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1.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 71(12): 447-452, 2022 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35324881

RESUMO

The U.S. President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) supports country programs in identifying persons living with HIV infection (PLHIV), providing life-saving treatment, and reducing the spread of HIV in countries around the world (1,2). CDC used Monitoring, Evaluation, and Reporting (MER) data* to assess the extent to which COVID-19 mitigation strategies affected HIV service delivery across the HIV care continuum† globally during the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic. Indicators included the number of reported HIV-positive test results, the number of PLHIV who were receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART), and the rates of HIV viral load suppression. Percent change in performance was assessed between countries during the first 3 months of 2020, before COVID-19 mitigation efforts began (January-March 2020), and the last 3 months of the calendar year (October-December 2020). Data were reviewed for all 41 countries to assess total and country-level percent change for each indicator. Then, qualitative data were reviewed among countries in the upper quartile to assess specific strategies that contributed to programmatic gains. Overall, positive percent change was observed in PEPFAR-supported countries in HIV treatment (5%) and viral load suppression (2%) during 2020. Countries reporting the highest gains across the HIV care continuum during 2020 attributed successes to reducing or streamlining facility attendance through strategies such as enhancing index testing (offering of testing to the biologic children and partners of PLHIV)§ and community- and home-based testing; treatment delivery approaches; and improvements in data use through monitoring activities, systems, and data quality checks. Countries that reported program improvements during the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic offer important information about how lifesaving HIV treatment might be provided during a global public health crisis.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Cooperação Internacional , Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Saúde Global , Programas Governamentais , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Humanos , Estados Unidos
2.
BMC Urol ; 22(1): 20, 2022 Feb 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35172795

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Urethrocutaneous fistula (subsequently, fistula) is a rare adverse event (AE) in voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) programs. Global fistula rates of 0.19 and 0.28 per 100,000 VMMCs were reported. Management of fistula can be complex and requires expert skills. We describe seven cases of fistula in our large-scale VMMC program in Zimbabwe. We present fistula rates; provide an overview of initial management, surgical interventions, and patient outcomes; discuss causes; and suggest future prevention efforts. RESULTS: Case details are presented on fistulas identified between March 2013 and October 2019. Among the seven fistula clients, ages ranged from 10 to 22 years; 6 cases were among boys under 15 years of age. All clients received surgical VMMC by trained providers in an outreach setting. Clients presented with fistulae 2-42 days after VMMC. Secondary infection was identified in 6 of 7 cases. Six cases were managed through surgical repair. The number of repair attempts ranged from 1 to 10. One case healed spontaneously with conservative management. Fistula rates are presented as cases/100,000 VMMCs. CONCLUSION: Fistula is an uncommon but severe AE that requires clinical expertise for successful management and repair. High-quality AE surveillance should identify fistula promptly and include consultation with experienced urologists. Strengthening provider surgical skills and establishment of standard protocols for fistula management would aid future prevention efforts in VMMC programs.


Assuntos
Circuncisão Masculina/efeitos adversos , Fístula Cutânea/etiologia , Doenças Uretrais/etiologia , Fístula Urinária/etiologia , Adolescente , Criança , Tratamento Conservador , Fístula Cutânea/cirurgia , Fístula Cutânea/terapia , Humanos , Masculino , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/cirurgia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/terapia , Recidiva , Reoperação , Doenças Uretrais/cirurgia , Doenças Uretrais/terapia , Fístula Urinária/cirurgia , Fístula Urinária/terapia , Programas Voluntários , Adulto Jovem , Zimbábue
3.
Hum Resour Health ; 20(1): 18, 2022 02 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35183202

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to assess the distribution of HIV-program staff and the extent to which their availability influences HIV programmatic and patient outcomes. METHODS: The study was a facility level cross-sectional survey. Data from October 2018 to September 2019 were abstracted from HIV program reports conducted in 18 districts of Côte d'Ivoire. The distribution of staff in clinical, laboratory, pharmacy, management, lay, and support cadres were described across high and low antiretroviral therapy (ART) volume facilities. Non-parametric regression was used to estimate the effects of cadre categories on the number of new HIV cases identified, the number of cases initiated on ART, and the proportion of patients achieving viral load suppression. RESULTS: Data from 49,871 patients treated at 216 health facilities were included. Low ART volume facilities had a median of 8.1 staff-per-100 ART patients, significantly higher than the 4.4 staff-per-100 ART patients at high-ART volume facilities. One additional laboratory staff member was associated with 4.30 (IQR: 2.00-7.48, p < 0.001) more HIV cases identified and 3.81 (interquartile range [IQR]: 1.44-6.94, p < 0.001) additional cases initiated on ART. Similarly, one additional lay worker was associated with 2.33 (IQR: 1.00-3.43, p < 0.001) new cases identified and 2.24 (IQR: 1.00-3.31, p < 0.001) new cases initiated on ART. No cadres were associated with viral suppression. CONCLUSIONS: HCWs in the laboratory and lay cadre categories were associated with an increase in HIV-positive case identification and initiation on ART. Our findings suggest that allocation of HCWs across health facilities should take into consideration the ART patient volume. Overall, increasing investment in health workforce is critical to achieve national HIV goals and reaching HIV epidemic control.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Mão de Obra em Saúde , Costa do Marfim/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Instalações de Saúde , Humanos
4.
Bull World Health Organ ; 99(12): 874-882, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34866683

RESUMO

Scale-up of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing and antiretroviral therapy (ART) for people living with HIV has been increasing in sub-Saharan Africa. As a result, areas with high HIV prevalence are finding a declining proportion of people testing positive in their national testing programmes. In eastern and southern Africa, where there are settings with adult HIV prevalence of 12% and above, the positivity from national HIV testing services has dropped to below 5%. Identifying those in need of ART is therefore becoming more costly for national HIV programmes. Annual target-setting assumes that national testing positivity rates approximate that of population prevalence. This assumption has generated an increased focus on testing approaches which achieve higher rates of HIV positivity. This trend is a departure from the provider-initiated testing and counselling strategy used early in the global HIV response. We discuss a new indicator, treatment-adjusted prevalence, that countries can use as a practical benchmark for estimating the expected adult positivity in a testing programme when accounting for both national HIV prevalence and ART coverage. The indicator is calculated by removing those people receiving ART from the numerator and denominator of HIV prevalence. Treatment-adjusted prevalence can be readily estimated from existing programme data and population estimates, and in 2019, was added to the World Health Organization guidelines for HIV testing and strategic information. Using country examples from Kenya, Malawi, South Sudan and Zimbabwe we illustrate how to apply this indicator and we discuss the potential public health implications of its use from the national to facility level.


Le dépistage du virus de l'immunodéficience humaine (VIH) et le traitement antirétroviral (TAR) pour les personnes vivant avec le VIH ont connu un véritable essor en Afrique subsaharienne. Par conséquent, les régions touchées par une forte prévalence du VIH détectent un pourcentage moins élevé de personnes testées positives dans leurs programmes de dépistage nationaux. En Afrique orientale et australe, là où certains endroits affichent une prévalence du VIH chez l'adulte égale ou supérieure à 12%, le taux de positivité des services de dépistage nationaux est passé sous la barre des 5%. Identifier les personnes nécessitant un TAR devient donc plus coûteux pour les programmes nationaux consacrés au VIH. Pour définir les objectifs annuels, on part du principe que les taux de positivité nationaux se rapprochent du taux de prévalence au sein de la population. Cette supposition a orienté les démarches vers des méthodes de dépistage permettant d'obtenir des taux de positivité plus élevés; une tendance qui s'écarte de la stratégie des services de dépistage et de conseil à l'initiative des prestataires, utilisée à l'aube de la lutte mondiale contre le VIH. Dans le présent document, nous nous intéressons à un nouvel indicateur, la prévalence ajustée sur le traitement. Cet indicateur peut servir de référence concrète pour les pays qui souhaitent évaluer le taux de positivité attendu chez l'adulte dans un programme de dépistage, en tenant compte de la prévalence du VIH au niveau national ainsi que de la portée du TAR. Le calcul consiste à enlever les personnes recevant un TAR du numérateur et du dénominateur de la prévalence du VIH. La prévalence ajustée sur le traitement peut aisément être déterminée en fonction des données de programme et estimations de population existantes. En 2019, elle a également été ajoutée aux lignes directrices de l'Organisation mondiale de la Santé pour l'information stratégique et le dépistage du VIH. En nous inspirant d'exemples issus du Kenya, du Malawi, du Soudan du Sud et du Zimbabwe, nous expliquons comment employer cet indicateur et abordons les potentielles implications liées à son utilisation en matière de santé publique, en partant du niveau national jusqu'aux établissements.


La ampliación de las pruebas de detección del virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH) y del tratamiento antirretrovírico (TAR) para las personas infectadas por el VIH ha aumentado en el África subsahariana. En consecuencia, el porcentaje de personas que dan positivo en las pruebas de detección del VIH en los programas nacionales está disminuyendo en las zonas con alta prevalencia del virus. En África meridional y oriental, donde hay entornos con una prevalencia del VIH en adultos del 12 % o superior, la tasa de positividad de los servicios nacionales de pruebas de detección del VIH ha descendido a menos del 5 %. Por lo tanto, la identificación de las personas que necesitan TAR es cada vez más costosa para los programas nacionales de VIH. El establecimiento de objetivos anuales supone que las tasas de positividad de las pruebas nacionales se aproximan a las de la prevalencia de la población. Esta suposición ha generado una mayor atención a los enfoques de las pruebas que logran tasas más altas de positividad del VIH. Esta tendencia se aleja de la estrategia del asesoramiento y las pruebas que iniciaron los proveedores y que se utilizó al principio de la respuesta mundial al VIH. Se analiza un nuevo indicador, la prevalencia ajustada según el tratamiento, que los países pueden emplear como punto de referencia práctico para estimar la tasa de positividad esperada en adultos en un programa de pruebas de detección cuando se tiene en cuenta tanto la prevalencia nacional del VIH como la cobertura del TAR. El indicador se calcula eliminando del numerador y el denominador de la prevalencia del VIH a las personas que reciben TAR. La prevalencia ajustada según el tratamiento se puede estimar con facilidad a partir de los datos de los programas existentes y de las estimaciones de población, además, en 2019, se incluyó en las directrices de la Organización Mundial de la Salud para las pruebas de detección del VIH y en la información estratégica. A través de ejemplos de países como Kenia, Malaui, Sudán meridional y Zimbabue, se demuestra cómo aplicar este indicador y se discuten las posibles implicaciones para la salud pública de su uso desde el nivel nacional hasta el de los centros.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Adulto , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Teste de HIV , Humanos , Malaui , Prevalência
5.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0256291, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34407129

RESUMO

Zimbabwe has made large strides in addressing HIV. To ensure a continued robust response, a clear understanding of costs associated with its HIV program is critical. We conducted a cross-sectional evaluation in 2017 to estimate the annual average patient cost for accessing Prevention of Mother-To-Child Transmission (PMTCT) services (through antenatal care) and Antiretroviral Treatment (ART) services in Zimbabwe. Twenty sites representing different types of public health facilities in Zimbabwe were included. Data on patient costs were collected through in-person interviews with 414 ART and 424 PMTCT adult patients and through telephone interviews with 38 ART and 47 PMTCT adult patients who had missed their last appointment. The mean and median annual patient costs were examined overall and by service type for all participants and for those who paid any cost. Potential patient costs related to time lost were calculated by multiplying the total time to access services (travel time, waiting time, and clinic visit duration) by potential earnings (US$75 per month assuming 8 hours per day and 5 days per week). Mean annual patient costs for accessing services for the participants was US$20.00 [standard deviation (SD) = US$80.42, median = US$6.00, range = US$0.00-US$12,18.00] for PMTCT and US$18.73 (SD = US$58.54, median = US$8.00, range = US$0.00-US$ 908.00) for ART patients. The mean annual direct medical costs for PMTCT and ART were US$9.78 (SD = US$78.58, median = US$0.00, range = US$0.00-US$ 90) and US$7.49 (SD = US$60.00, median = US$0.00) while mean annual direct non-medical cost for US$10.23 (SD = US$17.35, median = US$4.00) and US$11.23 (SD = US$25.22, median = US$6.00, range = US$0.00-US$ 360.00). The PMTCT and ART costs per visit based on time lost were US$3.53 (US$1.13 to US$8.69) and US$3.43 (US$1.14 to US$8.53), respectively. The mean annual patient costs per person for PMTCT and ART in this evaluation will impact household income since PMTCT and ART services in Zimbabwe are supposed to be free.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/economia , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Infecções por HIV/economia , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Gastos em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Transmissão Vertical de Doenças Infecciosas/economia , Adulto , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade , Análise Custo-Benefício/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/transmissão , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Humanos , Transmissão Vertical de Doenças Infecciosas/prevenção & controle , Gravidez , Cuidado Pré-Natal/economia , Zimbábue
6.
AIDS ; 35(12): 1929-1938, 2021 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34101629

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Our study's primary objective was to compare 1-year survival rates between serum cryptococcal antigen (sCrAg)-positive and sCrAg-negative HIV-positive individuals with CD4+ cell counts less than 100 cells/µl without symptoms of meningitis in Zimbabwe. DESIGN: This was a prospective cohort study. METHODS: Participants were enrolled as either sCrAg-positive or sCrAg-negative and followed up for 52 weeks or less, with death as the outcome. Lumbar punctures were recommended to all sCrAg-positives and inpatient management with intravenous amphotericin B and high-dose fluconazole was recommended to those with disseminated Cryptococcus. Antiretroviral therapy was initiated immediately in sCrAg-negatives and after at least 4 weeks following initiation of antifungals in sCrAg-positives. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to determine risk factors for mortality. RESULTS: We enrolled 1320 participants and 130 (9.8%) were sCrAg positive, with a median sCrAg titre of 1 : 20. Sixty-six (50.8%) sCrAg-positives had lumbar punctures and 16.7% (11/66) had central nervous system (CNS) dissemination. Cryptococcal blood cultures were performed in 129 sCrAg-positives, with 10 (7.8%) being positive. One-year (48-52 weeks) survival rates were 83.9 and 76.1% in sCrAg-negatives and sCrAg-positives, respectively, P = 0.011. Factors associated with increased mortality were a positive sCrAg, CD4+ cell count less than 50 cells/µl and having presumptive tuberculosis (TB) symptoms. CONCLUSION: Our study reports a high prevalence of subclinical cryptococcal antigenemia and reiterates the importance of TB and a positive sCrAg as risk factors for mortality in advanced HIV disease (AHD). Therefore, TB and sCrAg screening remains a crucial component of AHD package, hence it should always be part of the comprehensive clinical evaluation in AHD patients.


Assuntos
Infecções Oportunistas Relacionadas com a AIDS , Cryptococcus , Infecções por HIV , Meningite Criptocócica , Infecções Oportunistas Relacionadas com a AIDS/tratamento farmacológico , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Antígenos de Fungos , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Meningite Criptocócica/diagnóstico , Meningite Criptocócica/tratamento farmacológico , Estudos Prospectivos
7.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 87(Suppl 1): S73-S80, 2021 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34166315

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: HIV-1 incidence calculation currently includes recency classification by HIV-1 incidence assay and unsuppressed viral load (VL ≥ 1000 copies/mL) in a recent infection testing algorithm (RITA). However, persons with recent classification not virally suppressed and taking antiretroviral (ARV) medication may be misclassified. SETTING: We used data from 13 African household surveys to describe the impact of an ARV-adjusted RITA on HIV-1 incidence estimates. METHODS: HIV-seropositive samples were tested for recency using the HIV-1 Limiting Antigen (LAg)-Avidity enzyme immunoassay, HIV-1 viral load, ARVs used in each country, and ARV drug resistance. LAg-recent result was defined as normalized optical density values ≤1.5. We compared HIV-1 incidence estimates using 2 RITA: RITA1: LAg-recent + VL ≥ 1000 copies/mL and RITA2: RITA1 + undetectable ARV. We explored RITA2 with self-reported ARV use and with clinical history. RESULTS: Overall, 357 adult HIV-positive participants were classified as having recent infection with RITA1. RITA2 reclassified 55 (15.4%) persons with detectable ARV as having long-term infection. Those with detectable ARV were significantly more likely to be aware of their HIV-positive status (84% vs. 10%) and had higher levels of drug resistance (74% vs. 26%) than those without detectable ARV. RITA2 incidence was lower than RITA1 incidence (range, 0%-30% decrease), resulting in decreased estimated new infections from 390,000 to 341,000 across the 13 countries. Incidence estimates were similar using detectable or self-reported ARV (R2 > 0.995). CONCLUSIONS: Including ARV in RITA2 improved the accuracy of HIV-1 incidence estimates by removing participants with likely long-term HIV infection.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , HIV-1 , Adolescente , Adulto , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
8.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 87(Suppl 1): S97-S106, 2021 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34166316

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Identifying men living with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is critical to end the epidemic. We describe the underlying factors of unawareness among men aged 15-59 years who ever tested for HIV in 13 SSA countries. METHODS: Using pooled data from the nationally representative Population-based HIV Impact Assessments, we fit a log-binomial regression model to identify characteristics related to HIV positivity among HIV-positive unaware and HIV-negative men ever tested for HIV. RESULTS: A total of 114,776 men were interviewed and tested for HIV; 4.4% were HIV-positive. Of those, 33.7% were unaware of their HIV-positive status, (range: 20.2%-58.7%, in Rwanda and Cote d'Ivoire). Most unaware men reported they had ever received an HIV test (63.0%). Age, region, marital status, and education were significantly associated with HIV positivity. Men who had HIV-positive sexual partners (adjusted prevalence ratio [aPR]: 5.73; confidence interval [95% CI]: 4.13 to 7.95) or sexual partners with unknown HIV status (aPR: 2.32; 95% CI: 1.89 to 2.84) were more likely to be HIV-positive unaware, as were men who tested more than 12 months compared with HIV-negative men who tested within 12 months before the interview (aPR: 1.58; 95% CI: 1.31 to 1.91). Tuberculosis diagnosis and not being circumcised were also associated with HIV positivity. CONCLUSION: Targeting subgroups of men at risk for infection who once tested negative could improve yield of testing programs. Interventions include improving partner testing, frequency of testing, outreach and educational strategies, and availability of HIV testing where men are accessing routine health services.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , HIV-1 , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Adolescente , Adulto , África ao Sul do Saara/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
9.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(10): 342-345, 2021 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33705366

RESUMO

The World Health Organization and national guidelines recommend HIV testing and counseling at tuberculosis (TB) clinics for all patients, regardless of TB diagnosis (1). Population-based HIV Impact Assessment (PHIA) survey data for 2015-2016 in Malawi, Zambia, and Zimbabwe were analyzed to assess HIV screening at TB clinics among persons who had positive HIV test results in the survey. The analysis was stratified by history of TB diagnosis* (presumptive versus confirmed†), awareness§ of HIV-positive status, antiretroviral therapy (ART)¶ status, and viral load suppression among HIV-positive adults, by history of TB clinic visit. The percentage of adults who reported having ever visited a TB clinic ranged from 4.7% to 9.7%. Among all TB clinic attendees, the percentage who reported that they had received HIV testing during a TB clinic visit ranged from 48.0% to 62.1% across the three countries. Among adults who received a positive HIV test result during PHIA and who did not receive a test for HIV at a previous TB clinic visit, 29.4% (Malawi), 21.9% (Zambia), and 16.2% (Zimbabwe) reported that they did not know their HIV status at the time of the TB clinic visit. These findings represent missed opportunities for HIV screening and linkage to HIV care. In all three countries, viral load suppression rates were significantly higher among those who reported ever visiting a TB clinic than among those who had not (p<0.001). National programs could strengthen HIV screening at TB clinics and leverage them as entry points into the HIV diagnosis and treatment cascade (i.e., testing, initiation of treatment, and viral load suppression).


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Teste de HIV/estatística & dados numéricos , Instalações de Saúde , Programas de Rastreamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Tuberculose/terapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Malaui/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem , Zâmbia/epidemiologia , Zimbábue/epidemiologia
10.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 87(Suppl 1): S81-S88, 2021 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33560041

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: HIV population viral load (PVL) can reflect antiretroviral therapy program effectiveness and transmission potential in a community. Using nationally representative data from household surveys conducted in Zimbabwe, Malawi, and Zambia in 2015-16, we examined the association between various VL measures and the probability of at least one recent HIV-1 infection in the community. METHODS: We used limiting-antigen avidity enzyme immunoassay, viral load suppression (VLS) (HIV RNA <1000 copies/mL), and antiretrovirals in the blood to identify recent HIV-1 cases. RESULTS: Among 1510 enumeration areas (EAs) across the 3 surveys, 52,036 adults aged 15-59 years resided in 1363 (90.3%) EAs with at least one HIV-positive adult consenting to interview and blood draw and whose VL was tested. Mean HIV prevalence across these EAs was 13.1% [95% confidence intervals (CI) 12.7 to 13.5]. Mean VLS prevalence across these EAs was 58.7% (95% CI: 57.3 to 60.0). In multivariable analysis, PVL was associated with a recent HIV-1 case in that EA (adjusted odds ratio: 1.4, 95% CI: 1.2 to 1.6, P = 0.001). VLS prevalence was inversely correlated with recent infections (adjusted odds ratio: 0.3, 95% CI: 0.1 to 0.6, P = 0.004). The 90-90-90 indicators, namely, the prevalence of HIV diagnosis, antiretroviral therapy coverage, and VLS at the EA level, were inversely correlated with HIV recency at the EA level. CONCLUSIONS: We found a strong association between PVL and VLS prevalence and recent HIV-1 infection at the EA level across 3 southern African countries with generalized HIV epidemics. These results suggest that population-based measures of VLS in communities may serve as a proxy for epidemic control.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , HIV-1 , Carga Viral , Viremia , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Malaui/epidemiologia , Zâmbia/epidemiologia , Zimbábue/epidemiologia
11.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(48): 1801-1806, 2020 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33270608

RESUMO

Despite progress toward controlling the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic, testing gaps remain, particularly among men and young persons in sub-Saharan Africa (1). This observational study used routinely collected programmatic data from 20 African countries reported to the U.S. President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) from October 2018 to September 2019 to assess HIV testing coverage and case finding among adults (defined as persons aged ≥15 years). Indicators included number of HIV tests conducted, number of HIV-positive test results, and percentage positivity rate. Overall, the majority of countries reported higher HIV case finding among women than among men. However, a slightly higher percentage positivity was recorded among men (4.7%) than among women (4.1%). Provider-initiated counseling and testing (PITC) in health facilities identified approximately two thirds of all new cases, but index testing had the highest percentage positivity in all countries among both sexes. Yields from voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) and mobile testing varied by sex and by country. These findings highlight the need to identify and implement the most efficient strategies for HIV case finding in these countries to close coverage gaps. Strategies might need to be tailored for men who remain underrepresented in the majority of HIV testing programs.


Assuntos
Teste de HIV/estatística & dados numéricos , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , África ao Sul do Saara , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores Sexuais
12.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0240425, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33048977

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Since 2013, the ZAZIC consortium supported the Zimbabwe Ministry of Health and Child Care (MOHCC) to implement a high quality, integrated voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) program in 13 districts. With the aim of significantly lowering global HIV rates, prevention programs like VMMC make every effort to achieve ambitious targets at an increasingly reduced cost. This has the potential to threaten VMMC program quality. Two measures of program quality are follow-up and adverse event (AE) rates. To inform further VMMC program improvement, ZAZIC conducted a quality assurance (QA) activity to assess if pressure to do more with less influenced program quality. METHODS: Key informant interviews (KIIs) were conducted at 9 sites with 7 site-based VMMC program officers and 9 ZAZIC roving team members. Confidentiality was ensured to encourage candid conversation on adherence to VMMC standards, methods to increase productivity, challenges to target achievement, and suggestions for program modification. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and analyzed using Atlas.ti 6. RESULTS: VMMC teams work long hours in diverse community settings to reach ambitious targets. Rotating, large teams of trained VMMC providers ensures meeting demand. Service providers prioritize VMMC safety procedures and implement additional QA measures to prevent AEs among all clients, especially minors. However, KIs noted three areas where pressure for increased numbers of clients diminished adherence to VMMC safety standards. For pre- and post-operative counselling, MC teams may combine individual and group sessions to reach more people, potentially reducing client understanding of critical wound care instructions. Second, key infection control practices may be compromised (handwashing, scrubbing techniques, and preoperative client preparation) to speed MC procedures. Lastly, pressure for client numbers may reduce prioritization of patient follow-up, while client-perceived stigma may reduce care-seeking. Although AEs appear well managed, delays in AE identification and lack of consistent AE reporting compromise program quality. CONCLUSION: In pursuit of ambitious targets, healthcare workers may compromise quality of MC services. Although risk to patients may appear minimal, careful consideration of the realities and risks of ambitious target setting by donors, ministries, and implementing partners could help to ensure that client safety and program quality is consistently prioritized over productivity.


Assuntos
Circuncisão Masculina/estatística & dados numéricos , Circuncisão Masculina/normas , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Adolescente , Criança , Saúde da Criança , Circuncisão Masculina/economia , Programas Governamentais/economia , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Garantia da Qualidade dos Cuidados de Saúde , Programas Voluntários/economia , Zimbábue
13.
AIDS ; 34(9): 1339-1346, 2020 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32590432

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine morbidity and mortality risk among HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) infants. DESIGN: Secondary data analysis of HEU infants in a prospective cohort study of mother-infant pairs. METHODS: Infants were recruited from immunization clinics (n = 151) in Zimbabwe from February to August 2013, enrolled at 4-12 weeks age, and followed every 3 months until incident HIV-infection, death, or 18-month follow-up. We estimated cumulative mortality probability and hazard ratios with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox regression, respectively. We also described reported reasons for infant hospitalization and symptoms preceding death. Median weight-for-age z-scores (WAZ) and median age were calculated and analyzed across study visits. RESULTS: Of 1188 HIV-exposed infants, 73 (6.1%) contracted HIV; we analyzed the remaining 1115 HEU infants. In total, 54 (4.8%) infants died, with median time to death of 5.5 months since birth (interquartile range: 3.6-9.8 months). Diarrhea, difficulty breathing, not eating, fever, and cough were commonly reported (range: 7.4-22.2%) as symptoms preceding infant death. Low birth weight was associated with higher mortality (adjusted hazard ratio 2.66, CI: 1.35-5.25), whereas maternal antiretroviral therapy predelivery (adjusted hazard ratio 0.34, CI: 0.18-0.64) and exclusive breastfeeding (adjusted hazard ratio 0.50, CI: 0.28-0.91) were associated with lower mortality. Overall, 9.6% of infants were hospitalized. Infant median WAZ declined after 3 months of age, reaching a minimum at 14.5 months of age, at which 50% of infants were underweight (WAZ below -2.0). CONCLUSION: Clinical interventions including maternal antiretroviral therapy; breastfeeding and infant feeding counseling and support; and early prevention, identification, and management of childhood illness; are needed to reduce HEU infant morbidity and mortality.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Mortalidade Infantil , Transmissão Vertical de Doenças Infecciosas/estatística & dados numéricos , Morbidade , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/transmissão , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Humanos , Lactente , Mães , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/virologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Zimbábue/epidemiologia
15.
BMC Urol ; 20(1): 45, 2020 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32334596

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Male circumcision confers partial protection against heterosexual HIV acquisition among men. The President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) has supported > 18,900,000 voluntary medical male circumcisions (VMMC). Glans injuries (GIs) are rare but devastating adverse events (AEs) that can occur during circumcision. To address this issue, PEPFAR has supported multiple interventions in the areas of surveillance, policy, education, training, supply chain, and AE management. METHODS: Since 2015, PEPFAR has conducted surveillance of GIs including rapid investigation by the in-country PEPFAR team. This information is collected on standardized forms, which were reviewed for this analysis. RESULTS: Thirty-six GIs were reported from 2015 to 2018; all patients were < 15 years old (~ 0·7 per 100,000 VMMCs in this age group) with a decreasing annual rate (2015: 0.7 per 100,000 VMMCs; 2018: 0.4 per 100,000 VMMC; p = 0.02). Most (64%) GIs were partial or complete amputations. All amputations among 10-14 year-olds occurred using the forceps-guided (FG) method, as opposed to the dorsal-slit (DS) method, and three GIs among infants occurred using a Mogen clamp. Of 19 attempted amputation repairs, reattached tissue was viable in four (21%) in the short term. In some cases, inadequate DS method training and being overworked, were found. CONCLUSION: Following numerous interventions by PEPFAR and other stakeholders, GIs are decreasing; however, they have not been eliminated and remain a challenge for the VMMC program. Preventing further cases of complete and partial amputation will likely require additional interventions that prevent use of the FG method in young patients and the Mogen clamp in infants. Improving management of GIs is critical to optimizing outcomes.


Assuntos
Circuncisão Masculina/efeitos adversos , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Complicações Intraoperatórias/etiologia , Pênis/lesões , Adolescente , África Oriental , África Austral , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino
16.
J Adolesc Health ; 66(4): 455-463, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31964611

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We assessed 18-month cumulative mother-to-child HIV transmission (MTCT) risk and risk factors for no antiretroviral medication use during pregnancy among adolescent, young women, and adult mothers in Zimbabwe. METHODS: We analyzed data from a prospective survey of 1,171 mother-infant pairs with HIV-exposed infants aged 4-12 weeks who were recruited from 151 immunization clinics from February to August 2013. HIV-exposed infants were followed until diagnosed with HIV, death, or age 18 months. Findings were weighted and adjusted for complex survey design and nonresponse. RESULTS: The 18-month cumulative MTCT risk was highest among adolescent aged ≤19 years (12%) followed by young women aged 20-24 years (7.5%) and adult women aged ≥25 years (6.9%). Across these groups, more than 94% had ≥1 antenatal care visit by 21 weeks of gestation, more than 95% had ≥1 HIV test, and more than 98% knew their HIV status. Of known HIV-positive mothers, maternal antiretroviral medication coverage during pregnancy was 76.8% (95% confidence interval: 65.1-85.5), 83.8% (78.6-87.9), and 87.8% (84.6-90.4) among adolescent, young women, and adult mothers, respectively. Among HIV-positive mothers diagnosed prenatally, the adjusted odds ratio of no ARV use during pregnancy was increased among those who had no antenatal care attendance (adjusted odds ratio: 7.7 [3.7-16.0]), no HIV testing (7.3 [2.3-23.5]), no prepartum CD4 count testing (2.1 [1.3-3.4]), and maternal HIV identification during pregnancy (2.9 [1.8-4.8]). Age was not a risk factor. CONCLUSIONS: With similar coverage of prevention of MTCT services, the 18-month cumulative MTCT risk was higher among adolescents and young women, compared with adults. Additional research should examine the causes to develop targeted interventions.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Transmissão Vertical de Doenças Infecciosas/estatística & dados numéricos , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/transmissão , Humanos , Lactente , Transmissão Vertical de Doenças Infecciosas/prevenção & controle , Idade Materna , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem , Zimbábue/epidemiologia
17.
J Int AIDS Soc ; 22(8): e25393, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31454178

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Community ART Refill Groups (CARGs) are an antiretroviral therapy (ART) delivery model where clients voluntarily form into groups, and a group member visits the clinic to collect ART for all group members. In late 2016, Zimbabwe began a nationwide rollout of the CARG model. We conducted a qualitative evaluation to assess the perceived effects of this new national service delivery model. METHODS: In March-June 2018, we visited ten clinics implementing the CARG model across five provinces of Zimbabwe and conducted a focus group discussion with healthcare workers and in-depth interviews with three ART clients per clinic. Clinics had implemented the CARG model for approximately one year. All discussions were audio recorded, transcribed, and translated into English, and thematic coding was performed by two independent analysts. RESULTS: In focus groups, healthcare workers described that CARGs made ART distribution faster and facilitated client tracking in the community. They explained that their reduced workload allowed them to provide better care to those clients who did visit the clinic, and they felt that the CARG model should be sustained in the future. CARG members reported that by decreasing the frequency of clinic visits, CARGs saved them time and money, reducing previous barriers to collecting ART and improving adherence. CARG members also valued the emotional and informational support that they received from other members of their CARG, further improving adherence. Multiple healthcare workers did express concern that CARG members with diseases that begin with minor symptoms, such as tuberculosis, may not seek treatment at the clinic until the disease has progressed. CONCLUSIONS: We found that healthcare workers and clients overwhelmingly perceive CARGs as beneficial. This evaluation demonstrates that the CARG model can be successfully implemented on a national scale. These early results suggest that CARGs may be able to simultaneously improve clinical outcomes and reduce the workload of healthcare workers distributing ART.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Atenção à Saúde , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Instituições de Assistência Ambulatorial , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Teóricos , Zimbábue
18.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 19(1): 351, 2019 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31159809

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Expansion of provider-initiated testing and counselling (PITC) is one strategy to increase accessibility of HIV testing services. Insufficient human resources was identified as a primary barrier to increasing PITC coverage in Zimbabwe. We evaluated if deployment of supplemental PITC providers at public facilities in Zimbabwe was associated with increased numbers of individuals tested and diagnosed with HIV. METHODS: From July 2016 to May 2017, International Training and Education Center for Health (I-TECH) deployed 138 PITC providers to supplement existing ministry healthcare workers offering PITC at 249 facilities. These supplemental providers were assigned to facilities on a weekly basis. Each week, I-TECH providers reported the number of HIV tests and positive diagnoses they performed. Using routine reporting systems, we obtained from each facility the number of clients tested and diagnosed with HIV per month. Including data both before and during the intervention period, and utilizing the weekly variability in placement locations of the supplemental PITC providers, we employed generalized estimating equations to assess if the placement of supplemental PITC providers at a facility was associated with a change in facility outputs. RESULTS: Supplemental PITC providers performed an average of 62 (SD = 52) HIV tests per week and diagnosed 4.4 (SD = 4.9) individuals with HIV per week. However, using facility reports from the same period, we found that each person-week of PITC provider deployment at a facility was associated with an additional 16.7 (95% CI, 12.2-21.1) individuals tested and an additional 0.9 (95% CI, 0.5-1.2) individuals diagnosed with HIV. We also found that staff placement at clinics was associated with a larger increase in HIV testing than staff placement at polyclinics or hospitals (24.0 vs. 9.8; p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: This program resulted in increased numbers of individuals tested and diagnosed with HIV. The discrepancy between the average weekly HIV tests conducted by supplemental PITC providers (62) and the increase in facility-level HIV tests associated with one week of PITC provider deployment (16.7) suggests that supplemental PITC providers displaced existing staff who may have been reassigned to fulfil other duties at the facility.


Assuntos
Aconselhamento/métodos , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Aconselhamento/normas , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Programas de Rastreamento/normas , Projetos de Pesquisa , Zimbábue
19.
PLoS One ; 14(6): e0218137, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31181096

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Ensuring quality service provision is fundamental to ZAZIC's voluntary medical male circumcision (MC) program in Zimbabwe. From October, 2014 to September, 2017, ZAZIC conducted 205,847 MCs. Passive surveillance recorded a combined moderate and severe adverse event (AE) rate of 0.3%; reported adherence to follow-up was 95%, suggesting program safety. Despite encouraging passive surveillance data, verification of data quality and accuracy would increase confidence in AE identification. METHODS: From May to August, 2017, ZAZIC implemented a focused quality assurance (QA) study on AE ascertainment and documentation at 6 purposively-selected, high-volume MC sites. ZAZIC Gold-Standard (GS) clinicians prospectively observed 100 post-MC follow-ups per site in tandem with facility-based MC providers to confirm and characterize AEs, providing mentoring in AE management when needed. GS clinicians also retrospectively reviewed site-based, routine MC data, comparing recorded to reported AEs, and held brief qualitative interviews with site leadership on AE-related issues. RESULTS: Observed AE rates varied from 1-8%, potentially translating to thousands of unidentified AEs if observed AE rates were applied to previous MC performance. Most observed AEs were infections among younger clients. Retrospective review found discrepancies in AE documentation and reporting. Interviews suggest human resource and transport issues challenge MC follow-up visit attendance. Post-operative self-care appears to produce generally good results for adults; however, younger clients and guardians need additional attention to ensure quality care. There was no evidence of missed severe AEs resulting in permanent impairment or morbidity. CONCLUSIONS: Although results cannot be generalized, active surveillance suggests that AEs may be higher and follow-up lower than reported. In response, ZAZIC's Quality Assurance Task Force will replicate this QA study in other sites; increase training in AE identification, management, and documentation for clinical and data teams; and improve post-operative counseling for younger clients. Additional nurses and vehicles, especially in rural health clinics, could be beneficial.


Assuntos
Circuncisão Masculina/efeitos adversos , Conduta Expectante/métodos , Adulto , Circuncisão Masculina/métodos , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Garantia da Qualidade dos Cuidados de Saúde/métodos , Programas Voluntários , Zimbábue
20.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 68(21): 474-477, 2019 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31145718

RESUMO

In 2017, the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) estimated that worldwide, 36.9 million persons were living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, the virus infection that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Among persons with HIV infection, approximately 75% were aware of their HIV status, leaving 9.4 million persons with undiagnosed infection (1). Index testing, also known as partner notification or contact tracing, is an effective case-finding strategy that targets the exposed contacts of HIV-positive persons for HIV testing services. This report summarizes data from HIV tests using index testing in 20 countries supported by CDC through the U.S. President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) during October 1, 2016-March 31, 2018. During this 18-month period, 1,700,998 HIV tests with 99,201 (5.8%) positive results were reported using index testing. The positivity rate for index testing was 9.8% among persons aged ≥15 years and 1.5% among persons aged <15 years. During the reporting period, HIV positivity increased 64% among persons aged ≥15 years (from 7.6% to 12.5%) and 67% among persons aged <15 years (from 1.2% to 2.0%). Expanding index testing services could help increase the number of persons with HIV infection who know their status, are initiated onto antiretroviral treatment, and consequently reduce the number of persons who can transmit the virus.


Assuntos
Busca de Comunicante , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Programas de Rastreamento/organização & administração , Adolescente , Adulto , África/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Haiti/epidemiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Vietnã/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
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