Based on theoretical literature, social innovation has the potential to mobilise institutional and systems change, yet research in health has not yet fully explored this dimension. Thus far, social innovation has been applied to extend population and financial coverage, principles inherent in universal health coverage and central to SDG 3.8. However, limitations exist in conceptualising social innovation and applying its theoretical and multidisciplinary underpinnings in health research.

2.
BMJ Glob Health ; 5(12)2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33272939

RESUMO

In 2008, Vian reported an increasing interest in understanding how corruption affects healthcare outcomes and asked what could be done to combat corruption in the health sector. Eleven years later, corruption is seen as a heterogeneous mix of activity, extensive and expensive in terms of loss of productivity, increasing inequity and costs, but with few examples of programmes that have successfully tackled corruption in low-income or middle-income countries. The commitment, by multilateral organisations and many governments to the Sustainable Development Goals and Universal Health Coverage has renewed an interest to find ways to tackle corruption within health systems. These efforts must, however, begin with a critical assessment of the existing theoretical models and approaches that have underpinned action in the health sector in the past and an assessment of the potential of innovations from anticorruption work developed in sectors other than health. To that end, this paper maps the key debates and theoretical frameworks that have dominated research on corruption in health. It examines their limitations, the blind spots that they create in terms of the questions asked, and the capacity for research to take account of contextual factors that drive practice. It draws on new work from heterodox economics which seeks to target anticorruption interventions at practices that have high impact and which are politically and economically feasible to address. We consider how such approaches can be adopted into health systems and what new questions need to be addressed by researchers to support the development of sustainable solutions to corruption. We present a short case study from Bangladesh to show how such an approach reveals new perspectives on actors and drivers of corruption practice. We conclude by considering the most important areas for research and policy.

3.
Soc Sci Med ; : 113421, 2020 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33190927

RESUMO

Well-functioning governance arrangements are an essential, but often overlooked or poorly understood contributor to high quality health systems. Yet governance systems are embedded in institutional structures and shaped by cultural norms that can be difficult to change. We look at a country that has implemented two major health system reforms separated by half a century during which it has undergone remarkable political, economic, and social change. These are the Chinese Patriotic Health Campaign (PHC), beginning in the 1950s, and the New Cooperative Medical Scheme (NCMS), in the 2000s. We use these as case studies to explore how governance arrangements supported the design and implementation of policies implemented on a large scale in these quite different contexts. Drawing on review of archival documents, published literature, and semi-structured interviews with key policy makers, we conclude that few aspects of governance underwent fundamental changes. In both periods, the policy design stage included encouragement of sub-national tiers of government to pilot policy options, accumulate evidence, and disseminate it to others facing similar challenges, all facilitated by clear lines of accountability and a willingness by those at the top of the hierarchy to learn lessons from lower levels. At the implementation stage, rapid scaling up benefitted from leadership by national institutions that could enact regulations and set policy goals and targets for lower tiers of government, evaluating the performance of local government officers in terms of their ability to implement policy, while encouraging local government to pilot innovative measures. These findings highlight the importance of a detailed understanding of governance and how it is shaped by context, demonstrating continuity over long periods even at times of major social, political, and economic change. This understanding can inform future policy development in China and measures to strengthen governance aspects of reforms elsewhere.

4.
Health Policy Plan ; 35(Supplement_1): i76-i96, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33165587

RESUMO

Governance failures undermine efforts to achieve universal health coverage and improve health in low- and middle-income countries by decreasing efficiency and equity. Punitive measures to improve governance are largely ineffective. Social accountability strategies are perceived to enhance transparency and accountability through bottom-up approaches, but their effectiveness has not been explored comprehensively in the health systems of low- and middle-income countries in south and Southeast Asia where these strategies have been promoted. We conducted a narrative literature review to explore innovative social accountability approaches in Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Indonesia, the Maldives, Myanmar and Nepal spanning the period 2007-August 2017, searching PubMed, Scopus and Google Scholar. To augment this, we also performed additional PubMed and Google Scholar searches (September 2017-December 2019) to identify recent papers, resulting in 38 documents (24 peer-reviewed articles and 14 grey sources), which we reviewed. Findings were analysed using framework analysis and categorized into three major themes: transparency/governance (eight), accountability (11) and community participation (five) papers. The majority of the reviewed approaches were implemented in Bangladesh, India and Nepal. The interventions differed on context (geographical to social), range (boarder reform to specific approaches), actors (public to private) and levels (community-specific to system level). The initiatives were associated with a variety of positive outcomes (e.g. improved monitoring, resource mobilization, service provision plus as a bridge between the engaged community and the health system), yet the evidence is inconclusive as to the extent that these influence health outcomes and access to health care. The review shows that there is no common blueprint which makes accountability mechanisms viable and effective; the effectiveness of these initiatives depended largely on context, capacity, information, spectrum of actor involvement, independence from power agendas and leadership. Major challenges that undermined effective implementation include lack of capacity, poor commitment and design and insufficient community participation.

5.
BMJ Glob Health ; 5(11)2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33158851

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Policy is shaped and influenced by a diverse set of stakeholders at the global, national and local levels. While stakeholder analysis is a recognised practical tool to assess the positions and engagement of actors relevant to policy, few empirical studies provide details of how complex concepts such as power, interest and position are operationalised and assessed in these types of analyses. This study aims to address this gap by reviewing conceptual approaches underlying stakeholder analyses and by developing a framework that can be applied to policy implementation in low-and-middle income countries. METHODS: The framework was developed through a three-step process: a scoping review, peer review by health policy experts and the conduct of an analysis using key informant interviews and a consensus building exercise. Four characteristics were selected for inclusion: levels of knowledge, interest, power and position of stakeholders related to the policy. RESULT: The framework development process highlighted the need to revisit how we assess the power of actors, a key issue in stakeholder analyses, and differentiate an actor's potential power, based on resources, and whether they exercise it, based on the actions they take for or against a policy. Exploration of the intersections between characteristics of actors and their level of knowledge can determine interest, which in turn can affect stakeholder position on a policy, showing the importance of analysing these characteristics together. Both top-down and bottom-up approaches in implementation must also be incorporated in the analysis of policy actors, as there are differences in the type of knowledge, interest and sources of power among national, local and frontline stakeholders. CONCLUSION: The developed framework contributes to health policy research by offering a practical tool for analysing the characteristics of policy actors and tackling the intricacies of assessing complex concepts embedded in the conduct of stakeholder analyses.

6.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 9(1): 138, 2020 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33028407

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Crowdsourcing is a distributed problem-solving and production mechanism that leverages the collective intelligence of non-expert individuals and networked communities for specific goals. Social innovation (SI) initiatives aim to address health challenges in a sustainable manner, with a potential to strengthen health systems. They are developed by actors from different backgrounds and disciplines. This paper describes the application of crowdsourcing as a research method to explore SI initiatives in health. METHODS: The study explored crowdsourcing as a method to identify SI initiatives implemented in Africa, Asia and Latin America. While crowdsourcing has been used in high-income country settings, there is limited knowledge on its use, benefits and challenges in low- and middle-income country (LMIC) settings. From 2014 to 2018, six crowdsourcing contests were conducted at global, regional and national levels. RESULTS: A total of 305 eligible projects were identified; of these 38 SI initiatives in health were identified. We describe the process used to perform a crowdsourcing contest for SI, the outcome of the contests, and the challenges and opportunities when using this mechanism in LMICs. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrate that crowdsourcing is a participatory method, that is able to identify bottom-up or grassroots SI initiatives developed by non-traditional actors.

7.
BMJ Glob Health ; 5(9)2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32928800

RESUMO

The treatment of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is managed inadequately globally. Theoretically informed frameworks have the potential to account for the multiple elements which constitute the CVD patient pathway, and capture their inter-relationships and processes of change. However, a review and critique of such frameworks is currently lacking. This systematic review aims to identify and critically assess frameworks of access to and utilisation of care which capture the pathways of patients diagnosed with one or more CVDs. The specific objectives are to (1) review how existing frameworks have been used and adapted to capture CVD patient pathways and (2) draw on elements of Strong Structuration Theory to critically appraise them, in terms of their ability to capture the dynamics of the patient journey and the factors that influence it. Five bibliographic databases were searched in January 2019. We included qualitative and quantitative studies containing frameworks used to capture the patient pathway of individuals with CVD, encompassing symptoms, diagnosis, treatment and long-term management. Data on patient behaviour and structural factors were interpreted according to elements of Strong Structuration Theory to assess frameworks on their ability to capture a holistic patient journey. The search yielded 15 articles. The majority were quantitative and all focused on management of CVDs, primarily hypertension. Commonly used frameworks included the common-sense self-regulation model, transtheoretical model and theory of planned behaviour. A critique drawing on elements of Strong Structuration Theory revealed these frameworks narrowly focused on patient attributes (patient beliefs/attitudes) and resulting patient action, but neglected external structures that interacted with these to produce particular outcomes, which results in an individualistic and linear view of the patient pathway. We suggest that a framework informed by Strong Structuration Theory is sufficiently flexible to examine the patient pathway, while avoiding a strict linear view facilitated by other frameworks.

8.
Trop Med Int Health ; 2020 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32985024

RESUMO

Community health workers in low- and middle-income country primary health care systems are well suited to perform essential functions on the frontlines of Covid-19 pandemic responses. However, clear and coordinated guidance, updated infection control training, and reliable access to personal protective equipment must be ensured in order to deploy them safely and effectively. With these additional responsibilities, community health workers must also be supported to ensure that hard-fought gains in population health, including progress on non-communicable diseases, are sustained throughout the pandemic.

9.
Health Policy Plan ; 2020 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32879963

RESUMO

Our purpose was to explore whether private-public partnerships (PPPs) can serve as a model for access to high-cost care in low-resource settings by examining a unique PPP providing haemodialysis services in a remote setting, investigating challenges and enablers. The study setting is a 500-bed teaching hospital serving a catchment population of 8 million in Northern Ethiopia. Based on local data collection, observation and in-depth interviews, we identified the impetus for the PPP, described the partnership agreement, reported outcomes after 6 years of activity and examined challenges that have arisen since the programme's inception, including funding sustainability. The PPP was established in 2013 based on a decision by local leadership that treatment of patients with acute kidney injury (AKI) is a necessity rather than a luxury. A private partner was sought who could ensure service delivery as well as a reliable supply of consumables. The hospital contributions included infrastructure, personnel and sharing of maintenance costs. The partnership has facilitated uninterrupted haemodialysis service to 101 patients with AKI and 202 with chronic kidney disease. The former (>50% cured) were mainly supported by charitable donations procured by the hospital's leadership, while the latter were self-funded. The local university and community contributed to the charity. Utilization has increased yearly. Funding and logistical issues remain. In conclusion, this PPP enabled access to previously unavailable lifesaving care in Northern Ethiopia and could serve as a model for potential scale-up for haemodialysis provision in particular, and more broadly, high-cost care in low-resource settings. An ethical commitment to provide the service, combined with ongoing administrative and community involvement has contributed to its sustained success. Lack of affordability for most patients requiring chronic haemodialysis and reliance on charitable donations for treatment of patients with AKI pose challenges to long-term sustainability.

10.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 20(1): 860, 2020 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32917203

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Community health workers (CHWs) are an important cadre of the primary health care (PHC) workforce in many low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The Philippines was an early adopter of the CHW model for the delivery of PHC, launching the Barangay (village) Health Worker (BHW) programme in the early 1980s, yet little is known about the factors that motivate and sustain BHWs' largely voluntary involvement. This study aims to address this gap by examining the lived experiences and roles of BHWs in urban and rural sites in the Philippines. METHODS: This cross-sectional qualitative study draws on 23 semi-structured interviews held with BHWs from barangays in Valenzuela City (urban) and Quezon province (rural). A mixed inductive/ deductive approach was taken to generate themes, which were interpreted according to a theoretical framework of community mobilisation to understand how characteristics of the social context in which the BHW programme operates act as facilitators or barriers for community members to volunteer as BHWs. RESULTS: Interviewees identified a range of motivating factors to seek and sustain their BHW roles, including a variety of financial and non-financial incentives, gaining technical knowledge and skill, improving the health and wellbeing of community members, and increasing one's social position. Furthermore, ensuring BHWs have adequate support and resources (e.g. allowances, medicine stocks) to execute their duties, and can contribute to decisions on their role in delivering community health services could increase both community participation and the overall impact of the BHW programme. CONCLUSIONS: These findings underscore the importance of the symbolic, material and relational factors that influence community members to participate in CHW programmes. The lessons drawn could help to improve the impact and sustainability of similar programmes in other parts of the Philippines and that are currently being developed or strengthened in other LMICs.

12.
BMJ Glob Health ; 5(7)2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32646854

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Understanding explanatory models is important for hypertension, a leading risk factor for cardiovascular disease and stroke. This article aims to determine what adult patients with hypertension in the Philippines attribute their condition to, how these views might be explained and what the implications are for hypertension management. METHODS: This is a qualitative study drawing on 71 semistructured interviews (40 initial and 31 follow-up) and four focus group discussions with patients diagnosed with hypertension. The setting was urban and rural low-income communities in the Philippines. RESULTS: Four prominent perceived causes were identified-genetics, heat, stress and diet-for what patients refer to as 'high blood'. We propose a 'folk physiology' that rests on local understandings of blood and blood flow, draws from broader cultural notions of illness causation and accounts for a dynamic, non-chronic view of hypertension that in turn informs the health behaviours of those affected. CONCLUSIONS: By understanding that hypertension is frequently seen not as a chronic constant condition but rather as an episodic one triggered by external influences, although in those genetically predisposed to it, it may be possible to address patient's beliefs and thus adherence to treatment.

13.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 9(1): 90, 2020 Jul 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32650822

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Social innovation (SI) in health holds potential to contribute to health systems strengthening and universal health coverage (UHC). The role of universities in SI has been well described in the context of high-income countries. An evidence gap exits on SI in healthcare delivery in the context of low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) as well as on the engagement of universities from these contexts. There is thus a need to build capacity for research and engagement in SI in healthcare delivery within these universities. The aim of this study was to examine the adoption and implementation of network of university hubs focused on SI in healthcare delivery within five countries across Africa, Asia and Latin America. The objectives were to describe the model, components and implementation process of the hubs; identify the enablers and barriers experienced and draw implications that could be relevant to other LMIC universities interested in SI. METHODS: A case study design was adopted to study the implementation process of a network of university hubs. Data from documentation, team discussions and post-implementation surveys were collected from 2013 to 2018 and analysed with aid of a modified policy analysis framework. RESULTS/DISCUSSION: SI university-based hubs serve as cross-disciplinary and cross-sectoral platforms, established to catalyse SI within the local health system through four core activities: research, community-building, storytelling and institutional embedding, and adhering to values of inclusion, assets, co-creation and hope. Hubs were implemented as informal structures, managed by a small core team, in existing department. Enablers of hub implementation and functioning were the availability of strong in-country social networks, legitimacy attained from being part of a global network on SI in health and receiving a capacity building package in the initial stages. Barriers encountered were internal institutional resistance, administrative challenges associated with university bureaucracy and annual funding cycles. CONCLUSIONS: This case study shows the opportunity that reside within LMIC universities to act as eco-system enablers of SI in healthcare delivery in order to fill the evidence gap on SI and enhance cross-sectoral participation in support of achieving UHC.


Assuntos
Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração , Inovação Organizacional , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração , Cobertura Universal do Seguro de Saúde/organização & administração , Universidades , Humanos , América Latina , Malaui , Filipinas , Formulação de Políticas , Uganda
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32610718

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nigeria has a huge burden of corruption, with the health system especially vulnerable. The media can play a role in tackling it, by shaping the narrative around it. However, its influence depends on the extent and framing of its reporting on corruption. This paper reviews, for the first time, coverage of corruption in the health system in the Nigerian print media. METHODS: The top 10, by circulation, newspapers in Nigeria were selected and searched using the LexisNexis database for articles covering corruption in the health sector over a 2-year period (2016-2018). Two newspapers are not included in the database and were searched manually. 135 articles were identified and subject to content and framing analyses. RESULTS: The Punch newspaper had the highest number of publications focussed on corruption in the health sector. The National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) was the organization attracting most coverage, followed by the Federal Ministry of Health. Corruption in the health sector was predominantly framed as a political issue. Most coverage was episodic, focused on the details of the particular case, with much less thematic, delving into underlying causes. Corruption was most often attributed to a lack of accountability while enforcement was the most frequent solution proffered. CONCLUSION: This study highlights the potential role of media analyses in helping to understand how newspapers cover corruption in the health sector in Nigeria. It argues that the media has the potential to act as an agent of change for tackling corruption within the health sector.

16.
Int J Health Policy Manag ; 9(7): 286-296, 2020 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32613800

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Corruption is widespread in Nigeria's health sector but the reasons why it exists and persists are poorly understood and it is often seen as intractable. We describe a consensus building exercise in which we asked health workers and policy-makers to identify and prioritise feasible responses to corruption in the Nigerian health sector. METHODS: We employed three sequential activities. First, a narrative literature review identified which types of corruption are reported in the Nigerian health system. Second, we asked 21 frontline health workers to add to what was found in the review (based on their own experiences) and prioritise them, based on their significance and the feasibility of assessing them, by means of a consensus building exercise using a Nominal Group Technique (NGT). Third, we presented their assessments in a meeting of 25 policy-makers to offer their views on the practicality of implementing appropriate measures. RESULTS: Participants identified 49 corrupt practices from the literature review and their own experience as most important in the Nigerian health system. The NGT prioritised: absenteeism, procurement-related corruption, under-the-counter payments, health financing-related corruption, and employment-related corruption. This largely reflected findings from the literature review, except for the greater emphasis on employment-related corruption from the NGT. Absenteeism, Informal payments and employment-related corruption were seen as most feasible to tackle. Frontline workers and policy-makers agreed that tackling corrupt practices requires a range of approaches. CONCLUSION: Corruption is recognized in Nigeria as widespread but often seems insurmountable. We show how a structured approach can achieve consensus among multiple stakeholders, a crucial first step in mobilizing action to address corruption.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32702800

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hypertension control is poor everywhere, especially in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). An effective response requires understanding factors acting at each stage on the patients' pathway through the health system from entry or first contact with the health system, through to treatment initiation and follow up. This systematic review aimed to identify barriers to and facilitators of hypertension control along this pathway and, respectively, ways to overcome or strengthen them. METHODS: MEDLINE, EMBASE, Global Health, CINAHL Plus, and Africa-Wide Information (1980-April 2019) were searched for studies of hypertensive adults in LMICs reporting details of at least 2 adequately described health system contacts. Data were extracted and analysed by 2 reviewers. Themes were developed using NVivo in patient-related (sociodemographic, knowledge and health beliefs, health status and co-morbidities, trade-offs), social (social relationships and traditions) and health system domains (resources and processes). Results are reported according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. RESULTS: From 2584 identified records, 30 were included in the narrative synthesis. At entry, 'health systems resources and processes' and 'knowledge and beliefs about hypertension' dominated while 'social relations and traditions' and 'comorbidities' assume greater importance subsequently, with patients making 'trade-offs' with family priorities during follow up. Socio-demographic factors play a role, but to a lesser extent than other factors. Context matters. CONCLUSION: Understanding the changing barriers to hypertension control along the patient journey is necessary to develop a comprehensive and efficient response to this persisting problem.

18.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 880, 2020 06 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32513131

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The dynamic intersection of a pluralistic health system, large informal sector, and poor regulatory environment have provided conditions favourable for 'corruption' in the LMICs of south and south-east Asia region. 'Corruption' works to undermine the UHC goals of achieving equity, quality, and responsiveness including financial protection, especially while delivering frontline health care services. This scoping review examines current situation regarding health sector corruption at frontlines of service delivery in this region, related policy perspectives, and alternative strategies currently being tested to address this pervasive phenomenon. METHODS: A scoping review following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) was conducted, using three search engines i.e., PubMed, SCOPUS and Google Scholar. A total of 15 articles and documents on corruption and 18 on governance were selected for analysis. A PRISMA extension for Scoping Reviews (PRISMA-ScR) checklist was filled-in to complete this report. Data were extracted using a pre-designed template and analysed by 'mixed studies review' method. RESULTS: Common types of corruption like informal payments, bribery and absenteeism identified in the review have largely financial factors as the underlying cause. Poor salary and benefits, poor incentives and motivation, and poor governance have a damaging impact on health outcomes and the quality of health care services. These result in high out-of-pocket expenditure, erosion of trust in the system, and reduced service utilization. Implementing regulations remain constrained not only due to lack of institutional capacity but also political commitment. Lack of good governance encourage frontline health care providers to bend the rules of law and make centrally designed anti-corruption measures largely in-effective. Alternatively, a few bottom-up community-engaged interventions have been tested showing promising results. The challenge is to scale up the successful ones for measurable impact. CONCLUSIONS: Corruption and lack of good governance in these countries undermine the delivery of quality essential health care services in an equitable manner, make it costly for the poor and disadvantaged, and results in poor health outcomes. Traditional measures to combat corruption have largely been ineffective, necessitating the need for innovative thinking if UHC is to be achieved by 2030.


Assuntos
Fraude/economia , Setor de Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração , Política de Saúde/economia , Setor Privado/economia , Setor Público/economia , Ásia , Países em Desenvolvimento , Governo , Pessoal de Saúde/economia , Humanos , Renda , Assistência Médica/economia , Características de Residência
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33590742

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As the field of health policy and systems research (HPSR) continues to grow, there is a recognition of the need for training in HPSR. This aspiration has translated into a multitude of teaching programmes of variable scope and quality, reflecting a lack of consensus on the skills and practices required for rigorous HPSR. The purpose of this paper is to identify an agreed set of core competencies for HPSR researchers, building on the previous work by the Health Systems Global (HSG) Thematic Working Group on Teaching & Learning. METHODS: Our methods involved an iterative approach of four phases including a literature review, key informant interviews and group discussions with HPSR educators, and webinars with pre-post surveys capturing views among the global HPSR community. The phased discussions and consensus-building contributed to the evolution of the HPSR competency domains and competencies framework. RESULTS: Emerging domains included understanding health systems complexity, assessing policies and programs, appraising data and evidence, ethical reasoning and practice, leading and mentoring, building partnerships, and translating and utilizing knowledge and HPSR evidence. The development of competencies and their application were often seen as a continuous process spanning evidence generation, partnering, communicating and helping to identify new critical health systems questions. CONCLUSION: The HPSR competency set can be seen as a useful reference point in the teaching and practice of high-quality HPSR and can be adapted based on national priorities, the particularities of local contexts, and the needs of stakeholders (HPSR researchers and educators), as well as practitioners and policy-makers. Further research is needed in using the core competency set to design national training programmes, develop locally relevant benchmarks and assessment methods, and evaluate their use in different settings.

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